Shambara, Sambara, Śambara, Saṃbara: 22 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Shambara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śambara can be transliterated into English as Sambara or Shambara, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śambara (शम्बर) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Śambara) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Śambara (शम्बर) is a Sanskrit word referring to a kind of deer with branched horns (“Indian sambar”). The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Śambara is part of the sub-group named Jāṅgalamṛga, refering to “animals living in forests”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Śambara (शम्बर) is the name of a tree (Śambara) that is associated with the Nakṣatra (celestial star) named Jyeṣṭhā, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “these [trees] are propounded in Śāstras, the secret scriptures (śāstrāgama). These pious trees [viz, Śambara], if grown and protected, promote long life”. These twenty-seven trees related to the twenty-seven Nakṣatras are supposed to be Deva-vṛkṣas or Nakṣatra-vṛkṣas.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shambara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śambara (शम्बर).—An asura. General. Various Purāṇas refer to this leader of the asuras as having played a prominent part in the devāsura war. After many such wars he was killed by Śiva. Śambara’s magic power. He possessed marvellous magic powers. Once while fighting with him, the Devas were non-plussed by his magical powers, and they hid themselves in a forest. Śambara was pleased and he roamed about freely without any fear and burnt the palaces of the protectors of the world. The Devas left their homes and disappeared in disguise. The Devas began killing those whom Śambara had appointed as army-chieftains. To counter this attack by the Devas, he created three powerful asuras by his powers of magic. The three asuras called Dama, Vyāla and Ghaṭa began killing the warriors of the Devas, and the Devas told Brahmā at Satyaloka about the depredations of the asura. Brahmā encouraged them for further fighting, and the three asuras were killed and Śambara ran away and hid himself. (Jñānavāsiṣṭha Sthitiprakaraṇam). Śambara in Ṛgveda. There are various references to Śambara in the Ṛgveda. He was King of the Dasyus. He had mastery over hundred cities. The forts and trenches in those cities were very strong. The forts are referred to as Aśvamayī, Āyasī, Śatabhujī etc. in the Ṛgveda. The chief enemies of the Aryans were the race of people called Paṇis in the city. There is a hint about the killing of Śambara in Sūkta 17, Anuvāka 8, Maṇḍala 1 of the Ṛgveda. Other information.

(i) Śambara was Kaśyapaprajāpati’s son by his wife Danu.

(ii) Daśaratha had, at the request of the Devas defeated Śambara in a war fought in Devaloka. (See under Daśaratha, Para 5).

(iii) Indra, on another occasion, defeated Śambara. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 137, Verse 43). (See full article at Story of Śambara from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Śambara (शम्बर).—An asura.

2) He was the son of Hiraṇyākṣa and brother of Śakuni, Dvimūrdhā, Śaṅku and Ārya. (Agni Purāṇa, Chapter 17). Śambara, who was a great adept in magic, was killed in the company of his wife Māyāvatī, by Pradyumna, the son of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. (See under Pradyumna).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śambara (शम्बर).—A son of Danu, and a follower of Vṛtra in his battle with Indra.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 30; 10. 19 [3]; Matsya-purāṇa 6. 17; 249. 67; Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 11; 98. 81; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 19. 14; 21. 4.

1b) A son of Hiraṇyākṣa;1 a Dānava king; taken to Pātāla with Bali by Vāmana;2 guiles of, towards Prahlāda at the instance of Hiraṇyakaśipu.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 2. 4 and 18; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 5. 30.
  • 2) Ib. III. 6. 4 and 11; IV. 29. 123; 73. 81.
  • 3) Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 153; 16. 9.

1c) A resident of Tripura; participated in the Devāsura war between Bali and Indra; fought with Tvaṣṭri.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 6. 31; 10. 19 and 29.

1d) A companion of Kaṃsa; walked away with child Pradyumna within ten days [six days (Viṣṇu-purāṇa)] of its birth. He knew that the bady was his enemy but he threw it into the sea and went away. Māyāvatī, the superintendent of his kitchen discovered a child in a fish brought to the kitchen, and hearing from Nārada that it was Kāma reborn, and that she herself was Ratī, she brought up the child and when he came of age, she told him the truth and asked him to fight Śambara with the aid of mahāmāyā vidyā. His head was cut off by Pradyumna.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 36. 36; 55. 3. 24; II. 7. 34; III. 3. 11; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 26. 12; Ch. 27 (whole).

1e) (Śabara, Bhāgavata-purāṇa); his greed for more territory.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 3. 11.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śambara (शम्बर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.22, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śambara) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Śambara (शम्बर) refers to one of the sons of Bāṇa or Bāṇāsura: the son of Bali, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Prahlāda’s son was Virocana who was killed by Viṣṇu and his son Bali became the king. He was pious and virtuous and was bound to Pātalā by Viṣṇu. Bāṇāsura was the son of Bali, who was a devotee of Śiva. The Lord gave Bāṇāsura the status of the leader of a Gaṇa. The son’s of Bāṇa were [viz., Śambara].

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (S) next»] — Shambara in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Śambara (शम्बर) is the name of an Asura who was reborn as Prahasta: minister of Sūryaprabha, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 45. Accordingly, as Kaśyapa said to Maya, Sunītha and Sūryaprabha: “... and the other Asuras, who were your companions, have been born as his friends; for instance, the great Asura named Śambara has been born as his minister Prahasta”.

The story of Śambara was narrated by the Vidyādhara king Vajraprabha to prince Naravāhanadatta in order to relate how “Sūryaprabha, being a man, obtain of old time the sovereignty over the Vidyādharas”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śambara, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Śambara (शम्बर) is the name of a demon famous for his magical skill.—Cf. Śāmbarī (“magic” or “illusion”) which is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 6.14.—In both examples śambara means also “water”. Śambara is used in the sense of “error”, “delusion” in Yogavāsiṣṭha (Sthitiprakaraṇa 47.88) where the commentary explains dīrghaśambare as dīrghabhrame. [...] The form Śāmbara occurs in Yogavāsiṣṭha (Vairāgyaprakaraṇa 12.12).

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Sambara is a character in Hindu mythology, married to Māyāvati. He abducted the infant Pradyumna, son of Krishna and Rukmini, but Pradyumna escaped, and after eventually growing up, killed Sambara and married his wife. He was also a demon in the Vedas whose 99 fortresses were destroyed by Indra in the ecstasy of Soma while giving aid to Divodasa Atithigva. Indra finished off the demon in the hundredth.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A chief of the Asuras. In the Isayo Samuddaka Sutta (S.i.227) (q.v.) we are told that, because Sambara refused the request of the sages for a guarantee of safety, they cursed him, and his mind was deranged. Buddhaghosa adds (SA.i.266) that, on account of this mental derangement, he came to be called Vepacitti (s.v.). Elsewhere (S.i.239), however, it is said that once Sakka asked Vepacitti to teach him Sambaras magic art (Sambarimaya). Vepacitti consulted the Asuras and then warned Sakka against learning it because, through his art, Sambara had fallen into purgatory, where he had been suffering for a century. Buddhaghosa, in this context (SA.i.272), calls Sambara an Asurinda, a juggler (mayavi) who, having practised his maya, has roasted for the past century in purgatory.

Mrs. Rhys Davis (KS.i.306 n) thinks there was a rank of Sambara resembling that of Sakka, and that each succeeding Sambara learnt the magic art. See also Samvara.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Sambara (सम्बर) refers to one of the various emanations of Akṣobhya having their Sādhana described in the 5th-century Sādhanamālā (a collection of sādhana texts that contain detailed instructions for rituals).—One sādhana only in the Sādhanamālā describes the procedure for the worship of Sambara who is only another form of Hevajra.

Sambara (two-armed variety)—[His Colour is blue; his Āsana is the ālīḍha; his Vāhana is Kālarātri; his Symbols are the vajra and ghaṇṭā; his Prajñā is the vajravārāhī].—The Dhyāna (meditation instructions) is described in the Sādhanamālā as follows:

“The worshipper should think himself as Sambara with a string of skulls over his forehead and the crescent moon on the top. He wears the six auspicious ornaments and a necklace of heads. He shows the Viśvavajra [on his head-dress] and is three-eyed. He stands in the ālīḍha attitude and originates from a combination of all the letters of the alphabet. He tramples upon Bhairava and Kālarātri and is clad in tiger-skin. He shows the effigy of Akṣobhya on his crown and is blue in colour. He carries the vajra and the ghaṇṭa; has matted hair, displays heroism and is embraced by his Śakti Vajravārāhī holding the vajra and the kapāla full of blood. Her girdle is the khaṭvāṅga, her colour is red and she is three-eyed. She wears a garland of severed heads, is endowed with the five auspicious symbols, has dishevelled hair and no garment. She shows the image of Buddha (Vairocana) on her crown”.

Sambara (twelve-armed variety with four faces)—[His Colour is blue; His Śakti is Vajravārāhī].—Sambara is the principal deity in the Sambara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī:—

“God (Sambara) stands in the ālīḍha posture on the prostrate forms of Bhairava and Kālarātri. He is blue in colour and his four faces on the east, south, west and north are blue, green, red and yellow in colour. He is twelve-armed. With the two principal hands carrying the vajra and vajra-marked bell, he embraces his Śakti Vajravārāhī. With the second pair he carries the elephant skin from which blood trickles down. In the remaining four right hands he holds the ḍamaru, the axe, the kartri and the trident. The four left hands show the vajra-marked khaṭvāṅga, the skull cup full of blood, the vajra-marked noose and the the severed head of Brahmā. He displays in full the nine dramatic sentiments”

[Sambara thus is only another form of the great god Heruka. [...] The parental Dhyāni Buddha of Sambara is Akṣobhya and that of Vajravārāhī is Vairocana according to a statement contained in the aforesaid Maṇḍala.]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śambara (शंबर).—m S A sort of Elk, Cervus elaphas. The popular word is sāmbara.

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sāmbara (सांबर).—m n (śambara S) A sort of Elk, Cervus Elaphas, C. Hippelaphas, or C. Aristotelis.

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sāmbāra (सांबार).—& sāmbārēṃ See sāmbhāra & sāmbhārēṃ.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śāmbara (शांबर).—n Magic, sorcery. śāmbarī f A female juggler.

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sāmbara (सांबर).—m n A sort of elk.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śambara (शम्बर).—a. [śamb arac] Best, excellent.

-rāḥ 1 Name of a demon slain by Pradyumna, q. v.

2) A mountain.

3) A kind of deer.

4) A Jina.

5) Name of the trees चित्रक, लोध्र (citraka, lodhra) and अर्जुन (arjuna).

6) A kind of fish.

7) War.

-ram 1 Water; किं विलम्बसे (kiṃ vilambase) ... शम्बरानयने (śambarānayane) Cholachampū p. 26.

2) A cloud.

3) Wealth.

4) A rite or religious observance.

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Śāmbara (शाम्बर).—A kind of sandal.

Derivable forms: śāmbaram (शाम्बरम्).

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Saṃbara (संबर).—1 A dam, bridge.

2) A kind of deer.

3) Name of a demon slain by Pradyumna; see शंबर (śaṃbara) and प्रद्युम्न (pradyumna).

4) Name of a mountain.

-ram 1 Restraint.

2) Water.

3) A kind of religious observance (with the Buddists).

Derivable forms: saṃbaraḥ (संबरः).

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Sāmbara (साम्बर).—Salt produced in Sambara.

Derivable forms: sāmbaram (साम्बरम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Śambara (शम्बर).—[, see Saṃvara (5).].

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Sambara (सम्बर).—[(1) in kāya-, vāk-, manaḥ-s° Samādhirājasūtra p. 4 line 23, read saṃvara, q.v.;] (2) name of a deity (compare Sanskrit Śambara, name of a demon?), associated (perhaps identical?) with Heruka: Sādhanamālā 490.1 etc. See also s.v. saṃvara 4,5.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śambara (शम्बर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. A religious observance. 3. Wealth. m.

(-raḥ) 1. A Daitya. 2. A sort of deer. 3. A mountain. 4. A fish in general. 5. War. 6. Best, excellent. 7. A Baud'dha. f. (-rī) 1. A drug or medicinal plant, (Anthericum tuberosum.) 2. A female juggler. E. śamb to accumulate, aran aff.; or śa happiness, vṛ to choose, aff. ap; also read śaṃvara and sambara or saṃvara .

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Sambara (सम्बर).—n.

(-raṃ) 1. Water. 2. Restraint, forbearance, self-control. 3. A religious observance of the Baudd'has. m.

(-raḥ) 1. The name of a demon or Daitya slain by Kama. 2. A deer. 3. A sort of fish. 4. A mountain. 5. A Jina, one of the pontiffs of the future age. 6. A kind of dramatic entertainment. 7. A bridge, a dam, a causeway. f. (-rī) 1. A plant, (Asparagus racemosus.) 2. A medicinal plant, (Salvinia cucullata.) E. samb to accumulate, aran aff.; ṅīp added in the fem. form; also śambara and saṃvara .

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Sāmbara (साम्बर).—n.

(-raṃ) The sambhar-salt. E. sambara the country, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śambara (शम्बर).—and sambara sambara, I. m. 1. The name of a demon, Chr. 297, 14 = [Rigveda.] i. 112, 14. 2. A mountain. 3. A sort of deer. 4. A fish. 5. War. Ii. n. 1. Water. 2. A religious observance.

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Sambara (सम्बर).—see śambara.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śambara (शम्बर).—[masculine] [Name] of a demon slain by Indra, in l.l. also an enemy of the god of love.

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Śāmbara (शाम्बर).—[feminine] ī relating to Śambara; [neuter] jugglery, sorcery.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śambara (शम्बर):—[from śamba] m. Name of a demon (in, [Ṛg-veda] often mentioned with Śuṣṇa, Arbuda, Pipru etc.; he is the chief enemy of Divo-dāsa Atithigva, for whose deliverance he was thrown down a mountain and slain by Indra; in epic and later poetry he is also a foe of the god of love), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] a cloud, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 10]

3) [v.s. ...] a weapon, [Sāyaṇa on Ṛg-veda i, 112, 14]

4) [v.s. ...] war, fight, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a kind of deer, [Vāsavadattā; Bhāvaprakāśa]

6) [v.s. ...] a fish or a kind of fish, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Terminalia Arunja, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Symplocos Racemosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] a mountain in general or a [particular] mountain, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] best, excellent, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] = citraka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of of a Jina, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] of a king, [Vāsavadattā] ([varia lectio] for śambaraṇa and saṃ-varaṇa)

14) [v.s. ...] of a juggler (also called śambarasiddhi), [Ratnāvalī]

15) [from śamba] n. water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12] (but, [Sāhitya-darpaṇa] censures the use of śambara in this sense)

16) [v.s. ...] power, might, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska ii, 9]

17) [v.s. ...] sorcery, magic, [Kathāsaritsāgara] (printed saṃ-vara)

18) [v.s. ...] any vow or a [particular] vow (with Buddhists), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] wealth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) [v.s. ...] = citra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

21) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) the fastnesses of Śambara, [Ṛg-veda]

22) Śāmbara (शाम्बर):—mf(ī)n. relating or belonging or peculiar to Śambara, [Ṛg-veda; Harivaṃśa] etc.

23) coming from the deer called Ś°, [Bhāvaprakāśa]

24) n. the fight with Ś°, [Ṛg-veda]

25) a kind of sandal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. śābara).

26) Sambara (सम्बर):—[varia lectio] for śambara, saṃ-vara, and sam-bhara (qq.vv.)

27) Sāmbara (साम्बर):— See śāmb p.1065.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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