Koshala, aka: Kośalā, Kosala, Kośala, Kosalā; 18 Definition(s)

Introduction

Koshala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kośalā and Kośala can be transliterated into English as Kosala or Koshala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Kosala (कोसल) is the name of a country situated within the Dākṣiṇāpatha (Deccan) region. Countries within this region pertain to the Dākṣinātyā local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned this region lies between the Southern Ocean and the Vindhya mountains.

The Kosalas are usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

Purana

1) Kosala (कोसल).—The King and the people of the country of Kosala are called by the name Kosala. (See full article at Story of Kosala from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kosala (कोसल).—One of the wrestlers of Kaṃsa. The famous wrestlers of Kaṃsa were Cāṇūra, Muṣṭika, Kūṭa, Śala, Kosala and others.

3) Kosala (कोसल).—General information. A wealthy and prosperous country on the banks of the river Sarayū. Ayodhyā was the Capital of this kingdom. This city was built by Manu, the father of Ikṣvāku. This city was twelve yojanas long with a breadth of three yojanas. It is understood from Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 5 that during the time of Daśaratha this city was modified to such an extent as to be on a par with any modern city. Other details. (1) Bhīmasena once conquered Uttara Kosala (north Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30).

Sahadeva during his regional conquest, subdued Dakṣiṇa Kosala (South Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 12).

Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 15).

Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, killed the King of Kosala in the battle of Bhārata.

Karṇa once conquered this country for Duryodhana. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 19).

During the time of the battle of Bhārata a King named Kṣemadarśī ruled over Kosala. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 6).

At the time of the Svayaṃvara (marriage) of Ambā, Bhīṣma defeated the King of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 38).

Arjuna who led the horse for sacrifice conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 83).

Those who bathe in the holy bath of Ṛṣabha tīrtha in Kosala, will obtain the fruits of giving one thousand cows as alms. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 10).

4) Kośala (कोशल).—The Kṣatriyas of the country of Kośala. These Kośalas once fled to the southern countries fearing Jarāsandha. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 27).

(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1) Kośalā (कोशला).—(uttara)—the kingdom of Rāma and his son Kuśa. Its people celebrated Rāma's arrival by instituting a festival. They were taken to heaven by the grace of Rāma.1 Its people took part in the rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhīra.2 Their king went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse.3 Migration of Yadus to.4 Its people met Kṛṣṇa on the way to Mithilā with presents.5 A kingdom of Madhyadeśa in the Vindhyas. Kuśa ruled it with his capital at Kuśasthalī.6 Its king was defeated by Paraśurāma;7 ruled by nine kings at a time.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 4 and 42; V. 19. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 36; 88. 199; 99. 402; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 17.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 75. 12.
  • 3) Ib. X. 2. 13.
  • 4) Ib. X. 2. 3.
  • 5) Ib. X. 86. 20.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 41 and 64; III. 63. 199; 74. 197.
  • 7) Ib. III. 41. 39; 48. 15.
  • 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 59.

2) Kośala (कोशल).—A tribe; a kingdom of the Janapada on the other side of the Vindhyas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 35, 53; 163. 67; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 110, 133; 99. 385.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Kavya (poetry)

Kośala (कोशल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Kośala is the southern part of the kingdom of Oudh. It is divided into two kingdoms called Uttarākośala and Kośala. Ayodhyā and Kusavatī were the capitals of these two kingdoms respectively.

(Source): Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

General definition (in Hinduism)

Kosala (कोशल): Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. Its capital was Ayodhya, where Rama was born.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

Kosala (कोसल).—A prosperous kingdom in ancient India. Bhīmasena conquered this country for Yudhiṣṭhira before the Rājasūya sacrifice.

(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Buddhism

(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Surābhakṣī, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Surābhakṣī is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the northern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Locanā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Kośala is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Kośala is to be contemplated as situated on the tip of the nose. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners

The Vārāhyabhyudayatantra is an explanatory tantra on the Laghuśaṃvara, but its verses are largerly extracted from the 10th century Abhidhānottaratantra, a scriputre describing various sādhanas (path towards spiritual realization).

(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of koshala or kosala in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

A country inhabited by the Kosala, to the north west of Magadha and next to Kasi. It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas (E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, etc.). In the Buddhas time it was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi, who was succeeded by his son Vidudabha. By this time Kasi was under the subjection of Kosala, for we find that when Bimbisara, king of Magadha, married Kosaladevi, daughter of Mahakosala and sister of Pasenadi, a village in Kasi was given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f). Various Jatakas indicate that the struggle between Kasi and Kosala had been very prolonged (See, e.g., J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316, 425). Sometimes the Kasi king would attack Kosala, capture the king and rule over the country. At others the Kosala king would invade Kasi and annex it to his own territory. Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing this, are mentioned by name - e.g., Dabbasena (J.iii.13), Dighavu (J.iii.211f), Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the special title of Baranasiggaha, (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kasi. Other kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another are mentioned - e.g., Dighiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f), Mallika (J.ii.3), and Chatta (J.iii.116). Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial alliances (e.g., J.iii.407). With the capture of Kasi the power of Kosala increased rapidly, until a struggle between this country and Magadha became inevitable. Bimbisaras marriage was probably a political alliance, but it only served to postpone the evil day. Quite soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajatasattu, his successor, and Pasenadi, these fights bringing varying fortunes to the combatants. Once Ajatasattu was captured alive, but Pasenadi spared his life and gave him his daughter, Vajira, in marriage and for a time all went well. Later, however, after his conquest of the Licchavis, Ajatasattu seems to have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala. (See Vincent Smith, op. cit., 32f). In the sixth century B.C. the Sakyan territory of Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala. The Sutta Nipata (vs.405) speaks of the Buddhas birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276, where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala. Elsewhere (M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying, Bhagava pi Kosalako, aham pi Kosalako.

At the time of the Buddha Savatthi was the capital of Kosala. Next in importance was Saketa, which, in ancient days, had sometimes been the capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348). There was also Ayojjha, on the banks of the Sarayu, which, judging from the Ramayana, must once have been the chief city; but in the sixth century B.C. it was quite unimportant.

The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts,

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See Kosala.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

General definition (in Buddhism)

Kosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa and Avanti) in ancient India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous monastery (Bodhi mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.(Source): Buddhist Door: Glossary

India history and geogprahy

Kosala (कोसल) refers to one of the kingdoms of the south (see Dakṣiṇāpatha) mentioned in Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. According to this inscription, all the kings of the region of the north were who attained great fame by liberating them. One of the regions mentioned as situated in the south is Kosala.

(Source): Wisdom Library: India History

Kosala (कोसल) is a place-name without suffix and is mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Kosala is spelt both ways with the dental as well as with the palatal sibilant. It is included in the list of the Dakṣiṇāpatha kingdoms whose kings were conquered but reinstated by Samudragupta. At that time Mahendra was its ruler.

Kosala has been identified with South Kosala corresponding to modern district of Raipur, Sambalpur and Bilaspur of M.P. and Orissa. Its old capital was Śrīpura (modern Sirpur), 40 miles north-east of Raipur. It is the same as Mahā-kosala which forms the largest unit among the three component parts of the State of Madhya Pradesh.

(Source): archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Kosala (कोसल).—Name of a country conquered by Samudragupta.—This Kosala must be Dakṣiṇa (or South) Kosala, or Mahākosala as it is also called. “Mahā-Kosala” says Cunningham “comprised the whole of the upper valley of the Mahānadi and its tributaries, from the source of the Narbada at Amarkantak, on the north, to the source of he Mahānadi itself, near Kānker, on the south, and from the valley of the Wen-Gangā, on the west, to the Hasda and Jonk rivers on the east. But these limits have often been extended, so as to embrace the hilly districts of Mandala and Bālāghāt, on the west up to the banks of the Wen-Gangā, and the middle valley of the Mahānadi, on the east, down to Sambalpur and Sonpur.” In other words, it comprises the greater portions of the modern districts of Raipur and Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh and of such former native states of Orissa as Sonpur and Patna.

The country of Kosala is intimately associated with the Ikṣvākus. Thus the Rāmāyaṇa speaks of Kosala with its capital Ayodhyā, where reigned Daśaratha and his son Rāma who belonged to the Ikṣvāku race. In the time of the Buddha, the boundaries of Kosala had extended. It had then become co-extensive with practically the eastern half of Uttar Pradesh and was ruled over by Pasenadi (Prasēnajit) and his son Viḍūḍabha, both scions of the Ikṣvākus family. Their capital, however, was not Ayodhyā, but Śrāvastī.

(Source): What is India: Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings

Kosala (कोसल) was one of the bases of early Buddhism, but the region was also associated with Vedic, Jain, and Ājīvika traditions, as well as from the beginning, Nāga, Yakṣa, and tree worship. And yet Pathak points out, “It appears that the majority of the people of Kośala were adherents of the Vedic religion.” According to von Hinüber, nine of the fourteen brahman villages mentioned in the Theravāda-Tipiṭaka are situated in Kosala, four in Magadha, and one in Malla. This makes sense, considering that Kosala was home of the Kāṇva śākhā, situated on the edge of what Bronkhorst calls Greater Magadha.

(Source): eScholarship: Kosalan Philosophy (history)
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of koshala or kosala in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

kosala : (m.) name of a country which was prominent at the time of the Buddha.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

kōsalā (कोसला).—m A sort of silkworm. 2 The cocoon or cod of it, or of spiders and insects gen. 3 A ring around a matchlock, formed of this cocoon.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kōsālā (कोसाला).—m A sort of silk worm. The co- coon or cod of it or of insects gen.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
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Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kosala (कोसल).—(pl.) Name of a country and its people; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् (pituranantaramuttarakosalān) R.9.1;3.5;6.71; मगधकोसलकेकय- शासिनां दुहितरः (magadhakosalakekaya- śāsināṃ duhitaraḥ) 9.17. °नक्षत्र (nakṣatra) Name of a lunar mansion; कोसलानां च नक्षत्रं व्यक्तमिन्द्राग्निदैवतम् (kosalānāṃ ca nakṣatraṃ vyaktamindrāgnidaivatam) Rām.6.12.35.

Derivable forms: kosalaḥ (कोसलः).

See also (synonyms): kośala.

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Kosalā (कोसला).—The city of Ayodhyā.

See also (synonyms): kośalā.

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

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Uttarakoshala
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Dakshinakosala
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Kosala Devi
Daughter of Maha Kosala and sister of Pasenadi. She was married to Bimbisara, and a village i...
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Magadha
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