Koshala, Kośalā, Kosala, Kośala, Kosalā: 26 definitions
Koshala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kośalā and Kośala can be transliterated into English as Kosala or Koshala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Kosala (कोसल).—A prosperous kingdom in ancient India. Bhīmasena conquered this country for Yudhiṣṭhira before the Rājasūya sacrifice.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kosala (कोसल).—The King and the people of the country of Kosala are called by the name Kosala. (See full article at Story of Kosala from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Kosala (कोसल).—One of the wrestlers of Kaṃsa. The famous wrestlers of Kaṃsa were Cāṇūra, Muṣṭika, Kūṭa, Śala, Kosala and others.
3) Kosala (कोसल).—General information. A wealthy and prosperous country on the banks of the river Sarayū. Ayodhyā was the Capital of this kingdom. This city was built by Manu, the father of Ikṣvāku. This city was twelve yojanas long with a breadth of three yojanas. It is understood from Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 5 that during the time of Daśaratha this city was modified to such an extent as to be on a par with any modern city. Other details. (1) Bhīmasena once conquered Uttara Kosala (north Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30).
Sahadeva during his regional conquest, subdued Dakṣiṇa Kosala (South Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 12).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 15).
Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, killed the King of Kosala in the battle of Bhārata.
Karṇa once conquered this country for Duryodhana. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 19).
During the time of the battle of Bhārata a King named Kṣemadarśī ruled over Kosala. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 6).
At the time of the Svayaṃvara (marriage) of Ambā, Bhīṣma defeated the King of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 38).
Arjuna who led the horse for sacrifice conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 83).
Those who bathe in the holy bath of Ṛṣabha tīrtha in Kosala, will obtain the fruits of giving one thousand cows as alms. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 10).
4) Kośala (कोशल).—The Kṣatriyas of the country of Kośala. These Kośalas once fled to the southern countries fearing Jarāsandha. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 27).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Kośalā (कोशला).—(uttara)—the kingdom of Rāma and his son Kuśa. Its people celebrated Rāma's arrival by instituting a festival. They were taken to heaven by the grace of Rāma.1 Its people took part in the rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhīra.2 Their king went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse.3 Migration of Yadus to.4 Its people met Kṛṣṇa on the way to Mithilā with presents.5 A kingdom of Madhyadeśa in the Vindhyas. Kuśa ruled it with his capital at Kuśasthalī.6 Its king was defeated by Paraśurāma;7 ruled by nine kings at a time.8
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 4 and 42; V. 19. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 36; 88. 199; 99. 402; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 17.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 75. 12.
- 3) Ib. X. 2. 13.
- 4) Ib. X. 2. 3.
- 5) Ib. X. 86. 20.
- 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 41 and 64; III. 63. 199; 74. 197.
- 7) Ib. III. 41. 39; 48. 15.
- 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 59.
2) Kośala (कोशल).—A tribe; a kingdom of the Janapada on the other side of the Vindhyas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 35, 53; 163. 67; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 110, 133; 99. 385.
Kośala (कोशल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.20) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kośala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kosala (कोसल) is the name of a country situated within the Dākṣiṇāpatha (Deccan) region. Countries within this region pertain to the Dākṣinātyā local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned this region lies between the Southern Ocean and the Vindhya mountains.
The Kosalas are usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kośala (कोशल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Kośala is the southern part of the kingdom of Oudh. It is divided into two kingdoms called Uttarākośala and Kośala. Ayodhyā and Kusavatī were the capitals of these two kingdoms respectively.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Kośala (कोशल) is the name of an ancient region, being born from there represents an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] Nor originating in Kāmarūpa or Kaliṅga, or Kāñcī, Kāśmīra or Kośala, nor one having bad behavior, bad company or come from Mahārāṣṭra. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., kośala), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., kośala) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Kośala] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Kosala (कोशल): Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. Its capital was Ayodhya, where Rama was born.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Surābhakṣī, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Surābhakṣī is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the northern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Locanā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.
Kośala is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Kośala is to be contemplated as situated on the tip of the nose. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitionersSource: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Kosala (कोसल) is one of the two Upakṣetra (‘sacred spot’) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Bhūcarī (‘a woman going on the ground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Kosala) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.
Kosala has the presiding Ḍākinī named Surābhakṣī whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Vajrahūṃkāra. The associated internal location are the ‘tip o the nose’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘wreath of entrails’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Kaliṅga, Kosala, Suvarṇadvīpa and Oḍyāyana are associated with the family deity of Caṇḍikā; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Ratnaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Kāmarūpa, Triśakuni, Oḍra and Kosala.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A country inhabited by the Kosala, to the north west of Magadha and next to Kasi. It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas (E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, etc.). In the Buddhas time it was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi, who was succeeded by his son Vidudabha. By this time Kasi was under the subjection of Kosala, for we find that when Bimbisara, king of Magadha, married Kosaladevi, daughter of Mahakosala and sister of Pasenadi, a village in Kasi was given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f). Various Jatakas indicate that the struggle between Kasi and Kosala had been very prolonged (See, e.g., J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316, 425). Sometimes the Kasi king would attack Kosala, capture the king and rule over the country. At others the Kosala king would invade Kasi and annex it to his own territory. Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing this, are mentioned by name - e.g., Dabbasena (J.iii.13), Dighavu (J.iii.211f), Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the special title of Baranasiggaha, (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kasi. Other kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another are mentioned - e.g., Dighiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f), Mallika (J.ii.3), and Chatta (J.iii.116). Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial alliances (e.g., J.iii.407). With the capture of Kasi the power of Kosala increased rapidly, until a struggle between this country and Magadha became inevitable. Bimbisaras marriage was probably a political alliance, but it only served to postpone the evil day. Quite soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajatasattu, his successor, and Pasenadi, these fights bringing varying fortunes to the combatants. Once Ajatasattu was captured alive, but Pasenadi spared his life and gave him his daughter, Vajira, in marriage and for a time all went well. Later, however, after his conquest of the Licchavis, Ajatasattu seems to have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala. (See Vincent Smith, op. cit., 32f). In the sixth century B.C. the Sakyan territory of Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala. The Sutta Nipata (vs.405) speaks of the Buddhas birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276, where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala. Elsewhere (M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying, Bhagava pi Kosalako, aham pi Kosalako.
At the time of the Buddha Savatthi was the capital of Kosala. Next in importance was Saketa, which, in ancient days, had sometimes been the capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348). There was also Ayojjha, on the banks of the Sarayu, which, judging from the Ramayana, must once have been the chief city; but in the sixth century B.C. it was quite unimportant.
The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts,
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryKosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa and Avanti) in ancient India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous monastery (Bodhi mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.
India history and geogprahySource: Wisdom Library: India History
Kosala (कोसल) refers to one of the kingdoms of the south (see Dakṣiṇāpatha) mentioned in Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. According to this inscription, all the kings of the region of the north were who attained great fame by liberating them. One of the regions mentioned as situated in the south is Kosala.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Kosala (कोसल) is a place-name without suffix and is mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Kosala is spelt both ways with the dental as well as with the palatal sibilant. It is included in the list of the Dakṣiṇāpatha kingdoms whose kings were conquered but reinstated by Samudragupta. At that time Mahendra was its ruler.
Kosala has been identified with South Kosala corresponding to modern district of Raipur, Sambalpur and Bilaspur of M.P. and Orissa. Its old capital was Śrīpura (modern Sirpur), 40 miles north-east of Raipur. It is the same as Mahā-kosala which forms the largest unit among the three component parts of the State of Madhya Pradesh.Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings
Kosala (कोसल).—Name of a country conquered by Samudragupta.—This Kosala must be Dakṣiṇa (or South) Kosala, or Mahākosala as it is also called. “Mahā-Kosala” says Cunningham “comprised the whole of the upper valley of the Mahānadi and its tributaries, from the source of the Narbada at Amarkantak, on the north, to the source of he Mahānadi itself, near Kānker, on the south, and from the valley of the Wen-Gangā, on the west, to the Hasda and Jonk rivers on the east. But these limits have often been extended, so as to embrace the hilly districts of Mandala and Bālāghāt, on the west up to the banks of the Wen-Gangā, and the middle valley of the Mahānadi, on the east, down to Sambalpur and Sonpur.” In other words, it comprises the greater portions of the modern districts of Raipur and Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh and of such former native states of Orissa as Sonpur and Patna.
The country of Kosala is intimately associated with the Ikṣvākus. Thus the Rāmāyaṇa speaks of Kosala with its capital Ayodhyā, where reigned Daśaratha and his son Rāma who belonged to the Ikṣvāku race. In the time of the Buddha, the boundaries of Kosala had extended. It had then become co-extensive with practically the eastern half of Uttar Pradesh and was ruled over by Pasenadi (Prasēnajit) and his son Viḍūḍabha, both scions of the Ikṣvākus family. Their capital, however, was not Ayodhyā, but Śrāvastī.Source: eScholarship: Kosalan Philosophy (history)
Kosala (कोसल) was one of the bases of early Buddhism, but the region was also associated with Vedic, Jain, and Ājīvika traditions, as well as from the beginning, Nāga, Yakṣa, and tree worship. And yet Pathak points out, “It appears that the majority of the people of Kośala were adherents of the Vedic religion.” According to von Hinüber, nine of the fourteen brahman villages mentioned in the Theravāda-Tipiṭaka are situated in Kosala, four in Magadha, and one in Malla. This makes sense, considering that Kosala was home of the Kāṇva śākhā, situated on the edge of what Bronkhorst calls Greater Magadha.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Kosala is one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Kosala is mentioned in the Aṅguttara Nikāya as one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas. The Dīgha Nikāya and the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī tell us that Pokkharasādi, a famous Brāhmaṇa teacher of Kosala, lived at Ukkaṭṭhanagara which had been given to him by King Pasenadi. The Saṃyutta Nikāya gives us much information about Kosala and its king Pasenadi. We are told that Pasenadi fought many battles with the Magadhan King, Ajātasattu. In the end, however, there was a conciliation between the two kings.
The Buddha spent much of his time at Sāvatthī, the capital of Kosala, and most of his sermons were delivered there. The story of the conversion of the Kosalans to the Buddhist faith is related in some detail. In course of his journey over northern India, Buddha reached Kosala and went to Sāsā, a Brāhmaṇa village of Kosala. There the Buddha delivered a series of sermons and the Brahmin householders were converted to the new faith.
In the north, the Kosala country included the region occupied by the Śākyas of Kapilavastu. Mutual jealousies sometimes led to war between the two countries. Thus we are told that the Śākyas became the vassals of King Pasenadi of Kosala. The capital cities of Kosala were Sāvatthī and Sāketa. But from the Epics and some Buddhist works Ayodhyā seems to have been the earliest capital, and Sāketa the next.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kosala : (m.) name of a country which was prominent at the time of the Buddha.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kōsalā (कोसला).—m A sort of silkworm. 2 The cocoon or cod of it, or of spiders and insects gen. 3 A ring around a matchlock, formed of this cocoon.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
kōsālā (कोसाला).—m A sort of silk worm. The co- coon or cod of it or of insects gen.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kosala (कोसल).—(pl.) Name of a country and its people; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् (pituranantaramuttarakosalān) R.9.1;3.5;6.71; मगधकोसलकेकय- शासिनां दुहितरः (magadhakosalakekaya- śāsināṃ duhitaraḥ) 9.17. °नक्षत्र (nakṣatra) Name of a lunar mansion; कोसलानां च नक्षत्रं व्यक्तमिन्द्राग्निदैवतम् (kosalānāṃ ca nakṣatraṃ vyaktamindrāgnidaivatam) Rām.6.12.35.
Derivable forms: kosalaḥ (कोसलः).
See also (synonyms): kośala.
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Kosalā (कोसला).—The city of Ayodhyā.
See also (synonyms): kośalā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-laḥ-lā) 1. A man of the city Ayodhya (Oude), or the neighbouring district. 2. The name of a prince. E. kuś to shine, ala Unadi affix; also koṣala.
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(-lā) The country south of Ayodhya (Oude) or Ayod'hya itself: see kośalā.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kośala (कोशल):—etc. See kosala.
2) Kosala (कोसल):—m. [plural] (in later texts generally, spelt kośala), Name of a country and the warrior-tribe inhabiting it (descendants of Māṭhavya Videgha, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa i]), [Pāṇini 4-1, 171; Mahābhārata] etc. (kośalānāṃ [varia lectio] kauśal, [Rāmāyaṇa vi, 86, 43] nakṣatra Name of a lunar mansion, [Rāmāyaṇa ([edition] [Bombay edition]) vi, 103, 35])
3) m. Name of the country of Kosala, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 5, 5]
4) Name of the capital of that country or Ayodhyā (the modern Oude), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
5) Kosalā (कोसला):—[from kosala] f. idem, [Mahābhārata; Nalopākhyāna; Raghuvaṃśa] ([edition] Calc.), [ i, 35, etc.]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Koshalatmaja.
Full-text (+276): Uttarakoshala, Prakkosala, Kosalavideha, Kosalaja, Kashikoshala, Kosalanandini, Savatthi, Koshalatmaja, Nagaravinda, Ayodhya, Kaushalya, Ketakavana, Sundarika, Kashi, Kshemadarshin, Brihatkoshalakhanda, Nagarabindu, Komala, Palapanjara, Dronavastuka.
Search found 66 books and stories containing Koshala, Kośalā, Kosala, Kośala, Kosalā, Kōsalā, Kōsālā, Kosālā, Koṣalā; (plurals include: Koshalas, Kośalās, Kosalas, Kośalas, Kosalās, Kōsalās, Kōsālās, Kosālās, Koṣalās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Settlement in Early Historic Ganga Plain (by Chirantani Das)
Part 8 - Rājagṛha supreme seat (c): Jaina sources < [Chapter II - Origin and Function of Rājagṛha as the seat of Monarchy]
Part 3 - Status as the capital of the Kāśī mahājanapada < [Chapter VIII - Vārāṇasī–Sārnāth: Inter-Settlement Relations]
Part 16 - Vārāṇasī from proto historic to historic context < [Chapter VI - Vārāṇasī: Emergence of the Urban Centre and Seat of Administration]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 8: Nala and Davadantī < [Chapter III - Vasudeva’s Marriage with Kanakavatī and her Former Incarnations]
Part 9: Nala as king < [Chapter III - Vasudeva’s Marriage with Kanakavatī and her Former Incarnations]
Part 4: Episode of the swan < [Chapter III - Vasudeva’s Marriage with Kanakavatī and her Former Incarnations]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XXXI - The Jātaka of Ājñāta Kauṇḍinya < [Volume III]
Chapter XXXI - Ghatikāra and Jyotipāla < [Volume I]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.247 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
Verse 1.4.71 < [Chapter 4 - Bhakta: The Devotee]
Verse 2.6.18 < [Chapter 6 - Abhīṣṭa-lābha: The Attainment of All Desires]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)