Koshala, Kośalā, Kosala, Kośala, Kosalā: 38 definitions


Koshala means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Kośalā and Kośala can be transliterated into English as Kosala or Koshala, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Kosala (कोसल).—A prosperous kingdom in ancient India. Bhīmasena conquered this country for Yudhiṣṭhira before the Rājasūya sacrifice.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Kosala (कोसल).—The King and the people of the country of Kosala are called by the name Kosala. (See full article at Story of Kosala from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

2) Kosala (कोसल).—One of the wrestlers of Kaṃsa. The famous wrestlers of Kaṃsa were Cāṇūra, Muṣṭika, Kūṭa, Śala, Kosala and others.

3) Kosala (कोसल).—General information. A wealthy and prosperous country on the banks of the river Sarayū. Ayodhyā was the Capital of this kingdom. This city was built by Manu, the father of Ikṣvāku. This city was twelve yojanas long with a breadth of three yojanas. It is understood from Vālmīki Rāmāyaṇa, Bālakāṇḍa, Sarga 5 that during the time of Daśaratha this city was modified to such an extent as to be on a par with any modern city. Other details. (1) Bhīmasena once conquered Uttara Kosala (north Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30).

Sahadeva during his regional conquest, subdued Dakṣiṇa Kosala (South Kosala). (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Stanza 12).

Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 21, Stanza 15).

Abhimanyu, the son of Arjuna, killed the King of Kosala in the battle of Bhārata.

Karṇa once conquered this country for Duryodhana. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 8, Stanza 19).

During the time of the battle of Bhārata a King named Kṣemadarśī ruled over Kosala. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 6).

At the time of the Svayaṃvara (marriage) of Ambā, Bhīṣma defeated the King of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 44, Stanza 38).

Arjuna who led the horse for sacrifice conquered the country of Kosala. (Mahābhārata Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 83).

Those who bathe in the holy bath of Ṛṣabha tīrtha in Kosala, will obtain the fruits of giving one thousand cows as alms. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 85, Stanza 10).

4) Kośala (कोशल).—The Kṣatriyas of the country of Kośala. These Kośalas once fled to the southern countries fearing Jarāsandha. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Stanza 27).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Kośalā (कोशला).—(uttara)—the kingdom of Rāma and his son Kuśa. Its people celebrated Rāma's arrival by instituting a festival. They were taken to heaven by the grace of Rāma.1 Its people took part in the rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhīra.2 Their king went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse.3 Migration of Yadus to.4 Its people met Kṛṣṇa on the way to Mithilā with presents.5 A kingdom of Madhyadeśa in the Vindhyas. Kuśa ruled it with his capital at Kuśasthalī.6 Its king was defeated by Paraśurāma;7 ruled by nine kings at a time.8

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 10. 4 and 42; V. 19. 8; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 36; 88. 199; 99. 402; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 17.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 75. 12.
  • 3) Ib. X. 2. 13.
  • 4) Ib. X. 2. 3.
  • 5) Ib. X. 86. 20.
  • 6) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 41 and 64; III. 63. 199; 74. 197.
  • 7) Ib. III. 41. 39; 48. 15.
  • 8) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 59.

2) Kośala (कोशल).—A tribe; a kingdom of the Janapada on the other side of the Vindhyas.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 114. 35, 53; 163. 67; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 110, 133; 99. 385.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kośala (कोशल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.20) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kośala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Kośala (कोशल) refers to one of the sons of Kroṣṭā and grandson of Yadu, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] Nahuṣa married Virajā (the daughter of Pitṛ) and was blessed with five sons of whom Yayāti was the most famous. Yayāti had two wives—Devayānī and Śarmiṣṭhā. Devayānī gave birth to Yadu and Turvasu. [...] The Son of Yadu was Kroṣṭā in whose race the most glorious kings were born. The text only names them as [viz., Kośala].

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kosala (कोसल) is the name of a country situated within the Dākṣiṇāpatha (Deccan) region. Countries within this region pertain to the Dākṣinātyā local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned this region lies between the Southern Ocean and the Vindhya mountains.

The Kosalas are usually to be represented by a brown (asita) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Koshala in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Kośala (कोशल) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Kośala is the southern part of the kingdom of Oudh. It is divided into two kingdoms called Uttarākośala and Kośala. Ayodhyā and Kusavatī were the capitals of these two kingdoms respectively.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra

Kośala (कोशल) is the name of an ancient region, being born from there represents an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] Nor originating in Kāmarūpa or Kaliṅga, or Kāñcī, Kāśmīra or Kośala, nor one having bad behavior, bad company or come from Mahārāṣṭra. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., kośala), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., kośala) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a sacred place classified as a Upapīṭha, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—The eight seats are the main group of eight groups [i.e., Kośala] of eight types of sacred sites. The figure sixty-four is a common ideal number as it is often configured into eight groups of eight.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Kośala (कोशल) [=Kosala] refers to a country  identified with modern Oudh, belonging to “Āgneyī (south-eastern division)” classified under the constellations of Āśleṣā, Maghā and Pūrvaphālguni, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Āśleṣā, Maghā and Pūrvaphālguni represent the south-eastern division consisting of [i.e., Kośala] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Kośala] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Kosala (कोशल): Kosala was an ancient Indian Aryan kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Oudh. Its capital was Ayodhya, where Rama was born.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

Kośala (कोशल) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Surābhakṣī, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Surābhakṣī is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the northern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Locanā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Kośala is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Kośala is to be contemplated as situated on the tip of the nose. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Kosala (कोसल) is one of the two Upakṣetra (‘sacred spot’) present within the Vākcakra (‘circle of word’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Bhūcarī (‘a woman going on the ground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Kosala) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Kosala has the presiding Ḍākinī named Surābhakṣī whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Vajrahūṃkāra. The associated internal location are the ‘tip o the nose’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘wreath of entrails’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Kaliṅga, Kosala, Suvarṇadvīpa and Oḍyāyana are associated with the family deity of Caṇḍikā; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Ratnaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Kāmarūpa, Triśakuni, Oḍra and Kosala.

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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A country inhabited by the Kosala, to the north west of Magadha and next to Kasi. It is mentioned second in the list of sixteen Mahajanapadas (E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, etc.). In the Buddhas time it was a powerful kingdom ruled over by Pasenadi, who was succeeded by his son Vidudabha. By this time Kasi was under the subjection of Kosala, for we find that when Bimbisara, king of Magadha, married Kosaladevi, daughter of Mahakosala and sister of Pasenadi, a village in Kasi was given as part of the dowry (J.ii.237; iv.342f). Various Jatakas indicate that the struggle between Kasi and Kosala had been very prolonged (See, e.g., J.ii.21f; iii.115f; 211f; v.316, 425). Sometimes the Kasi king would attack Kosala, capture the king and rule over the country. At others the Kosala king would invade Kasi and annex it to his own territory. Several Kosala kings who succeeded in doing this, are mentioned by name - e.g., Dabbasena (J.iii.13), Dighavu (J.iii.211f), Vanka (J.iii.168) and Kamsa; the last being given the special title of Baranasiggaha, (J.ii.403; v.112) probably in recognition of the fact that he completed the conquest of Kasi. Other kings of Kosala who came in conflict with Benares in one way or another are mentioned - e.g., Dighiti (J.iii.211f; Vin.i.342f), Mallika (J.ii.3), and Chatta (J.iii.116). Sometimes the kings of the two countries entered into matrimonial alliances (e.g., J.iii.407). With the capture of Kasi the power of Kosala increased rapidly, until a struggle between this country and Magadha became inevitable. Bimbisaras marriage was probably a political alliance, but it only served to postpone the evil day. Quite soon after his death there were many fierce fights between Ajatasattu, his successor, and Pasenadi, these fights bringing varying fortunes to the combatants. Once Ajatasattu was captured alive, but Pasenadi spared his life and gave him his daughter, Vajira, in marriage and for a time all went well. Later, however, after his conquest of the Licchavis, Ajatasattu seems to have succeeded in establishing his sway in Kosala. (See Vincent Smith, op. cit., 32f). In the sixth century B.C. the Sakyan territory of Kapilavatthu was subject to Kosala. The Sutta Nipata (vs.405) speaks of the Buddhas birthplace as belonging to the Kosalans; see also A.i.276, where Kapilavatthu is mentioned as being in Kosala. Elsewhere (M.ii.124) Pasenadi is reported as saying, Bhagava pi Kosalako, aham pi Kosalako.

At the time of the Buddha Savatthi was the capital of Kosala. Next in importance was Saketa, which, in ancient days, had sometimes been the capital (J.iii.270; Mtu.i.348). There was also Ayojjha, on the banks of the Sarayu, which, judging from the Ramayana, must once have been the chief city; but in the sixth century B.C. it was quite unimportant.

The river Sarayu divided Kosala into two parts,

-- or --

See Kosala.

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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Kosala (कोसल) (in Chinese: Keou-sa-lo) refers to one of the fifty-five kingdoms enumerated in chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective districts.—In Kosala, the following deities are appointed (among others): The Devaputra Mi-t'i-karṇa; the Kinnara Uma; the Asura Fou-cha-po-ti; the Yakṣa Varuṇa; the Kumbhāṇḍa Naṭaka; the Goddess Mo-ni-pi-li.

Kosala (कोसल) (in Chinese: Keou-sa-lo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Rohiṇī or Rohiṇīnakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryKosala in Pali, Kausala in Sanskrit. One of the four great states (i.e., Kosala, Magadha, Vansa and Avanti) in ancient India. The Shakya tribe to which Shakyamuni belonged was under the power and influence of Kosala. The capital of Kosala was Savatthi where the famous monastery (Bodhi mandala) Jetavanna Grove was located.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kosala (कोसल) (distinguished by the city Sāketa) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Kosala), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Sāketa) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Wisdom Library: India History

Kosala (कोसल) refers to one of the kingdoms of the south (see Dakṣiṇāpatha) mentioned in Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. According to this inscription, all the kings of the region of the north were who attained great fame by liberating them. One of the regions mentioned as situated in the south is Kosala.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Kosala (कोसल) is a place-name without suffix and is mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 1. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Kosala is spelt both ways with the dental as well as with the palatal sibilant. It is included in the list of the Dakṣiṇāpatha kingdoms whose kings were conquered but reinstated by Samudragupta. At that time Mahendra was its ruler.

Kosala has been identified with South Kosala corresponding to modern district of Raipur, Sambalpur and Bilaspur of M.P. and Orissa. Its old capital was Śrīpura (modern Sirpur), 40 miles north-east of Raipur. It is the same as Mahā-kosala which forms the largest unit among the three component parts of the State of Madhya Pradesh.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Early Gupta Kings

Kosala (कोसल).—Name of a country conquered by Samudragupta.—This Kosala must be Dakṣiṇa (or South) Kosala, or Mahākosala as it is also called. “Mahā-Kosala” says Cunningham “comprised the whole of the upper valley of the Mahānadi and its tributaries, from the source of the Narbada at Amarkantak, on the north, to the source of he Mahānadi itself, near Kānker, on the south, and from the valley of the Wen-Gangā, on the west, to the Hasda and Jonk rivers on the east. But these limits have often been extended, so as to embrace the hilly districts of Mandala and Bālāghāt, on the west up to the banks of the Wen-Gangā, and the middle valley of the Mahānadi, on the east, down to Sambalpur and Sonpur.” In other words, it comprises the greater portions of the modern districts of Raipur and Bilaspur in Madhya Pradesh and of such former native states of Orissa as Sonpur and Patna.

The country of Kosala is intimately associated with the Ikṣvākus. Thus the Rāmāyaṇa speaks of Kosala with its capital Ayodhyā, where reigned Daśaratha and his son Rāma who belonged to the Ikṣvāku race. In the time of the Buddha, the boundaries of Kosala had extended. It had then become co-extensive with practically the eastern half of Uttar Pradesh and was ruled over by Pasenadi (Prasēnajit) and his son Viḍūḍabha, both scions of the Ikṣvākus family. Their capital, however, was not Ayodhyā, but Śrāvastī.

Source: eScholarship: Kosalan Philosophy (history)

Kosala (कोसल) was one of the bases of early Buddhism, but the region was also associated with Vedic, Jain, and Ājīvika traditions, as well as from the beginning, Nāga, Yakṣa, and tree worship. And yet Pathak points out, “It appears that the majority of the people of Kośala were adherents of the Vedic religion.” According to von Hinüber, nine of the fourteen brahman villages mentioned in the Theravāda-Tipiṭaka are situated in Kosala, four in Magadha, and one in Malla. This makes sense, considering that Kosala was home of the Kāṇva śākhā, situated on the edge of what Bronkhorst calls Greater Magadha.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Kosala is one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Kosala is mentioned in the Aṅguttara Nikāya as one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas. The Dīgha Nikāya and the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī tell us that Pokkharasādi, a famous Brāhmaṇa teacher of Kosala, lived at Ukkaṭṭhanagara which had been given to him by King Pasenadi. The Saṃyutta Nikāya gives us much information about Kosala and its king Pasenadi. We are told that Pasenadi fought many battles with the Magadhan King, Ajātasattu. In the end, however, there was a conciliation between the two kings.

The Buddha spent much of his time at Sāvatthī, the capital of Kosala, and most of his sermons were delivered there. The story of the conversion of the Kosalans to the Buddhist faith is related in some detail. In course of his journey over northern India, Buddha reached Kosala and went to Sāsā, a Brāhmaṇa village of Kosala. There the Buddha delivered a series of sermons and the Brahmin householders were converted to the new faith.

In the north, the Kosala country included the region occupied by the Śākyas of Kapilavastu. Mutual jealousies sometimes led to war between the two countries. Thus we are told that the Śākyas became the vassals of King Pasenadi of Kosala. The capital cities of Kosala were Sāvatthī and Sāketa. But from the Epics and some Buddhist works Ayodhyā seems to have been the earliest capital, and Sāketa the next.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Kosala (कोसल) is classified as one of the eighteen dialects (Deśī) of ancient India, as described in the Kathās (narrative poems) such as Uddyotanasūri in his 8th-century Kuvalayamālā (a Prakrit Campū, similar to Kāvya poetry).—Page 152.24 ff.: Here we have a specimen of eighteen Deśī dialects spoken in: [e.g., Kosala] [...] These different idioms of speech were spoken by the shop-keepers in the market place of Vijayāpurī. [...]

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Koshala in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kosala : (m.) name of a country which was prominent at the time of the Buddha.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kōsalā (कोसला).—m A sort of silkworm. 2 The cocoon or cod of it, or of spiders and insects gen. 3 A ring around a matchlock, formed of this cocoon.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kōsālā (कोसाला).—m A sort of silk worm. The co- coon or cod of it or of insects gen.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kosala (कोसल).—(pl.) Name of a country and its people; पितुरनन्तरमुत्तरकोसलान् (pituranantaramuttarakosalān) R.9.1;3.5;6.71; मगधकोसलकेकय- शासिनां दुहितरः (magadhakosalakekaya- śāsināṃ duhitaraḥ) 9.17. °नक्षत्र (nakṣatra) Name of a lunar mansion; कोसलानां च नक्षत्रं व्यक्तमिन्द्राग्निदैवतम् (kosalānāṃ ca nakṣatraṃ vyaktamindrāgnidaivatam) Rām.6.12.35.

Derivable forms: kosalaḥ (कोसलः).

See also (synonyms): kośala.

--- OR ---

Kosalā (कोसला).—The city of Ayodhyā.

See also (synonyms): kośalā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kośala (कोशल).—mf.

(-laḥ-lā) 1. A man of the city Ayodhya (Oude), or the neighbouring district. 2. The name of a prince. E. kuś to shine, ala Unadi affix; also koṣala.

--- OR ---

Koṣalā (कोषला).—f.

(-lā) The country south of Ayodhya (Oude) or Ayod'hya itself: see kośalā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kośala (कोशल).—see kosala.

--- OR ---

Kosala (कोसल).—also kośala kośala, I. m. The name of a country and its inhabitants, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 5, 5; Mahābhārata 6, 347. Ii. f. , A name of its capital, Ayodhyā, Mahābhārata 3, 8152.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kośala (कोशल).—v. kosala.

--- OR ---

Kosala (कोसल).—[masculine] [Name] of a country, [plural] its people, [feminine] ā its capital (Ayodhyā).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kośala (कोशल):—etc. See kosala.

2) Kosala (कोसल):—m. [plural] (in later texts generally, spelt kośala), Name of a country and the warrior-tribe inhabiting it (descendants of Māṭhavya Videgha, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa i]), [Pāṇini 4-1, 171; Mahābhārata] etc. (kośalānāṃ [varia lectio] kauśal, [Rāmāyaṇa vi, 86, 43] nakṣatra Name of a lunar mansion, [Rāmāyaṇa ([edition] [Bombay edition]) vi, 103, 35])

3) m. Name of the country of Kosala, [Rāmāyaṇa i, 5, 5]

4) Name of the capital of that country or Ayodhyā (the modern Oude), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Kosalā (कोसला):—[from kosala] f. idem, [Mahābhārata; Nalopākhyāna; Raghuvaṃśa] ([edition] Calc.), [ i, 35, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kośala (कोशल):—[(laḥ-lā)] 1. m. 3. f. A name of Oude and of a prince.

2) Koṣalā (कोषला):—(lā) 1. f. The country to the south of Oude.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kosala (कोसल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Kosala, Kosalaga, Kosalā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Koshala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Kosala (कोसल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kauśala.

2) Kosala (कोसल) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kosala.

2) Kosala has the following synonyms: Kosalaga.

3) Kosalā (कोसला) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Kosalā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kōsala (ಕೋಸಲ):—[noun] (mus.) the seventy first of the seventy two modes, in Karnāṭaka system.

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Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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