Dakshina, aka: Dakṣiṇa, Dakṣiṇā, Dākṣiṇa; 19 Definition(s)
Dakshina means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Dakṣiṇa and Dakṣiṇā and Dākṣiṇa can be transliterated into English as Daksina or Dakshina, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा):—In Hindu iconology (śilpaśāstra), this represents one of the three faces of Agni. The three faces symoblize the three Vedic fires. Agni is one of the most important Vedic gods and represents divine illuminationSource: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण) is a Sanskrit name referring to one of the eight manifestations of Bhīṣaṇa, who is a form of Bhairava. According to the Rudrayāmala, there are eight main forms of Bhairava who control the eight directions of this universe. Each form (eg., Bhīṣaṇa) has a further eight sub-manifestations (eg., Dakṣiṇa), thus resulting in a total of 64 Bhairavas.
When depicting Dakṣiṇa according to traditional iconographic rules (śilpaśāstra), one should depcit him (and other forms of Bhīṣaṇa) having a yellow color and should carry in his hands the kuṇḍa, the kheṭaka, the parigha (a kind of club) and bhiṇḍipāla. The word Śilpaśāstra refers to an ancient Hindu science of arts and crafts, dealing with subjects such as painting, sculpture and iconography.Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा) refers to “offering the sacrificial fee” and is mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20, while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the scholarly devotee shall offer sacrificial fee (Dakṣiṇā) with the three mantras beginning with ‘Hiraṇya-garbha’ etc. and shall perform ablution (Abhiṣeka) with the mantra ‘Devasya tvā’ etc.”.Source: archive.org: Siva Purana - English Translation
Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—A daughter, born to Prajāpati Ruci, by his wife Ākūti. The first Manu was Svāyambhuva, the son of Brahmā. He accepted Śatarūpā, his sister who became sinless by penance, as his wife. Śatarūpā gave birth to two sons Priyavrata and Uttānapāda, and two daughters, Prasūti and Ākūti. Of these two daughters, Prasūtī was given to Prajāpati Dakṣa and Ākūti to Prajāpati Ruci. Ākūti gave birth to twins, a son named Yajña and a daughter named Dakṣiṇā. To Yajña twelve sons were born by Dakṣiṇā. They were a class of devas (gods) called the Yāmas in the regime of Manu Svāyambhuva (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Aṃśa 1, Chapter 7). Now Dakṣiṇā is worshipped as a goddess. The same Dakṣiṇā was reborn in the Goloka under the name Suśīlā. At that time she was a cowherd woman and friend of Rādhā. She liked to talk with Śrī Kṛṣṇa. One day Rādhā saw her sitting in the lap of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, engaged in sexual sports, in a secluded place. When Suśīlā saw that Rādhā had found them out, she became dumbfounded with shame, and sat with bowed head. Śrī Kṛṣṇa slowly placed Suśīlā devi down and instantly vanished. The angry Rādhā cursed Suśīlā to become ashes if ever she entered the Goloka again. Then Rādhā ran about everywhere in search of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, but he could not be found. (See full article at Story of Dakṣiṇā from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1) Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—Generally the southern people.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.
2a) Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—As sister and wife of Yajña and mother of 12 Yāmā gods.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 7. 21.
2b) A daughter of Ruci and Ākūtī; consort of Suyajña, an avatār of Hari. Had twelve sons who were known as Tuṣita gods (Yāmas) of the period of Svāyambhuva Manu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 2; IV. 1. 5-8; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 9. 44.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—In the “extraneous representation” (āhāryābhinaya) of dramatic plays, the women of the South (dakṣiṇa) are to have Ullekhya with Kumbhīpadaka, and Āvarta on the forehead, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23.
2) Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण, “southern”) refers to the “inhabitants from the south”, who are usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
3) Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण, “dexterous”) refers to one of the three types of gativṛtti (styles of procedure), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 29. Gativṛtti gives quality to give quality to the instrumental music and songs and is influenced by tāla (time-measure), laya (tempo), gīti (rhythm), yati and grahamārga (way of beginning).
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra, “in the dakṣiṇa, the gīti is Pṛthulā, the unit of time-measure is of four kalās, the tempo (laya) is slow (vilambita), the yati is Gopucchā and the Atīta graha-mārgas are preponderant”.Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण) refers to a “hero who has several wives and treats each one equally without partiality” and represents one of the four kinds of “heroes” (nāyaka) in a dramatic representation, according to the Abhinaya-sara-samputa, as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—In the depiction of any mood or sentiment, a dance performance or a dramatic representation takes the medium of the hero (nāyaka) and the heroine (nāyikas). The heroes are again classified on the basis of their erotic sentiments into four types [viz., Dakṣiṇa].Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)
1) Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा) or Dakṣiṇāmūrti refers to one of the twenty-three forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Pūrvakāmikāgama (pratimālakṣaṇavidhi-paṭala): first and foremost among the Mūlāgama. The forms of Śiva (eg., Dakṣiṇā) are established through a process known as Sādākhya, described as a five-fold process of creation.
2) Dakṣiṇā is also listed among the twenty-eighth forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Vātulāgama: twenty-eighth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgama.
3) Dakṣiṇā is also listed among the eighteen forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Kāraṇāgama (pratimālakṣaṇavidhi-paṭala): the fourth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgamas.
4) Dakṣiṇā is also listed among the ten forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Ajitāgama (under the Raudrarūpa heading): the fifth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgamas.
5) Dakṣiṇā is also listed among the sixteen forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Dīptāgama: the sixth among the Siddhāntaśaivāgamas.
6) Dakṣiṇā is also listed among the eighteen forms (mūrti) of Śiva mentioned in the Śilparatna (twenty-second adhyāya): a technical treatise by Śrīkumāra on Śilpaśāstra.Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)
Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा) refers to “fruit”, representing one of the possible preliminary rites (upacāra) of a pūjā (deity worship).—Each act in a pūjā is not only physical and/or mental, but also symbolic, cosmic, and spiritual. Sprinkling, sipping, and bathing are symbolic of purification, of the worshipped as well as of the worshipper and the surroundings. Various offerings [viz., dakṣiṇā] symbolize the surrendering of one’s latent tendencies (vāsanā) as expressed in thoughts, words, and deeds.Source: Google Books: Ganapati: Song of the Self
Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Te Sanskrit word dakṣiṇa may mean either‘south’ or ‘right’.Source: Leiden Repository: Chapter 6 The function and meaning of the garbhanyāsa
1) Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—A disciple's gift to his spiritual master upon initiation, collected by begging and given as a token of gratitude.
2)Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—Right-wing group of gopīs, who cannot tolerate womanly anger.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण) refers to the “offering of a gift”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—A gift (dakṣiṇa) of money is offered to the deity on two betel leaves and a little water is sprinkled on it to indicate that it has been offered. After completion of the worship the performer of the pūjā takes the gift of money along with the left-overs, like areca-nuts, fruits etc.
The Pauranic mantra recited here praises the gift of gold. Gold is mythologically said to be the semen of fire. Silver, being produced from the tears of fire is stated as disqualified for a religious gift. Gold is a symbol of the sun, of immortality and purity while silver that of tears and death. Several texts prescribe a golden flower as dakṣinā.
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)
1) Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण, “south”) represents one of the “ten directions” (diś in Sanskrit or disā in Pali) according to an appendix included in the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV). Dakṣiṇā is a Sanskrit word which is known in Pali as dakkhiṇā in Tibetan as lho and in Chinese as nan.
2) Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा) refers to “pious offerings”, according to chapter L.—Accordingly, “the Bodhisattva wishes ‘to purify great offerings (dakṣiṇā)’. Some say: The Bodhisattva collects much merit (puṇya) but does not eliminate his afflictive emotions (kleśa); that is why, by accepting the pious offerings (dakṣiṇā) of people, he does not purify them.—But the Buddha has said that for the Bodhisattva who is practicing the perfection of wisdom, all dharmas are empty (śūnya) and non-existent (anupalabdha) and all the more so the fetters (saṃyojana). Once having entered into the fundamental element (dharmadhātu), the Bodhisattva does not realize the limit of the truth: this is why he is able to purify the gifts made to him”.
Notes: The Bodhisattva purifies the offerings (dakṣiṇā) made to him by accepting them and consuming them: thus he increases the merit (puṇya) of the donor. The merit of the gift is of two kinds: i) the merit produced by abandonment (tyāgānvaya), merit resulting from the mere fact of abandoning; ii) the merit produced by enjoyment (paribhogānvaya), merit resulting from the enjoyment by the person who receives, of the object given (cf. Kośabhāṣyā). [...] The Bodhisattva wants to accept the great offerings (dakṣiṇā) made to him not out of personal interest but to increase the merit of his benefactors.Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
India history and geogprahy
Dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा) is a word referring to gifts given to Brāhmaṇas, as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Brāhmaṇas as the recipients of gifts have been mentioned frequently in the Nīlamata. The Nīlamata emphasises the virtue of the gifts given to the Brāhmaṇas. The terms used for such a gift are Dāna, Dakṣiṇā, and Pratigraha. The nature of the gifts varies with religious ceremonies performed in different seasons of the year.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)
Dakṣiṇa.—(EI 32), the sacred fire. Note: dakṣiṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Dakṣiṇā.—(EI 32), perquisite. (BL), a present or gift to a Brāhmaṇa for a service. (CII 1), cf. prāṇa-dakṣinā, same as prāṇa-dāna. Note: dakṣiṇā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—a (S) Right, not left. 2 Southern. 3 fig. Clever, adroit, dexterous.
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dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—f (S) The south wind. da0 bādhaṇēṃ in. con. To be scorching or blasting unto (unto Betelnut-trees especially)--the sun in his southerly declination. dakṣiṇēcā divā A term for a person that disgraces his family. (Because a lamp hung with the wick towards the south brings ill luck.)
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dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—f (S) Money or presents given to Brahmans or young virgins upon occasions. Pr. bhāta bhakṣaṇā pōḷī da0. 2 The south. 3 S The completion of any rite.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—a Right, not left. Southern. Fig. clever, dexterous. f The south wind; the south wind;.
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dakṣiṇā (दक्षिणा).—f Money given to Brah- mans.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Dakṣiṇa (दक्षिण).—a. [dakṣ-inan Uṇ 2.5.]
1) Able, skilful, dexterous, competent, clever; इत्यम्बरीषं नाभागिमन्वमोदन्त दक्षिणाः (ityambarīṣaṃ nābhāgimanvamodanta dakṣiṇāḥ) Mb.12.29.12.
2) Right (opp. vāma).
3) Situated on the right side. दक्षिणं परि, दक्षिणं कृ (dakṣiṇaṃ pari, dakṣiṇaṃ kṛ) to place any one on the right side as a mark of respect; ग्रहर्क्षताराः परियन्ति दक्षिणम् (graharkṣatārāḥ pariyanti dakṣiṇam) Bhāg.4.12.25.
4) South, southern; as in दक्षिणवायु, दक्षिणदिक् (dakṣiṇavāyu, dakṣiṇadik); आददे नातिशीतोष्णो नभस्वानिव दक्षिणः (ādade nātiśītoṣṇo nabhasvāniva dakṣiṇaḥ) R. 4.8.
5) Situated to the south.
6) Sincere, straightforward, honest, impartial.
7) Pleasing, amiable.
8) Courteous, civil.
9) Compliant, submissive.
11) Favourable; 'दक्षिणः सरलावामपरच्छन्दानुवर्तिषु (dakṣiṇaḥ saralāvāmaparacchandānuvartiṣu)' इति विश्वः (iti viśvaḥ); Ki.18.27.
-ṇaḥ 1 The right hand or arm.
2) A civil or courteous person, applied in poetic compositions to a lover who professes attachment to one mistress, while his heart has been entirely taken up by another.
3) An epithet of Śiva or Viṣṇu.
4) The right-hand horse of a carriage; इन्द्रस्येव दक्षिणः श्रियैधि (indrasyeva dakṣiṇaḥ śriyaidhi) Vāj.9.8.
5) The southern sacred fire.
-ṇaḥ, ṇam 1 The right side.
2) The south; Nala.9.23.
3) The Deccan.
-ṇam The highest doctrine of the Śāktas
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1) On the right or south of.
2) In the southern direction (with abl.)
-ṇā 1 A present or gift to Brāhmaṇas (at the completion of a religious rite, such as a sacrifice).
2) Dakṣiṇā regarded as a daughter of Prajāpati and as the wife of Sacrifice personified; पत्नी सुदक्षिणेत्यासीदध्वरस्येव दक्षिणा (patnī sudakṣiṇetyāsīdadhvarasyeva dakṣiṇā) R.1.31.
3) A gift, offering or donation in general, fee, remuneration; प्राणदक्षिणा, गुरुदक्षिणा (prāṇadakṣiṇā, gurudakṣiṇā) &c.; cf. also दक्षिणाशब्दश्च परिक्रयार्थो भवति (dakṣiṇāśabdaśca parikrayārtho bhavati) ŚB. on Ms.1.2.38; परिक्रयार्थे हि दक्षिणा- शब्दो भवति (parikrayārthe hi dakṣiṇā- śabdo bhavati) ŚB. on MS.1.2.48. Etymologically दक्षिणा (dakṣiṇā) is so called because it imparts power or strength to the receiver; दक्षकरणी हि दक्षिणा । दक्षश्च बलम् (dakṣakaraṇī hi dakṣiṇā | dakṣaśca balam) ŚB. on MS. 1.3.45; दक्षिणा नाम दक्षतेरुत्साहकर्मणः । दक्षिणा उत्साहिका इति (dakṣiṇā nāma dakṣaterutsāhakarmaṇaḥ | dakṣiṇā utsāhikā iti) | ŚB. on MS.1.3.57.
4) A good milch-cow, prolific cow.
5) The south.
6) The southern country, the Deccan.
8) A kind of heroine thus defined:-- या गौरवं भयं प्रेम सद्भावं पूर्वनायके । न मुञ्चत्यन्यसक्तापि सा ज्ञेया दक्षिणा बुधैः (yā gauravaṃ bhayaṃ prema sadbhāvaṃ pūrvanāyake | na muñcatyanyasaktāpi sā jñeyā dakṣiṇā budhaiḥ) ||.
9) Completion of any rite.
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Dākṣiṇa (दाक्षिण).—a. (-ṇī f.) [दक्षिणा प्रयोजनमस्य-अण् (dakṣiṇā prayojanamasya-aṇ)]
1) Relating to a sacrificial gift or to a gift in general.
2) Relating to the south.
-ṇā The southern country i. e. the Deccan.
-ṇam A collection of sacrificial gifts.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Dakṣiṇāmūrti refers to one of the manifestations of Śiva.—The image of Dakṣiṇāmūrti in Jambukeś...
Dakṣiṇāpatha (दक्षिणापथ).—n. (-thaṃ) 1. The south. 2. Southern road or course. 3. Deccan. E. da...
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Search found 60 books and stories containing Dakshina, Dakṣiṇa, Dakṣiṇā or Dākṣiṇa. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 62 - The science of music < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Chapter 9 - The progeny of Rudra: birth of Bhṛgu and others < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 55 - Aṃśumān installed as Crown Prince < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa IV, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 4 < [Fourth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa I, adhyāya 2, brāhmaṇa 3 < [First Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa XI, adhyāya 1, brāhmaṇa 5 < [Eleventh Kāṇḍa]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 45 - On the anecdote of Dakṣiṇā < [Book 9]
Middle Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
2. Images Set Up By Kundavai < [Tanjavur/Thanjavur (Rajarajesvaram temple)]
Gifts (other than Icons) and Donations < [Tanjavur/Thanjavur (Rajarajesvaram temple)]
Temples in Tiruvaiyaru < [Chapter IV - Temples of Rajendra I’s Time]
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms (by Fa-Hien)