Govardhana, aka: Go-vardhana; 12 Definition(s)
Govardhana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Govardhana (गोवर्धन) refers to a mountain and is depicted as a sculpture on the second pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—The last but one scene in the panel is to show the superiority of Kṛṣṇa over Indra. This exploit of Kṛṣṇa is the summum of adbhuta rasa, sentiment of the marvelous. Here Kṛṣṇa is shown lifting up the mountain. All cows, calves and cowherds are protecting themselves under it.Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A mountain of Ambāḍi (Gokula). This is believed to be a form of Kṛṣṇa. This is called Girirāja also. The residents of Ambāḍi from time immemorial used to worship Indra for getting rains. But after the advent of Kṛṣṇa there came a change in that belief. Kṛṣṇa told them that rains depended on Govardhana and it was enough if they worshipped that mountain and so the residents of Ambāḍi started worshipping the mountain. Indra got enraged at this and sent heavy rains to Ambāḍī intending to submerge it in water. But Śrī Kṛṣṇa lifted the mountain over Ambāḍi like an umbrella and saved the city from the wrath of Indra. See under 'Kṛṣṇa' for more details. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—Mt. a hill in Bhāratavarṣa, near Brindāvan,1 held by Kṛṣṇa for a week warding off rain;2 sacred to Bharadvāja who brought down heavenly trees and plants on behalf of Rāma;3 worship of, with prayers and viands; sacrifice of goats to.4
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; X. 11. 36; 13. 29.
- 2) X. 25. 19; 27. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 11. 16-25; 12. 1; 13. 1 and 4, 28; 15. 1.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 38.
- 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 10. 8, 38.
Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—Once, the cowherd community wished to propitiate Indra in order to get timely showers. But Kṛṣṇa forbade them saying that the mountain Govardhana was more important than Indra. So the mountain should be worshipped and the cowherds obeyed him. Indra could not tolerate it and to show his power, he ordered the clouds to affect Gokula with heavy downpours. When cows and cowherds lost all hopes of survival, they went to Kṛṣṇa, prayed for their safety. He lifted up the mountain Govardhana with his smallest finger and the whole population took shelter under it.Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Govardhana (गोवर्धन) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is the mountain of north India. This Govardhana mount is eighteen miles away from Vṛnadāvana in the district of Mathurā.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A grammarian who has written a work on Katantra Grammar called कातन्त्रकौमुदी (kātantrakaumudī) and also a commentary on the Ganaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamana. A gloss on the Unadisutras is also assigned to Govardhana who is likely to be the same as above.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A large hill dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotees. Kṛṣṇa held it up for seven days to protect His devotees in Vṛndāvana from a devastating storm sent by Indra.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Languages of India and abroad
gōvardhana (गोवर्धन).—m (S) A celebrated hill near mathurā. It was upheld by kṛṣṇa upon one finger, to shelter the cowherds from a storm excited by indra. Hence 2 A large heap of cowdung, or of rice, vegetables &c. made by the people of the valabhā sect on the first of kārtikaśuddha in imitation of the mountain. 3 n (Misused for gōrōcana q. v.) Bezoar &c.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
gōvardhana (गोवर्धन).—m A celebrated hill near mathurā.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—a celebrated hill in वृन्दावन (vṛndāvana) the country about Mathurā. ('This hill was lifted up and supported by Kṛṣṇa upon one finger for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛṣṇa's divinity.') °धरः, °धरिन् (dharaḥ, °dharin) m. an epithet of Kṛṣṇa.
Derivable forms: govardhanaḥ (गोवर्धनः).
Govardhana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms go and vardhana (वर्धन).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Govardhana (गोवर्धन) or Govarddhana.—m.
(-naḥ) A celebrated hill in Brindaban or the country about Mathura: it was upheld by Krishna upon one finger, to shelter the cowherds from a storm excited by Indra, as a test of the former’s divinity. E. go a cow, and vardhana increasing; pasturing cattle.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 27 books and stories containing Govardhana or Go-vardhana. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.1.7 < [Chapter 1 - Bhauma: On the Earth]
Verse 2.7.109 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Verse 2.4.14 < [Chapter 4 - Vaikuṇṭha: The Spiritual Kingdom]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 24 - Worshiping Govardhana Hill < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Chapter 26 - Wonderful Krishna < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Chapter 25 - Lord Krishna Lifts Govardhana Hill < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
The Gautami Mahatmya (by G. P. Bhatt)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.4.105 < [Part 4 - Transient Ecstatic Disturbances (vyābhicāri-bhāva)]
Verse 3.4.48 < [Part 4 - Parenthood (vātsalya-rasa)]
Verse 4.5.7 < [Part 5 - Anger (raudra-rasa)]
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)