Kurma, Kūrma: 31 definitions
Kurma means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
1) One of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-four combined Hands).—Kūrma (tortoise): the ends of the fingers of the Cakra hand arebent, except the thumbs and little fingers. Usage: tortoise.
2) One of the Daśāvatāra (Hands of the Ten Avatars of Vishnu).—Kūrma: the Kūrma hand is shown, then both hands Tripatāka level at the shoulders.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Kūrma (कूर्म) is a Sanskrit word referring to the animal “tortoise”. The meat of this animal is part of the māṃsavarga (‘group of flesh’), which is used throughout Ayurvedic literature. The animal Kūrma is part of the sub-group named Vāriśaya, refering to animals “living in waters”. It was classified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic properties of the substance.
The meat of the tortoise (kūrma) is useful for complexion, alleviates vāta, is aphrodisiac, promotes vision and strength, is conducive to intellect and memory, wholesome and destroys phthisis.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
Kūrma (कूर्म)—Sanskrit word for an animal “tortoise”. This animal is from the group called Pādin (‘those which have feet’). Pādin itself is a sub-group of the group of animals known as Ānupa (those that frequent marshy places).
The flesh of animals of the Kurma orders is sweet in taste and digestion, cooling in its potency, demulcent, and beneficial to stool and the Pittam. It destroys the deranged Vāyu and produces Kapham.Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to the “tortoise”, the meat of which is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., meat of kola-kūrma (meat of boar and tortoise)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., yāvakṣāra] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a type of temple (prāsāda) classified under the group named Kailāśa, according to Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra chapter 49. The Kailāśa group contains ten out of a sixty-four total prāsādas (temples) classified under five prime vimānas (aerial car/palace), which were created by Brahmā for as many gods (including himself). This group represents temples (e.g. Kūrma) that are to be globular shaped. The prāsādas, or ‘temples’, represent the dwelling place of God and are to be built in towns. The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra is an 11th-century encyclopedia dealing with various topics from the Vāstuśāstra.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kūrma (कूर्म).—A prominent serpent, son of Kadrū. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 65, Verse 41).
2) Kūrma (कूर्म).—(Turtle). The second incarnation of Mahāviṣnu. (See under Avatāras).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 7. 13; Matsya-purāṇa 249. 16, 20; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 4. 8.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 18. 29; XI. 4. 18: X. 2. 40.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 259. 2; 260. 39; 285. 6.
Kūrma (कूर्म) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.59.40, I.65) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kūrma) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: A critical appreciation of soddhalas udayasundarikatha
Kūrma (कूर्म).—One of the incarnations of Viṣṇu.—In the Kūrma incarnation, he protected the Vedas.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: archive.org: Pratima Kosa Encyclopedia of Indian Iconography - Vol 6
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the many varieties of the Śālagrāma (ammonite fossil stones).—The Kūrma is greenish hue; round but elevation on top, a line at the bottom; mark of kaustubha; cakra. Śālagrāma stones are very ancient geological specimens, rendered rounded and smooth by water-currents in a great length of time. They (e.g., Kūrma stones) are distinguished by the ammonite (śālā, described as “vajra-kīṭa”, “adamantine worms”) which having entered into them for residence, are fossilized in course of time, leaving discus-like marks inside the stone.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)
1) Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) refers to one of the several “attributes” (āyudha) or “accessories” of a detiy commonly seen depicted in Hindu iconography, defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—The śilpa texts have classified the various accessories under the broad heading of āyudha or karuvi (implement), including even flowers, animals, and musical instruments. The representations of certain animals and birds are generally found in the hands of images. They are, for example, Kūrma.
2) Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) or Kūrmāvatāra refers to one the “ten incarnations of Lord Viṣṇu”.—The hand gestures for the daśāvatāra in dancing and iconography are similar in some cases and dissimilar in most of the cases. The hasta used in dance for Kūrma-avatāra is kūrma-hasta, held at the level of the shoulders. The image of the god in this form is found with four arms where the upper hands hold a discus and a conch in kartarīmukha-hasta and the lower right and left hands hold abhaya and dola-hasta respectively.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to one of the various Vibhava manifestations according to the Īśvarasaṃhitā 24.260-261.—Accordingly, “O Lāṅgalin! the Lord of the nature of the tortoise is to be mediated upon like the tortoise. His splendour is like liquified gold in colour. He occupies water through His skill. His four feet are the kalās like Śakti. He is ever-existing. He calmness and other digits abound in Him. He utters the three Vedas”.
These Vibhavas (e.g., Kūrma) represent the third of the five-fold manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness the Pāñcarātrins believe in. Note: Kūrma is black according to Viṣṇutantra XV.1-7. Viṣvaksena-saṃhitā XI.40b; golden colour (Padma-saṃhitā Kriya XXII.7b).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to:—The incarnation of the Lord in the form of a tortoise. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to a “tortoise”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “A true Astrologer is also one who has thoroughly mastered the Science of Saṃhitā. [...] It also treats of the prediction of events from the flight of the kañjana and from the appearance of various abnormal phenomena, of expiatory ceremonies; of miscellaneous planetary phenomena; of ghṛta-kambala; of the royal sword; of paṭa; of the features of a house cock, [+ kūrma ?], a cow, a sheep, a horse, an elephant, a man and a woman. It also treats of the treatment of women; of moles in the body; of injuries to shoes and clothes; of hairy fans; of walking sticks: of beds and seats; of lamplight; of tooth brush and the like”.Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)
Kūrma (कूर्म) refers to the incarnation of the Tortoise, according to the Ghaṭikāyantraghaṭanāvidhi, an unpublished manuscript describing the ritual connected with the setting up of the water clock and its invocation.—Accordingly, “[Now the pala-verses]: [...] For the welfare of the world, there [manifested the incarnations of] the Fish, the Tortoise [Kūrma], the Boar, the Man-Lion, One who had a Short Stature, Paraśurāma, Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, Buddha and Kalkin. I bow to Govinda, the god of gods, who in this manner assumed diverse forms, diverse shapes and diverse names, and who is meditated upon by sage”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram
1) Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of the Yuganātha (lord of the ages) of the tretāyuga, which is associated with Jālandhara, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—On the basis of hardly more than a hint in the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, it outlines a scheme of sixteen parts for each seat, conscious, no doubt, that this is an ideal number. The commentary normally limits itself to do no more than explain what is presented in the text. This is one of the few instances it adds substantially to its contents [i.e., the Lords of the Ages—Kūrma]. Presumably this is because when it was written the presentation of the features of the seats on this model was the accepted norm.
2) Kūrma (कूर्म) also refers to one of the disciples of Śrīkaṇṭha, who is associated with Kāmarūpa, one of the sacred seats (pīṭha), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.
3) Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of the Root (kanda) associated with Candra, one the eight Sacred Seats (pīṭha), according to the Yogakhaṇḍa (chapter 14) of the Manthānabhairavatantra.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Kūrma (कूर्म, “tortoise”) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the ten incarnations of Viṣṇu. This incarnation appeared in the satyayuga. Viṣṇu is the name of a major Hindu deity and forms part of the trinity of supreme divinity (trimūrti) together with Brahmā and Śiva. They are seen as the cosmic personifications of creation (brahmā), maintenance (viṣṇu), and destruction (śiva).Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Avatar of Viṣnu. Kurma, the tortoise, appeared in the Satya Yuga. When the devas and asuras were churning the Ocean of milk in order to get amrita, the nectar of immortality, the mount Mandara they were using as the churning staff started to sink and Lord Vishnu took the form of a tortoise to bear the weight of the mountain.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Kūrma (कूर्म) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Kūrmī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jalacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jalacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Kūrma] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife..
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Kūrma.—(EI 14), see madhya-kūrma, ‘a plot of land elevated in the middle.’ Note: kūrma is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kūrma (कूर्म).—m (S) A tortoise or a turtle. 2 One of the five minor vital airs. See upaprāṇa. 3 A red or dark spot on the eye.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kūrma (कूर्म).—m A tortoise.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kūrma (कूर्म).—[kau jale ūrmirvego'sya pṛṣo° Tv.]
1) A tortoise; गूहेत्कूर्म इवाङ्गानि रक्षेद्विवरमात्मनः (gūhetkūrma ivāṅgāni rakṣedvivaramātmanaḥ) Ms.7.15; Bg.2.58; कूर्मः पादोऽत्र यष्टिर्भुजगपतिरसौ भाजनं भूतधात्री (kūrmaḥ pādo'tra yaṣṭirbhujagapatirasau bhājanaṃ bhūtadhātrī) Udb.
2) Viṣṇu in his second or Kūrma incarnation.
3) One of the outer winds of the body.
4) A particular gesticulation with the fingers.
-rmī A female tortoise.
Derivable forms: kūrmaḥ (कूर्मः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kūrma (कूर्म).—m. 1. A tortoise, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 16, 32. 2. One of the five vital airs of the body, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in
Kūrma (कूर्म).—[masculine] tortoise ([feminine] kūrmī); one of the winds of the body; [Name] of a serpent-demon & a Ṛṣi.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kūrma (कूर्म):—m. a tortoise, turtle, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Mahābhārata iv, 2016])
2) the earth considered as a tortoise swimming on the waters (See -vibhāga)
3) (hence) Name of the fourteenth Adhyāya of [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Varāha-mihira’s Yogayātrā ix, 4]
4) a particular figure or intertwining of the fingers (mudrā), [Tantrasāra]
5) one of the outer winds of the body (causing the closing of the eyes), [Vedāntasāra]
6) Name of a deity, [Rasikaramaṇa]
7) of a serpent or Kādraveya king, [Mahābhārata i, 2549]
8) of a Ṛṣi (son of Gṛtsa-mada, author of [Ṛg-veda ii, 27-29]), [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]
9) Viṣṇu’s second incarnation (descent in the form of a tortoise to support the mountain Mandara at the churning of the ocean), [Narasiṃha-purāṇa etc.]
10) (cf. κλέμμυς, χέλυς, χελώνη.)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kūrma (कूर्म):—[(rmmaḥ-rmmī)] 1. m. 3. f. A tortoise; an incarnation of Vishnu; gesticulation of the fingers.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
Kūrma (कूर्म) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kumma.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] any of a large and widely distributed terrestrial or aquatic reptiles of Testudines order, having a toothless beak and a soft body encased in a tough shell into which the head, tail, and four legs may be withdrawn; a turtle; a tortoise.
2) [noun] (myth.) the Cosmic Turtle or Tortoise, a symbol of the universe.
3) [noun] the second of the ten main incarnations of Viṣṇu.
4) [noun] one of the ten vital airs present in the body.
5) [noun] (myth.) one of the hells.
6) [noun] (dance.) a standing posture with the outer part of the leg, heel and knee of the right side are placed on the ground and the left foot is kept in the normal position.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+29): Kurma bhatta, Kurmabha, Kurmacakra, Kurmachakra, Kurmadasa, Kurmadrishti, Kurmadugdha, Kurmadvadashi, Kurmagati, Kurmagrama, Kurmaja, Kurmaka, Kurmakalpa, Kurmakritimudralakshana, Kurmakshetra, Kurmakundala, Kurmala, Kurmalakshana, Kurmaloma, Kurmamuni.
Full-text (+124): Kurmavatara, Kurmapurana, Kurmasana, Jalakurma, Kurmaprishtha, Kurmacakra, Trinakurma, Kurmaprishthaka, Ambukurma, Kurmavibhaga, Mahakurma, Kurmadvadashi, Kurmapitta, Kumma, Lilavatara, Ishagita, Kaurma, Dashavatara, Kurmavayu, Kurmaprishthonnata.
Search found 61 books and stories containing Kurma, Kūrma; (plurals include: Kurmas, Kūrmas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.5.119 < [Part 5 - Permanent Ecstatic Mood (sthāyī-bhāva)]
Verse 1.2.225 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 1.2.304 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Rig Veda (translation and commentary) (by H. H. Wilson)
Rig Veda 10.51.7 < [Sukta 51]
Rig Veda 2.27.7 < [Sukta 27]
Rig Veda 2.28.3 < [Sukta 28]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 7 - Tuber Poison (7): Kurma < [Chapter XXX - Visha (poisons)]
Jnaneshwari (Bhavartha Dipika) (by Ramchandra Keshav Bhagwat)
Verse 18.14 < [Chapter 18 - Moksha-sannyasa-yoga]
Verse 1.17-19 < [Chapter 1 - Arjuna’s Dolour]
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 7.16 - Poetic conventions Regarding to the Gods of Nārāyaṇa [etc.] < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Part 7.3 - Classifications of Kavisamaya (poetic conventions) < [Chapter 5 - Analyasis and Interpretations of the Kāvyamīmāṃsā]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)