Sama, Śama, Sāmā, Sāma, Shama, Samā: 37 definitions


Sama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śama can be transliterated into English as Sama or Shama, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Saṅgītaśiromaṇi

Sama (सम, “even”) refers to one of the ten good qualities (guṇa) of a song (gīta), according to the Saṅgītaśiromaṇi 14.75-76, where they are commonly known as the gītaguṇa. The Saṅgītaśiromaṇi (“crest-jewel of music”) is a 15th-century Sanskrit work on Indian musicology (gāndharvaśāstra). Accordingly, “even (sama) means that there is no unevenness in the melodic lines (varṇa), the registers (sthāna) and in the speeds (laya)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

1a) Sama (सम, “level”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the eyelids (puṭa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These gestures (āṅgika) of the eyelids (puṭa) are supposed to follow the corresponding movements of the eyeballs (tārā). Instructions: “eyelids in a natural position”. Uses: “in love (śṛṅgāra)”. Gestures form a part of the histrionic representation (abhinaya).

1b) Sama.—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi), defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. Accordingly, the instructions for this glance are: “the eyeballs are in a level position and at rest”.

1c) Sama.—A specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the cheeks (kapola or gaṇḍa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. Instructions: “as (cheeks are) by nature”. Uses: “in the remaining conditions”.

1d) Sama.—A specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the chin (cibuka), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. Instructions: “when (the two lips) slightly parted from each other”. Uses: “in a natural position”.

1e) Sama (“natural”).—A specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the breast (uras), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 10. The breast is one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used to perform certain gestures (āṅgika). Instructions: “all the limbs being in the Caturasra and with Sauṣṭhuva the breast will be called sama (natural)”.

1f) Sama (“natural”).—A specific ‘movement of the feet’ (pāda), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 10. The feet are one of the six major limbs (aṅga) used to perform certain gestures (āṅgika). Instructions: “feet naturally placed on an even ground. It relates to representing a natural posture”. Uses: “it should be kept still in representing the natural position of the body in connexion with the various Karaṇas, but in the Recaka movement of the feet it should be moved”.

1g) Sama.—A type of lying-down posture (śayana); it is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 12. Instructions: “lying down with the face upwards and the hands free and turning downwards is called the sama posture. It is the posture in deep sleep”.

1h) Sama (“even”) refers to a class syllabic metres (vṛtta), of which all the pādas (‘feet’) are similair according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.

1i) Sama refers to one of the thirty-three alaṃkāras (embellishments), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. These alaṃkāras, or, ‘embellishments of song’, depend upon the four types of varṇas, which refers to a specific order of musical notes (svara). They are attached to the songs of seven forms, although not generally used in the dhruvās.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “sama is that in which a note repeats itself in the same pitch and is equal in all parts”.

1j) Sama refers to one of the twenty prakāras: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “Dardara, paṇava and mṛdaṅga are played with various karaṇas, and this playing combined with tāla, limbs and flutes is called Sama”.

2a) Samā (समा, “natural”) refers to a specific gesture (āṅgika) made with the neck (grīvā), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. These ‘gestures (āṅgika) of the neck (grīvā)’ should follow the gestures made with the head (śiras). Instructions: “the natural neck”. Uses: “in meditation, natural pose, and muttering of mantras”.

2b) Samā or Samāyati refers to a one of the three yatis: rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33. Accordingly, “when in a performance the yati is samā, the tempo (laya) is quick and there is upari-pāṇi, then it is the rāddha playing (lit. rule). Similarly when the playing of instruments is given prominence and there is upari-pāṇi, samā-yati and the medium tempo, then it is called the rāddha playing (vādya)”.

3) Sāma (साम, “conciliation”) refers to one of the twenty-one sandhyantara, or “distinct characteristics of segments (sandhi)” according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. The segments are divisions of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic play (nāṭaka) and consist of sixty-four limbs, known collectively as the sandhyaṅga.

4) Śama (शम) refers to ‘deliverance’ from all misery or misfortune. Śama represents one of the fourteen nirvahaṇasandhi, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 21. This element is also known as Samaya. Nirvahaṇasandhi refers to the “segments (sandhi) of the concluding part (nirvahaṇa)” and represents one of the five segments of the plot (itivṛtta or vastu) of a dramatic composition (nāṭaka).

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) Sama (level): gazing without winking, like a woman of the gods. Usage: beginning a dance, scales, thinking of some other matter, surprise, the image of a god.

2) One of the Nine Movements of the Head. Sama (level): not moving, not bent, nor raised. Usage: at the beginning of dancing, prayer, authoritative speech, satisfaction, anger, indifference, or inaction.

3) One of the Twenty-four Heads. Sama: natural pose of the head. Usage: expressing normal circumstances.

4) A type of glance (or facial expression): Sama: looks like those of the women of the gods (not winking,etc.). Usage: normal circumstances.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

Sama (सम) refers to one of the 93 alaṃkāras (“figures of speech”) mentioned by Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century) in his Kāvyavilāsa and is listed as one of the 89 arthālaṃkāras (figure of speech determined by the sense, as opposed to sound).—Sama has been admitted by Mammaṭa (X/193), Viśvanātha, (X/92), Jayadeva (V/81).

The figure sama has been treated by Cirañjīva due to the fact that this figure is actually the opposite of the figure viṣama. Cirañjīva has defined it thus—“anyonyaṃ vastusambandhe samamaucityavarṇane”.—“When the mutual connection between the two objects is depicted as proper and right, it is called the figure sama”. Jayadeva (C.L.V/81) has defined it in the same line. The shortest definition of sama has been given by Jagannātha (R.G.P. 604).

Example of the sama-alaṃkāra:—

ucitaṃ yatkṛtāṃ dante tṛṇaṃ bhavadarātibhiḥ |
idṛśeṣu vidhāneṣu tṛṇāmevā’mṛtāyat ||

“It is proper that grass is taken by teeth by your enemies. In these cases grass appears to be nectar”.

Notes: Here the redation between the grass and teeth is proper. So this is an example of samālaṃkāra.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)

Sama means to “stamp at the same level” and represents one of five actions of the foot used in kūttu (dance) as defined in the first book of the Pañcamarapu (‘five-fold traditional usage’) which deals with niruttam (dance, one of the sixty–four arts) and represents an important piece of Tamil literature.—The Pañcamarapu (“five-fold traditional usage”) refers to a book on five established literary usages (five-fold traditional usages) defines terms such as Sama. It was composed by Cerai Aṟivanār in the 9th century AD during the time of Pandyan Tirumaran of the last Caṅkam Period.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Ṣaṭsāhasra-saṃhitā

Samā (प्रभा):—One of the twelve guṇas associated with Randhra, the first seat of the Svādhiṣṭhāna-chakra. According to tantric sources such as the Śrīmatottara-tantra and the Gorakṣasaṃhitā (Kādiprakaraṇa), these twelve guṇas are represented as female deities. According to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā however, they are explained as particular syllables. They (eg. Samā) only seem to play an minor role with regard to the interpretation of the Devīcakra (first of five chakras, as taught in the Kubjikāmata-tantra).

She is also known by the name Prabhā, according to the Śrīmatottaratantra.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Sama (सम) is a Sanskrit technical term translating to “well-maintained” or “regular”, reffering to a particular state. The term is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Sama (सम) refers to one who is “balanced”, as mentioned in verse 4.35 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] (by) always keeping to wholesome nourishment and deportment, acting upon mature consideration, being indifferent to worldly objects, generous, balanced [viz., sama], intent on truth, (and) full of patience, and keeping to the great: one becomes free from disease”.

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: A Case of Contact with Spider Venom

Unripened (sāma) inflammatory swelling (śopha) is small, hard and immovable, has a little heat and pain, keeps the same color of the original region.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Arthashastra (politics and welfare)

Source: Exotic India: Nitiprakasika of Vaisampayana (A Critical Edition)

Sāma (साम) should be known to be of five types—

  1. following the rival,
  2. mutually obliging,
  3. appreciating his virtues,
  4. acknowledging kinship
  5. and surrendering of the self.

Knowing this to be fivefold in brief, one becomes happy. (see the Nītiprakāśikā 8.74-75)

Arthashastra book cover
context information

Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śama (शम).—Son of the Vasu called Aaḥ. Aaḥ had, besides Śama, three sons called Jyoti, Śānta and Muni. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 28).

2) Śama (शम).—One of the three sons of Dharmadeva, the other two being called Kāma and Harṣa. Śama’s wife was Prāpti. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 66, Verse 32).

3) Śāma (शाम).—A dog which followed Yama. It was one of the two offsprings of Saramā. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa 3.7.312).

4) Sama (सम).—One of the hundred sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. He was killed in the Bhārata-battle, by Bhīmasena. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva. Chapter 51, Verse 7).

5) Samā (समा).—A populous centre in front of the Puṣkara island (Puṣkaradvīpa). In Purāṇic days there were thirtythree regions in this centre. Devas such as Vāmana, Airāvata, Supratīka, Añjana and so on dwell here. The people of this place live by inhaling the breath coming from the noses of these gods. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 12, Verse 32).

6) Sāma (साम).—One of the Caturupāyas (four tactics). (See under Caturupāya).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sama (सम) refers to those Rudrākṣas which are “of even size” and thus considered as superior, according to the Śivapurāṇa 1.25, while explaining the greatness of Rudrākṣa:—“[...] O Parameśvarī, no other necklace or garland is observed in the world to be so auspicious and fruitful as the Rudrākṣa. O Goddess, Rudrākṣas of even size [viz., Sama], glossy, firm, thick and having many thornlike protrusions yield desires and bestow worldly pleasures and salvation for ever”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śama (शम).—A son of Dharmasūtra and father of Dyumatsena.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 48.

1b) A son of Kriyā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 60.

1c) A son of Āyu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 24.

1d) A Sukha god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 19.

1e) The regulation of senses on one's own account and on account of others.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 59. 47.

1f) A son of Āpa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 23.

1g) A mukhya gaṇa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 18.

2a) Sama (सम).—One of the 20 Amitābha gods.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 17: Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 17.

2b) The eyes of the personified Veda.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 82.

3) Sāma (साम).—One of the political expedients used by Ṛṣabha;1 two fold, the real and the unreal; the first to be applied to the sādhus (good men); by this the righteous are brought under control;2 there is no use applying it to the unrighteous. One of the four limbs of nīti, the others being bheda, dāna (uppradāna, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and daṇḍa (daṇḍa pāta, vāyu-purāṇa.).3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 4. 16.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 222. 1-10.
  • 3) Ib. 148. 65-77; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 22. 17; 33. 40.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Sama (सम) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.108.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Sama) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Śama also refers to the name of a Lady mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.31).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Sama (सम).—Equal in number to something given; cf. यथासंख्यमनुदेशः समानाम् (yathāsaṃkhyamanudeśaḥ samānām) cf. Kas. on P. I. 3.10.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Sama (सम).—North point of the horizon. Note: Sama is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha

Samā (समा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Samā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.

Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala

Samā (समा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Samā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Samā (समा) appears originally to have denoted ‘summer’, a sense which may be seen in a few passages of the Atharvaveda. Hence it also denotes more generally ‘season’, a rare use. More commonly it is simply ‘year’; but in one place the Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa (vi. 2. 1. 25) interprets it in the Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā as meaning ‘month’, a doubtful sense.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Sama. The king of Benares (J.ii.98) in the Giridanta Jataka.

2. Sama. One of the hounds of the Lokantaraniraya.

3. Sama. The Bodhisatta born as a hunters son. He was also called Suvannasama. For his story see the Sama Jataka. He is given as an example of one who was conceived by umbilical attrition. E.g., Mil.123.

4. Sama. The Milinda, refers to a Jataka story where Devadatta was a man named Sama, and the Bodhisatta a king of deer, named Ruru. The reference is evidently to the Rurumiga Jataka, but there the man is called Mahadhanaka. J.iv.255 ff.; but see Cyp.ii.6.

-- or --

1. Sama. The chief woman disciple of Kakusandha Buddha. Bu.xxiii.21; J.i.42.

2. Sama. One of the chief lay women disciples of Konagamana Buddha. Bu.xxiv.24.

3. Sama. A courtesan of Benares; for her story see the Kanavera Jataka. J.iii.59ff.

4. Sama Theri. She belonged to an eminent family of Kosambi, and when her friend Samavati died she left the world in distress of mind. Unable to subdue her grief, she could not grasp the Ariyan way. One day, while listening to Anandas preaching, she won insight, and, on the seventh day from then became an arahant. Thig.vs.37 8; ThigA.44.

5. Sama Theri. She belonged to a family of Kosambi and left the world in distress on the loss of her friend, Samavati. For twenty five years she was unable to gain self mastery, till, in her old age, she heard a sermon and won arahantship.

Ninety one kappas ago she was a kinnari on the banks of the Candabhaga. One day, while amusing herself in company of her friends, she saw Vipassi Buddha and worshipped him with salala flowers (Thig.39 41; ThigA.45f). She is evidently identical with Salalapupphika of the Apadana. Ap.ii.524.

6. Sama. The original name of Samavati.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Sāmā (सामा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Sāma forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vāyucakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vāyucakra refers to one of the three divisions of the dharma-puṭa (‘dharma layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Sāmā] and Vīras are dark blue in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Sama (सम).— The samas are a group of celestial beings living in the lower regions of adholoka (lower world) according to Jaina cosmology. Adholoka is made up of seven regions and offers residence to the infernal beings existing within these lands.

Source: Jaina Yoga

Śama (शम, “tranquility”) refers to an aspect of samyaktva (right belief) classified under the liṅga, while its synonym upaśama falls under the guṇa heading, according to various Jain authors (eg., Cāmuṇḍarāya, Amitagati and Vasunandin). Hemacandra, in his 12th century Yogaśāstra verse 2.15 takes śama or upaśama to imply the stilling of the kaṣāyas.

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)

Sāma (साम) is a Prakrit name referring to “beings of a light-black complexion” and is mentioned as an example name for deriving personal names mentioned in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning sāma) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Śama (शम) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Śama] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Śama (शम, “tranquillity”) or Śamalakṣaṇa refers to one of the five Lakṣaṇas (“characteristics”), according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] Vajranābha acquired strong Tirthakṛt-body-making and family-karma by the twenty sthānakas as follows:—[...] The ninth [sthānaka] is right-belief, free from the faults of doubt, etc., adorned with the qualities of firmness, etc., characterized by tranquillity, etc. [viz., śama-lakṣaṇa] [...]”.

Note: The characteristics (lakṣaṇa) are: tranquillity (śama); desire for emancipation (saṃvega); disgust with the world (nirveda); compassion (anukampa); faith in the principles of truth (āstikya).—(cf. Yogaśāstra 2.15.)

2) Śama (शम, “tranquillity”) refers to a “perfectly symmetrical body” and represents the first of the six caturasra-susaṃsthana (“symmetrical bodies”), according to chapter 1.2.—(cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 155, p. 150. Sthānāṅgasūtra 495, pp. 357-8.)

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sama.—cf. sam-ālindakam (LP), ‘with a terrace in front of the door.’ Note: sama is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sama : (adj.) even; equal; level; similar. (m.), calmness; tranquillity. || samā (f.) a year. sāma (adj.) black; dark. (m.) 1. peace. sāmā (f.) a kind of medical plant; a woman of dark complexion.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

1) Sāma, 2 (nt.) (perhaps=Vedic sāman) song, sacred song, devotion, worship, propitiation D. II, 288. (Page 704)

2) Sāma, 1 (cp. Vedic śyāma black & śyāva brown; Av. syāva; Ags. h&amacremacr; ven blue (=E. heaven); Gr. skoiόs, skiά (shadow)=Sk. chāyā; Goth. skeinan=shine, etc. ) 1. black, dark (something like deep brown) Vin. IV, 120 (kāḷasāma dark blue (?)); D. I, 193; M. I, 246 (different from kāḷa); J. VI, 187 (°aṃ mukhaṃ dark, i.e. on account of bad spirits); Vism. 422 (opp. to odāta in colour of skin).—2. yellow, of a golden colour, beautiful J. II, 44, 45 (migī); V, 215 (suvaṇṇa-sāmā), 366 (suvaṇṇa-vaṇṇa).—f. sāmā, q. v.—See sabala. (Page 704)

3) Sāmā, (f) (Sk. śyāmā Halāyudha 2, 38; see sāma1, sāmalatā, and sāmāka) a medicinal plant J. IV, 92 (bhisasāmā, C. bhisāni ca sāmākā ca); the Priyangu creeper J. I, 500; V, 405. (Page 704)

4) Sama, 3 (adj.) (Vedic sama, fr. sa2; see etym. under saṃ°) 1. even, level J. I, 315; III, 172; Mhvs 23, 51. samaṃ karoti to level Dh. 178; SnA 66. Opp. visama.—2. like, equal, the same D. I, 123, 174; S. I, 12; Sn. 90, 226, 799, 842; It. 17, 64; Dh. 306; Miln. 4. The compared noun is put in the Instr.; or precedes as first part of cpd. ‹-› 3. impartial, upright, of even mind, just A. I, 74, 293 sq.; Sn. 215, 468, 952.—4. sama°, foll. by numerals, means “altogether, ”. e.g. °tiṃsa thirty altogether Bu 18, 18.—5. Cases as adv. : Instr. samena with justice, impartially (=dhammena K. S. I. 321) Dh. 257; J. I, 180; Acc. samaṃ equally D. II, 166; together with, at, D. II, 288; Mhvs 11, 12.

5) Sama, 2 (fr. śram: see sammati2) fatigue J. VI, 565. (Page 681)

6) Sama, 1 (fr. śam: see sammati1) calmness, tranquillity, mental quiet Sn. 896. samaṃ carati to become calm, quiescent J. IV, 172. Cp. °cariyā & °cārin. (Page 681)

7) Samā, (f.) (Vedic samā) 1. a year Dh. 106; Mhvs 7, 78. ‹-› 2. in agginisamā a pyre Sn. 668, 670. (Page 684)

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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

1) Śama (शम).—m (S) Stilling, subduing, reducing to nullity or into inoperativeness (of the passions and affections): also stilledness or stillness, subdued state (of the mind and passions); stoicism, apathy, indifference, quietism. This conquest of the mind is one of the six duties incumbent upon the vēdāntī. The other five duties are dama Government of the senses and animal appetites; tapa Practice of mortification and austerities; titikṣā Patience, sufferance, endurance of the good and evil of mortal life; śraddhā Reverential faith in the Vedas and Shastras; samādhāna Restraining of the mind from external objects and fixing of it stedfastly in contemplation. 2 Stilling, tranquilizing, calming, composing generally: also stillness, tranquillity, quiet and unruffled state generally. 3 Final happiness; emancipation from mundane existence. śamadama or śamadamādi The duties comprehensively of the Vedantist,--śama and so forth. śamadamādi- sādhanasaṃyukta Provided with the measures (towards ultimate beatitude) of conquest of the mind and subjugation of the senses and appetites.

2a) śāma (शाम).—m S A country, Siam.

2b) śāma (शाम).—Corruptions of śyāma, śyāmakarṇa &c.

3a) sama (सम).—a (S) Equal, like, similar, identical. Useful compounds are numerous; as samakāla, samadēśa, sama-gati-kānti-guṇa -gōtra -jāti -sukha -dhana -vibhāga -śīla- svabhāva -bala -parākrama -rāśi -vēśa -dārḍhya, samāhāra & samā- hārī, samōdyōgī, and others in order. 2 Even, level, smooth: also direct or straight: also uniform. 3 Even;--as a number. 4 Equal, alike, indifferent to; not having partiality or preference. 5 Neutral or indifferent; neither hostile nor friendly; having neither of two natures or qualities specified.

3b) sama (सम).—n S A figure of rhetoric,--identity of objects compared. 2 A point at which a vertical circle cuts the horizon. 3 In geometry. A mean.

4a) samā (समा).—m C A demon or fiend of a particular order. 2 High tide. 3 fig. The height, meridian, zenith, spring, prime; the season of greatest abundance or prevalence. 4 Unanimity, concert, concurrence.

4b) sāma (साम).—n (S) The Sama Veda, the third of the four Vedas. It consists of hymns or formulӔ of praise to the various deities, and it is always chanted or sung. 2 A formula or verse of this Veda, any distinct portion. 3 Conciliating, appeasing, soothing, softening. 4 One of the four modes of overcoming an enemy or means of success against an opponent,--adulatory or suppliant speech and deportment. These four are sāma, dāna, daṇḍa, bhēda Conciliating; Making of presents; Beating or fighting; Dividing or fomenting dissension.

4c) sāma (साम).—a S (sa & āma) A term of medicine. Having connection with crudities, i. e. proceeding from indigestion;--a disorder. Opp. to nirāma.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

1) Śama (शम).—m Subduing. Stilling. Final happi- ness. Restraining one's sense.

2) sama (सम).—a Equal, like. Even, level, smooth. Even. as a number. Alike, not having partiality or preference. Neutral.

3) samā (समा).—m High tide. Fig. The height. Concert.

4) sāma (साम).—n The third of the four Vedas. Con- ciliating.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śama (शम).—[śam-ghañ]

1) Quiet, tranquillity, calmness; धृतिं न विन्दामि शमं च विष्णो (dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi śamaṃ ca viṣṇo) Bg.11.24.

2) Rest, calm, repose, cessation.

3) Absence or restraint of passions, mental quietness, quietism; शमरतेऽमरतेजसि पार्थिवे (śamarate'maratejasi pārthive) R.9.4; Ki.1.1;16.48; Śi.2.94; Bg.1.4.

4) Allayment, mitigation, alleviation, satisfaction, pacification (of grief, thirst, hunger &c.); शममुपयातु ममापि चित्तदाहः (śamamupayātu mamāpi cittadāhaḥ) U.6.8; शम- मेष्यति मम शोकः कथं नु वत्से (śama- meṣyati mama śokaḥ kathaṃ nu vatse) Ś.4.21.

5) Peace; as in अस्माकं शमकामा वै त्वं च पुत्रो ममेत्यथ (asmākaṃ śamakāmā vai tvaṃ ca putro mametyatha) Mb.12.1.27; शमोपन्यास (śamopanyāsa) Ve.5.

6) Final emancipation (from all worldly illusions and attachments).

7) The hand.

8) Cure of disease, convalescence.

9) Indifference, apathy.

Derivable forms: śamaḥ (शमः).

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Sama (सम).—a.

1) Same, identical.

2) Equal, as in समलोष्टकाञ्चनः (samaloṣṭakāñcanaḥ) R.8.21; Pt.2.7; सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ (sukhaduḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau) Bg.2.38; समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः । शीतोष्णसुख- दुःखेषु समः संगविवर्जितः (samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca tathā mānāpamānayoḥ | śītoṣṇasukha- duḥkheṣu samaḥ saṃgavivarjitaḥ) || 12.18.

3) Like, similar, resembling; with instr. or gen. or in comp. गुणयुक्तो दरिद्रोऽपि नेश्वरैरगुणैः समः (guṇayukto daridro'pi neśvarairaguṇaiḥ samaḥ) Subhāṣ.; Ku.3.13.

4) Even, level, plain; समवेशवर्तिनस्ते न दुरासदो भविष्यति (samaveśavartinaste na durāsado bhaviṣyati) Ś.1.

5) Even (as number).

6) Impartial, fair; शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः (śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ) Bg.5.18.

7) Just, honest, upright.

8) Good, virtuous.

9) Ordinary, common.

1) Mean, middling.

11) Straight.

12) Suitable, convenient.

13) Indifferent, unmoved, unaffected by passion.

14) All, every one.

15) All, whole, entire, complete.

16) Being a pair.

17) Regular, normal.

18) Middling.

19) Easy, convenient.

-maḥ 1 Name of certain zodiacal signs (vṛṣa, karkaṭa, kanyā, vṛścika, makara, and mīna).

2) A mode of measuring time in music.

3) The point of intersection of the horizon and the meridian line.

4) A kind of straight line placed over a numerical figure to mark the process of extracting the square root.

-mam 1 A level plain, flat country; संनिपत्य शनकैरिव निम्नादन्धकारमुदवाप समानि (saṃnipatya śanakairiva nimnādandhakāramudavāpa samāni) Ki.9. 11.

2) (In rhet.) Name of a figure of speech.

3) (In geometry) A mean proportional segment.

4) Equanimity.

5) Similarity.

6) Settlement; compensation; कर्मणापि समं कुर्याद्धनिकायाधमर्णिकः (karmaṇāpi samaṃ kuryāddhanikāyādhamarṇikaḥ) Ms.8.177.

7) Good circumstances; Mk.

-sam ind.

1) With, together with, in company with, accompanied by; (with instr.); आहां निवत्स्यति समं हरिणाङ्गनाभिः (āhāṃ nivatsyati samaṃ hariṇāṅganābhiḥ) Ś.1.26; R.2.25;8.63; 16.72.

2) Equally; समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु (samaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu) Bg.13.27.28; यथा सर्वाणि भूतानि धरा धारयते समम् (yathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni dharā dhārayate samam) Ms.9.311.

3) Like, similarly, in the same manner; यत्र स्वामी निर्विशेषं समं मृत्येषु वर्तते (yatra svāmī nirviśeṣaṃ samaṃ mṛtyeṣu vartate) Pt.1.78.

4) Entirely.

5) Simultaneously, all at once, at the same time, together; नवं पयो यत्र धनैर्मया च त्वद्विप्रयोगाश्रु समं विसृष्टम् (navaṃ payo yatra dhanairmayā ca tvadviprayogāśru samaṃ visṛṣṭam) R.13.26;4.4;1.59;14.1.

6) Honestly, fairly.

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Samā (समा).—(generally in pl., but used by Pāṇini in sing. also, e. g. samāṃ samām P.V.2.12.) A year; तेनाष्टौ परिगमिताः समाः कथंचित् (tenāṣṭau parigamitāḥ samāḥ kathaṃcit) R.8.92; तयोश्चतुर्दशैकेन रामं प्राव्राजयत् समाः (tayoścaturdaśaikena rāmaṃ prāvrājayat samāḥ) 12.6; 19.4; Mv.4.41. -ind. With, together with.

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Sāma (साम).—a. Undigested, crude; Charaka.

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Sāma (साम).—Likeness, similarity.

Derivable forms: sāmam (सामम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śama (शम).—cubit? see śama-sāmantakam.

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Śāma (शाम).—also sāma, q.v., semi-MIndic for Sanskrit śyāma, dark; in kāḍi-śāma, and ms. for śyāma-śavala, qq.v.

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Sāma (साम).—(= Pali id.; see also śāma) = Sanskrit śyāma, dark: iha…vitarka-sāmo (em.; most mss. °samo, un- metrical(ly); 2 mss. sabhūmau, probably intending sadhūmo, see Foucaux, Notes, 194; sadhūma would be barely possible metrically; Tibetan according to Foucaux obscured by smoke) mahā- madanavahniḥ Lalitavistara 373.15 (verse), here the great fire of passion, dark with ratiocination (as with smoke)…

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śama (शम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. Quiet of mind, stoicism, indifference, the absence of passion, as one of the qualities of the Vedanti or follower of the Vedanta doctrine; it is defined to be the exclusion of every idea not derived from the precepts of that philosophy, and is so far synonomous with abstract meditation on Brahma, or God. 2. Quiet, tranquillity, rest, calm, (in general.) 3. Final happiness, emancipation from human existence. 4. Cure, convalescence, alleviation of pain or disease. 5. Abuse, imprecation, malediction. 6. The hand. E. śam to be pacified or calm, aff. ghañ, and the vowel not made long.

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Sama (सम).—mfn. Pron.

(-maḥ-mā-maṃ) 1. All, whole, entire. (Adj.) 1. Like, similar. 2. Good, virtuous. 3. Full, complete. 4. Same, even, equal. 5. Indifferent, impartial. 6. Mean. f.

(-mā) 1. A year. 2. Even, plain, level. 3. Same. 4. Equal. 5. Convenient. 6. Straight. 7. Indifferent, impartial, fair. 8. Common. 9. Like, similar. 10. Free from emotion. 11. Good, virtuous. 12. Honest, just. 13. Full, complete, &c.: see samā: n.

(-maṃ) 1. A figure of rhetoric, identity or sameness of objects compared to one another. 2. (In geometry), A mean; a fourth proportional to the two perpendiculars and the link or segment. E. sam to be confused or unconfused, aff. ac .

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Samā (समा).—f.

(-mā) Year; (according to Amara'S lexicon this word is always used in the plural: Panini however, uses it in the singular.) Ind. With, together with. E. sama + ac—ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śama (शम).—[śam + a], m. 1. Rest, quiet, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 96; tranquillity. 2. Disregarding the objects of sense, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 203, 19. 3. Quiet of mind, the absence of passion, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 181. 4. Final happiness. 5. Cure, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 144, 13; convalescence. 6. The hand. 7. Abuse, imprecation.

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Sama (सम).—[sa + ma], I. adj. 1. Even, plain, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] 5, 14; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 188. 2. Same, [Hitopadeśa] 116, 18. 3. Equal, Mahābhārata 10, 622; samaṃ kṛ, To balaṇce, to pay, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 177. 4. Convenient, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 1880; [Nalodya, (ed. Benary.)] 4, 8 (voice, neither too low nor too loud). 5. Straight, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 9. 6. Looking on unmoved, (with gen. and loc.), Mahābhārata 1, 1061; 1942. 7. Impartial, indifferent, [Lassen, Anthologia Sanskritica.] 6, 16. 8. Mean, common, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 85; [Hitopadeśa] pr. [distich] 42, M.M. (not pre-eminent). 9. Like, similar, Chr. 8, 27 (mayā, Like myself). 10. Good, Chr. 12, 28; virtuous. 11. A purchaser at a fair price, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 287. 12. Full, complete. 13. All, whole, entire (follows the pronominal declension). Ii. ºmam, A. adv. 1. With (with instr.), [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 216; together, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 24; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 88, 17. 2. Equally, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 49; [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 208, 18. 3. Like, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 15, 55 (with loc. ?). 4. In the same way, [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 44. 5. Conformable to, [Pañcatantra] 25, 14. 6. Entirely, ib. 63, 1. B. prep. (with instr.), With, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 79, M. M.; together with, [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 200. Iii. f. , A year, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 26. Iv. n. Level plain, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 24.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śama (शम).—1. [adjective] tame, domestic.

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Śama (शम).—2. [masculine] peace of mind.

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Sama (सम).—1. [pronoun] any, every.

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Sama (सम).—2. [adjective] even, smooth, parallel; like, equal to ([instrumental], [genetive], or —°) or in ([instrumental], tas, [locative], or —°); (always) the same, unaltered; common, mediocre; indifferent, neutral; harmless, good, honest, fair, convenient, easy. [neuter] & °— [adverb] equally, like, along, together, precisely, exactly, fairly; [neuter] as subst. plain, evenness, balance, compensation, right measure or proportion, indifference, equanimity.

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Sama (सम).—3. [neuter] (—°) = samā year.

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Samā (समा).—[feminine] half-year, season, year.

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Sāma (साम).—[neuter] equality.

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Samā (समा).—measure, make equal to or compare with ([instrumental]), apportion, distribute, grant, bestow. — Cf. anumita, upamita ([additions]), ni/rmita, pa/rimita, pratimita, pramita, sa/ṃmita.

Samā is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and (मा).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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