Kurma, Kūrma: 38 definitions


Kurma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Kūrma (tortoise): the ends of the fingers of the Cakra hand arebent, except the thumbs and little fingers. Usage: tortoise.

2) One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Kūrma: the Kūrma hand is shown, then both hands Tripatāka level at the shoulders.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

1) Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the various Sea-animals (makara) associated with Makarahasta: one of the thirteen Saṃyuktahastas or “combined hand gestures” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The hasta-mudrās (lit. “hand-gestures”) are very essential to denote some particular action or state in dancing and these mudrās are formed with the help of hands and fingers.—According to the Śabdakalpadruma, makara means sea-animals [e.g., Kūrma, etc.]. According to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, in makara posture both of the hands in patāka posture are placed one over the other and both should be facing downward. This posture is used in the acting of lion, tiger and deer.

2) Kūrma (कूर्म) or Kūrmāvatāra refers to one of the Daśāvatāra (“ten incarnations”) (of Lord Viṣṇu) to which are assign various hand gestures (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa.—In the Hindu scriptures, different stories are found, related to lord Viṣṇu, where we find the magnanimity of different incarnations of lord Viṣṇu. Moreover, a great influence of these ten incarnations of lord Viṣṇu (e.g., Kūrma-avatāra) seems to fall in the field of Dance also.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to the “tortoise”, the meat of which is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., meat of kola-kūrma (meat of boar and tortoise)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., yāvakṣāra] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Agriculture (Krishi) and Vrikshayurveda (study of Plant life)

Source: Shodhganga: Drumavichitrikarnam—Plant mutagenesis in ancient India

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a “tortoise”, the blood of which is used in certain recipes such as one for producing flowers and fruits round the year (puṣpaphala-āpatti), according to the Vṛkṣāyurveda by Sūrapāla (1000 CE): an encyclopedic work dealing with the study of trees and the principles of ancient Indian agriculture.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Kūrma (कूर्म) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “tortoise”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Kūrma is part of the sub-group named Vāriśaya, refering to animals “living in waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.

The meat of the tortoise (kūrma) is useful for complexion, alleviates vāta, is aphrodisiac, promotes vision and strength, is conducive to intellect and memory, wholesome and destroys phthisis.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Kūrma (कूर्म)—Sanskrit word for an animal “tortoise”. This animal is from the group called Pādin (‘those which have feet’). Pādin itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).

The flesh of animals of the Kurma orders is sweet in taste and digestion, cooling in its potency, demulcent, and beneficial to stool and the Pittam. It destroys the deranged Vāyu and produces Kapham.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Kailāśa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Kailāśa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Kūrma) that are to be globular shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kūrma (कूर्म).—A prominent serpent, son of Kadrū. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 41).

2) Kūrma (कूर्म).—(Turtle). The second incarnation of Mahāviṣnu. (See under Avatāras).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Kūrma (कूर्म).—An avatār of Hari in the Pātālam.1 In this form He is worshipped in Hiraṇmaya. By His help the churning of the ocean was possible. Also kūrma-kacchapa.2 Icon of.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 249. 16, 20; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 4. 8.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 18. 29; XI. 4. 18: X. 2. 40.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 259. 2; 260. 39; 285. 6.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kūrma (कूर्म) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.40, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kūrma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha

Kūrma (कूर्म).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In the Kūrma incarnation, he protected the Vedas.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Kūrma is greenish hue; round but elevation on top, a line at the bottom; mark of kaustubha; cakra. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Kūrma stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

1) Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The representations of certain animals and birds are generally found in the hands of images. They are, for example, Kūrma.

2) Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) or Kūrmāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. The hasta used in dance for Kūrma-avatāra is kūrma-hasta, held at the level of the shoulders. The image of the god in this form is found with four arms where the upper hands hold a discus and a conch in kartarīmukha-hasta and the lower right and left hands hold abhaya and dola-hasta respectively.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.260-261.—Accordingly, “O Lāṅgalin! the Lord of the nature of the tortoise is to be mediated upon like the tortoise. His splendour is like liquified gold in colour. He occupies water through His skill. His four feet are the kalās like Śakti. He is ever-existing. He calmness and other digits abound in Him. He utters the three Vedas”.

These Vibhavas (e.g., Kūrma) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in. Note: Kūrma is black according to Viṣṇutantra XV.1-7. Viṣvaksena-saṃhitā XI.40b; golden colour (Padma-saṃhitā Kriya XXII.7b).

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to:—The incarnation of the Lord in the form of a tortoise. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a “tortoise”, according to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 3.20 (“The Śikṣāṣṭaka Prayers”).—Accordingly, as Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu said said: “[...] Now let me repeat all the pastimes of the Antya-līlā, for if I do so I shall taste the pastimes again. [...] The Seventeenth Chapter recounts how Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu fell among the cows and assumed the form of a tortoise as His ecstatic emotions awakened (kūrma-ākāra-anubhāva [anubhāvera]). That chapter also tells how the attributes of Kṛṣṇa’s sound attracted the mind of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, who then described in ecstasy the meaning of the ‘kā stry aṅga te’ verse. [...]”.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a “tortoise”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It also treats of the prediction of events from the flight of the kañjana and from the appearance of various abnormal phenomena, of expiatory ceremonies; of miscellaneous planetary phenomena; of ghṛta-kambala; of the royal sword; of paṭa; of the features of a house cock, [+ kūrma ?], a cow, a sheep, a horse, an elephant, a man and a woman. It also treats of the treatment of women; of moles in the body; of injuries to shoes and clothes; of hairy fans; of walking sticks: of beds and seats; of lamplight; of tooth brush and the like”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to the incarnation of the Tortoise, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: [...] For the welfare of the world, there [manifested the incarnations of] the Fish, the Tortoise [Kūrma], the Boar, the Man-Lion, One who had a Short Stature, Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalkin. I bow to Govinda, the god of gods, who in this manner assumed diverse forms, diverse shapes and diverse names, and who is meditated upon by sage”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of the Yuganātha (lord of the ages) of the tretāyuga (Cf: Kūrmanātha), which is associated with Jālandhara, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—On the basis of hardly more than a hint in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, it outlines a scheme of sixteen parts for each seat, conscious, no doubt, that this is an ideal number. The commentary normally limits itself to do no more than explain what is presented in the text. This is one of the few instances it adds substantially to its contents [i.e., the Lords of the Ages—Kūrma]. Presumably this is because when it was written the presentation of the features of the seats on this model was the accepted norm.

2) Kūrma (कूर्म) also refers to one of the disciples of Śrīkaṇṭha, who is associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.

3) Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of the Root (kanda) associated with Candra, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram (shaivism)

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to the “tortoise”, according to the Mahānayaprakāśa by Arṇasiṃha (Cf. verse 182-197).—Accordingly, “He who is one, supreme and whose glorious power is the unfolding of the first (impulse of the) cosmogenic imagination who, undivided, constantly withdraws into (himself) the womb (of emanation) and the diverse deployment of all things, that is, the perception of individual differences, as does the tortoise (kūrma) its limbs, is the one called Kūrmanātha who is free of the obscuration of thought constructs”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a “turtle” and represents one of the animals associated with the Dūtīs associated with Tumburu, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 11.1-24ab, while describing the appearance and worship of Tumburu]—“[...] However, those who are Dūtīs bear a form adorned with one face, two arms, and three eyes. Adorning [them is] hair, shorn with scissors. They sit on a fish, a turtle (kūrma), a makara, and a frog. The servants are two-armed and hold a sword and a hide, [faces bent] in a crooked frown [on their] single faces, [which is adorned with] three eyes. [When] meditated on, [they] burst forth with white, etc., colors, giving the fruits of siddhis. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the satyayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Avatar of Viṣnu. Kurma, the tortoise, appeared in the Satya Yuga. When the devas and asuras were churning the Ocean of milk in order to get amrita, the nectar of immortality, the mount Mandara they were using as the churning staff started to sink and Lord Vishnu took the form of a tortoise to bear the weight of the mountain.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kūrmī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kūrma] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the warriors fighting in Rāma’s army, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.7 [The killing of Rāvaṇa] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] When the battle had been going on for a long time, the army of the Rākṣasas was broken by the Vānaras like a forest by winds. [...] Then Sugrīva and the others made seven walls with four gates around the two Rāghavas by means of a vidyā. [...] On the north Aṅgada, Kūrma, Aṅga, Mahendra, Vihaṅgama, Suṣeṇa, Candraraśmi stood in turn at the gates.  [...]. Making the two Kākutsthas in the center in this way, Sugrīva and the others, powerful, were devoted to watching, intent as yogis. [...].”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kūrma.—(EI 14), see madhya-kūrma, ‘a plot of land elevated in the middle.’ Note: kūrma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kurma in India is the name of a plant defined with Persea macrantha in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Persea gratissima Gaert. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Pharmacognosy Magazine (2008)
· Reinwardtia (1962)
· Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2004)
· Plantae Asiaticae Rariores (1831)
· The Gardeners Dictionary

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kurma, for example pregnancy safety, side effects, health benefits, diet and recipes, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kūrma (कूर्म).—m (S) A tortoise or a turtle. 2 One of the five minor vital airs. See upaprāṇa. 3 A red or dark spot on the eye.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kūrma (कूर्म).—m A tortoise.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kūrma (कूर्म).—[kau jale ūrmirvego'sya pṛṣo° Tv.]

1) A tortoise; गूहेत्कूर्म इवाङ्गानि रक्षेद्विवरमात्मनः (gūhetkūrma ivāṅgāni rakṣedvivaramātmanaḥ) Manusmṛti 7.15; Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.58; कूर्मः पादोऽत्र यष्टिर्भुजगपतिरसौ भाजनं भूतधात्री (kūrmaḥ pādo'tra yaṣṭirbhujagapatirasau bhājanaṃ bhūtadhātrī) Udb.

2) Viṣṇu in his second or Kūrma incarnation.

3) One of the outer winds of the body.

4) A particular gesticulation with the fingers.

-rmī A female tortoise.

Derivable forms: kūrmaḥ (कूर्मः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kūrma (कूर्म).—m. 1. A tortoise, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 16, 32. 2. One of the five vital airs of the body, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 207, 15. 3. The name of a king of the Nāgas or serpents, Mahābhārata 1, 2549.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kūrma (कूर्म).—[masculine] tortoise ([feminine] kūrmī); one of the winds of the body; [Name] of a serpent-demon & a Ṛṣi.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kūrma (कूर्म):—m. a tortoise, turtle, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mahābhārata iv, 2016])

2) the earth considered as a tortoise swimming on the waters (See -vibhāga)

3) (hence) Name of the fourteenth Adhyāya of [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā ix, 4]

4) a particular figure or intertwining of the fingers (mudrā), [Tantrasāra]

5) one of the outer winds of the body (causing the closing of the eyes), [Vedāntasāra]

6) Name of a deity, [Rasikaramaṇa]

7) of a serpent or Kādraveya king, [Mahābhārata i, 2549]

8) of a Ṛṣi (son of Gṛtsa-mada, author of [Ṛg-veda ii, 27-29]), [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

9) Viṣṇu’s second incarnation (descent in the form of a tortoise to support the mountain Mandara at the churning of the ocean), [Narasiṃha-purāṇa etc.]

10) (cf. κλέμμυς, χέλυς, χελώνη.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kūrma (कूर्म):—[(rmmaḥ-rmmī)] 1. m. 3. f. A tortoise; an incarnation of Vishnu; gesticulation of the fingers.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kūrma (कूर्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kumma.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kurma in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kūrma (ಕೂರ್ಮ):—

1) [noun] any of a large and widely distributed terrestrial or aquatic reptiles of Testudines order, having a toothless beak and a soft body encased in a tough shell into which the head, tail, and four legs may be withdrawn; a turtle; a tortoise.

2) [noun] (myth.) the Cosmic Turtle or Tortoise, a symbol of the universe.

3) [noun] the second of the ten main incarnations of Viṣṇu.

4) [noun] one of the ten vital airs present in the body.

5) [noun] (myth.) one of the hells.

6) [noun] (dance.) a standing posture with the outer part of the leg, heel and knee of the right side are placed on the ground and the left foot is kept in the normal position.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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