Govardhana, Go-vardhana: 16 definitions

Introduction

Govardhana means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A large hill dear to Lord Kṛṣṇa and His devotees. Kṛṣṇa held it up for seven days to protect His devotees in Vṛndāvana from a devastating storm sent by Indra.

Source: Acta Orientalia vol. 74 (2013): Historical sequence of the Vaiṣṇava Divyadeśas

Govardhana (or Mathurā, Bṛndāvanam) refers to Vaṭamaturai, one of the 108 Vaishnava Divya Desam (divyadeśas or divyasthalas), located in the topographical division of Vaṭanāṭu (“North India”), according to the 9th century Nālāyirativviyappirapantam (shortly Nālāyiram).—Tradition would record the Vaiṣṇava divyadeśas or divyasthalas are 108. The divyadeśa is a base of the cult of Viṣṇu in Viṣṇuism [Vaiṣṇavism] tradition. The list of 108 [viz., Govardhana] seems to have reached maturation by about the early 9th century CE as all the deśas are extolled in the hymns of the twelve Āḻvārs.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (G) next»] — Govardhana in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A mountain of Ambāḍi (Gokula). This is believed to be a form of Kṛṣṇa. This is called Girirāja also. The residents of Ambāḍi from time immemorial used to worship Indra for getting rains. But after the advent of Kṛṣṇa there came a change in that belief. Kṛṣṇa told them that rains depended on Govardhana and it was enough if they worshipped that mountain and so the residents of Ambāḍi started worshipping the mountain. Indra got enraged at this and sent heavy rains to Ambāḍī intending to submerge it in water. But Śrī Kṛṣṇa lifted the mountain over Ambāḍi like an umbrella and saved the city from the wrath of Indra. See under 'Kṛṣṇa' for more details. (Daśama Skandha, Bhāgavata)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—Mt. a hill in Bhāratavarṣa, near Brindāvan,1 held by Kṛṣṇa for a week warding off rain;2 sacred to Bharadvāja who brought down heavenly trees and plants on behalf of Rāma;3 worship of, with prayers and viands; sacrifice of goats to.4

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 19. 16; X. 11. 36; 13. 29.
  • 2) X. 25. 19; 27. 1; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 11. 16-25; 12. 1; 13. 1 and 4, 28; 15. 1.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 38.
  • 4) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 10. 8, 38.

1b) A city founded on the Godāvarī by Rāma;1 a tīrtham sacred to Pitṛs;2 established by Indra for Rāma's sake; Bharadvāja took his birth at.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 44.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 22-52.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 113.
Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—Once, the cowherd community wished to propitiate Indra in order to get timely showers. But Kṛṣṇa forbade them saying that the mountain Govardhana was more important than Indra. So the mountain should be worshipped and the cowherds obeyed him. Indra could not tolerate it and to show his power, he ordered the clouds to affect Gokula with heavy downpours. When cows and cowherds lost all hopes of survival, they went to Kṛṣṇa, prayed for their safety. He lifted up the mountain Govardhana with his smallest finger and the whole population took shelter under it.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (śilpa)

Govardhana (गोवर्धन) refers to a mountain and is depicted as a sculpture on the second pillar of the southern half of the maṇḍapa of the temple of Lokeśvara.—The last but one scene in the panel is to show the superiority of Kṛṣṇa over Indra. This exploit of Kṛṣṇa is the summum of adbhuta rasa, sentiment of the marvelous. Here Kṛṣṇa is shown lifting up the mountain. All cows, calves and cowherds are protecting themselves under it.

Shilpashastra book cover
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (G) next»] — Govardhana in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Govardhana (गोवर्धन) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is the mountain of north India. This Govardhana mount is eighteen miles away from Vṛnadāvana in the district of Mathurā.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

[«previous (G) next»] — Govardhana in Vyakarana glossary
Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—A grammarian who has written a work on Katantra Grammar called कातन्त्रकौमुदी (kātantrakaumudī) and also a commentary on the Ganaratnamahodadhi of Vardhamana. A gloss on the Unadisutras is also assigned to Govardhana who is likely to be the same as above.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (G) next»] — Govardhana in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gōvardhana (गोवर्धन).—m (S) A celebrated hill near mathurā. It was upheld by kṛṣṇa upon one finger, to shelter the cowherds from a storm excited by indra. Hence 2 A large heap of cowdung, or of rice, vegetables &c. made by the people of the valabhā sect on the first of kārtikaśuddha in imitation of the mountain. 3 n (Misused for gōrōcana q. v.) Bezoar &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

gōvardhana (गोवर्धन).—m A celebrated hill near mathurā.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (G) next»] — Govardhana in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—a celebrated hill in वृन्दावन (vṛndāvana) the country about Mathurā. ('This hill was lifted up and supported by Kṛṣṇa upon one finger for seven days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛṣṇa's divinity.') °धरः, °धरिन् (dharaḥ, °dharin) m. an epithet of Kṛṣṇa.

Derivable forms: govardhanaḥ (गोवर्धनः).

Govardhana is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms go and vardhana (वर्धन).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Govardhana (गोवर्धन).—name of a city in the south: Mahāvastu iii.363.6.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Govardhana (गोवर्धन) or Govarddhana.—m.

(-naḥ) A celebrated hill in Brindaban or the country about Mathura: it was upheld by Krishna upon one finger, to shelter the cowherds from a storm excited by Indra, as a test of the former’s divinity. E. go a cow, and vardhana increasing; pasturing cattle.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Govardhana (गोवर्धन) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—of Benares, patron of Nṛsiṃha Sarasvatī (Subodhinī 1589). Hall. p. 101.

2) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—govardhana, son of Divākara, father of Gaṅgādhara (Amṛtasāgarī). L. 1254.

3) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—father of Lakṣmīdhara, grandfather of Raghunātha (Maitrāvaruṇaprayoga). W. p. 30.

4) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—on alaṃkāra. Five times quoted in Alaṃkāraśekhara.

5) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—
—[commentary] on the Anumānakhaṇḍa of the Tattvacintāmaṇidīdhiti. Oudh. V, 18.

6) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—Tājikapadmakośa. Peters. 1, 115.

7) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—Nāmāvalī lex. Bik. 267.

8) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—Śrīpatipaddhati jy. B. 4, 200.

9) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—Sambandhopadeśaṭīkā vaiś. [Oudh 1876-1877], 14.

10) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—a Tailaṅga, son of Ghanaśyāma Bhaṭṭa: Ghaṭakarparaṭīkā, composed in 1866. Printed. Rukmiṇīcampū. Vedāntacintāmaṇi. L. 3016. Oudh. Xiv, 84.

11) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—son of Divākara, father of Viṣṇu (Gaṇitasāra), Lakṣmīdhara and Gaṅgādhara (Gaṇitāmṛtasāgarī).

12) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—son of Rāma: Padmakośa astrol.

13) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—Līlāvatīṭīkā astron.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Govardhana (गोवर्धन):—[=go-vardhana] [from go] m. a celebrated hill in Vṛndāvana near Mathurā (lifted up and supported by Kṛṣṇa upon one finger for 7 days to shelter the cowherds from a storm of rain sent by Indra to test Kṛṣṇa’s divinity cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India] p.113), [Inscriptions; Mahābhārata ii, 1441; v, 4410; Harivaṃśa; Raghuvaṃśa] etc.

2) [v.s. ...] Name of a holy fig-tree in the country of the Bāhīkas, [Mahābhārata viii, 2031]

3) [v.s. ...] Name of the author of nasaptaśatī (of the 12th or 13th century A.D.), [Gīta-govinda i, 4; Śārṅgadhara-paddhati [Scholiast or Commentator] on Uṇādi-sūtra] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] Name of one of the 5 Śruta-kevalins, [Jaina literature]

5) [v.s. ...] = na-dhara, [Cāṇakya]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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