Nyasa, Nyāsa: 18 definitions

Introduction

Nyasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Nyāsa (न्यास) refers to the “terminal note” in Indian music, and is one of the ten characteristics (gati) of the jāti (melodic class), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 28. It is also known as nyāsagati or nyāsasvara. Jāti refers to a recognized melody-type and can be seen as a precursor to rāgas which replaced them.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 28.99-100, “nyāsa occurs at the conclusion of the song (lit. limb) and is of twenty-one kinds”.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Nyāsa (न्यास) refers to the “ritualistic touching of the body in various parts” and is mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] with the mantra ‘Yāmiṣum’ etc. the Nyāsa (ritualistic touching of the body in various parts) shall be performed. The offering of fragrance shall be performed endearingly with the mantra ‘Adhyavocat’ etc. The Nyāsa of the deity shall be performed with the mantra ‘Asau Jīva’ etc. The rite of approaching the deity (upasarpaṇa) shall be performed with the mantra ‘Asau Yovasarpati’ etc.”.

Nyāsa is also mentioned in the Śivapurāṇa 1.20 while explaining the mode of worshipping an earthen phallic image (pārthiva-liṅga) according to the Vedic rites:—“[...] the Nyāsa rite shall be duly performed and the Aṅganyāsa of the two hands shall also be performed. The devotee shall perform meditation with the six-syllabled mantra—Om namaśśivāya”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Nyāsa (न्यास).—A Saimhikeya.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 68. 18.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Nyāsa (न्यास).—lit. position, placing;a word used in the sense of actual expression or wording especially in the sūtras; cf. the usual expression क्रियते एतन्न्यास एव (kriyate etannyāsa eva) in the Mahābhāșya, cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.11, 1.1.47 etc.;

2) Nyāsa.—A name given by the writers or readers to works of the type of learned and scholarly commentaries on vŗitti-type-works on standard sūtras in a Śāstra; e. g. the name Nyāsa is given to the learned commentaries on the Vŗtti on Hemacandra's Śabdānuśasana as also on the Paribhāşāvŗtti by Hemahamsagani. Similarly the commentary by Devanandin on Jainendra grammar and that by Prabhācandra on the Amoghāvŗtti on Śākatāyana grammar are named Nyāsa. In the same way, the learned commentary on the Kāśikāvŗtti by Jinendrabuddhi, named Kāśikāvivaranapaňjikā by the author, is very widely known by the name Nyāsa. This commentary Nyāsa was written in the eighth century by the Buddhist grammarian Jinendrabuddhi, who belonged to the eastern school of Pānini's Grammar. This Nyāsa has a learned commentary written on it by Maitreya Rakșita in the twelfth century named Tantrapradipa which is very largely quoted by subsequent grammarians, but which unfortunately is available only in a fragmentary state at present. Haradatta, a well-known southern scholar of grammar has drawn considerably from Nyāsa in his Padamañjarī, which also is well-known as a scholarly work.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Ganapatya (worship of Ganesha)

Source: Google Books: Ganapati: Song of the Self

Nyāsa (न्यास) refers to “purification”, representing one of the possible preliminary rites (upacāra) of a pūjā (deity worship).—Each act in a pūjā is not only physical and/or mental, but also symbolic, cosmic, and spiritual. Sprinkling, sipping, and bathing are symbolic of purification, of the worshipped as well as of the worshipper and the surroundings. Various offerings [viz., nyāsa] symbolize the surrendering of one’s latent tendencies (vāsanā) as expressed in thoughts, words, and deeds.

context information

Ganapatya (गाणपत्य, gāṇapatya) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Ganesha is revered and worshipped as the prime deity (ishta-devata). Being a minor though influential movement, Ganapatya evovled, llike Shaktism and Shaivism, as a separate movement leaving behind a large body of literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Tantric Mantras

The word Nyāsa (न्यास) is derived from the prefix ni (‘below’, ‘under’) and the verbal root as (‘to throw’, to project)—from which the verb nyas, nyāsati, to throw, to project, is derived along with the masculine substantive nyāsa, translated as ‘putting down or in, placing, fixing, insertingm applying... drawing, painting, writing down... depositing, intrusting, delivering... mental appropriation or assignment of various parts of the body to tutelary deities’.’

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Nyāsa (न्यास) refers to the “assignment of alphabets” representing one of the various preparatory rites performed before pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—Nyāsa is the assignment of alphabets, parts of mantras, word divisions, etc. to various parts of the body, thus believed to be invested with divine power and made secure. The tradition of nyāsa seems to be of Tantric origin. Nyāsa mainly serves to make the devotee’s body divine and thereby fit for worship. As part of the smārtapūjā-nyāsa is not performed by all.

In the first series of nyāsa on the limbs (aṅga-nyāsa) the sixteen verses of the Puruṣa-sūkta (Ṛgveda 10.90) are assigned to sixteen limbs of the worshipper’s body (left and right hand and foot, left and right knee, left and right hip, navel, heart, throat, left and right arm, mouth, eyes and head). In the second series of nyāsa on five limbs, which optionally may substitute the first series or may be performed in addition to it, the last five verses of the Puruṣa-sūkta are assigned to three places of the body: Heart, head, tuft of the hair and are pronounced “for the armour” and “for the weapon”.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A grammatical treatise by Vimalabuddhi. It is also called Mukhamattadipani. Vimalabuddhi Thera also wrote a glossary on it. Gv.72; Bode, op. cit., 21; see also Svd.1240.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

nyāsa : (m.) a mortgage; pawn.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

nyāsa (न्यास).—m S Placing, depositing, fixing; esp. the setting down of the figures of a calculation to be made; the infixing or establishing by charms and spells of divinity (as upon arrows, darts &c.); laying up (in the mind or memory). 2 Certain religious ceremonies consisting in putting the fingers in various forms. See mahānyāsa, laghunyāsa, ṣaḍaṅga- nyāsa &c. 3 Renouncing, rejecting, abandoning. See karmanyāsa, phalanyāsa, sarvanyāsa &c.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

nyāsa (न्यास).—m Placing. Certain religious ceremonies consisting in putting the fingers in various forms. Renoun- cing, rejecting.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Nyāsa (न्यास).—1 Placing, putting down or upon, planting, तस्या खुरन्यासपवित्रपांसुम् (tasyā khuranyāsapavitrapāṃsum) R.2.2; Ku.6.5; M.2.9; Māl.5.5; चरणन्यास, अङ्गन्यास (caraṇanyāsa, aṅganyāsa) &c.; सैन्दूरं क्रियते जनेन चरण- न्यासैः पुनः कुट्टिमम् (saindūraṃ kriyate janena caraṇa- nyāsaiḥ punaḥ kuṭṭimam) Ratn.1.1.

2) Hence, any impression, mark, stamp, print; अतिशस्त्रनखन्यासः (atiśastranakhanyāsaḥ) R.12.73; 'where the nail-marks surpassed those of weapons'; दन्तन्यासः (dantanyāsaḥ).

3) Depositing.

4) A pledge, deposit; प्रत्यर्पित- न्यास इवान्तरात्मा (pratyarpita- nyāsa ivāntarātmā) Ś.4.22; R.12.18; Y.2.67.

5) Entrusting, committing, giving over, delivering, consigning.

6) Painting, writing down.

7) Giving up, resigning, abandoning, relinquishing; शस्त्र° (śastra°); न्यासो दण्डस्य भूतेषु (nyāso daṇḍasya bhūteṣu) Bhāg.7.15.8; काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः (kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ kavayo viduḥ) Bg.18.2.

8) Bringing forward, adducing.

9) Digging in, seizing (as with claws).

1) Assignment of the various parts of the body to different deities, which is usually accompanied with prayers and corresponding gesticulations.

11) Lowering the tone or voice.

12) संन्यास (saṃnyāsa) q. v.; एवं वसन् गृहे कालं विरक्तो न्यासमास्थितः (evaṃ vasan gṛhe kālaṃ virakto nyāsamāsthitaḥ) Bhāg. 9.6.53.

13) Written or literal text (yathānyāsam).

14) Bringing forward, introducing (cf. arthāntaranyāsa).

Derivable forms: nyāsaḥ (न्यासः).

--- OR ---

Nyāsa (न्यास).—&c. See under न्यस् (nyas).

See also (synonyms): nyāsin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Nyāsa (न्यास).—m. (1) threshold, door-sill: Mahāvyutpatti 5571 = Tibetan them pa; (2) one of the arts, presumably = nyasana, and perhaps nikṣepa, qq.v., hence working out mathemat- ical problems (?): Divyāvadāna 3.18; 26.12; 58.17; 100.2; 441.28 (in a cliché quoted s.v. nikṣepa); Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iii.20.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāsa (न्यास).—m.

(-saḥ) 1. A deposit, a pledge. 2. Deserting, abandoning. 3. Delivering, presenting. 4. Mental delivering, consigning or entrusting any thing to the mind. 5. Mental appropriation or assignment of various parts of the body to tutelary divinities. accompanied with certain prayers and gesticulations. 6. Painting, stamp, mark. 7. Bringing forward. 8. Seizing. (with the claws.) E. ni before, as to throw or cast away, aff. karmaṇi, bhāve vā ghañ.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāsa (न्यास).—i. e. ni- 2. as + a, m. 1. Planting (as the foot), [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 31, 60. 2. Striking in, seizing with, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 12, 73. 3. Seizing with one’s claws, Mahābhārata 12, 552. 4. Putting on, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 8, 15. 5. Writing down, Böhtl. Ind. Spr. 170. 6. Laying aside, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 87, 2; [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 18, 2. 7. A deposit, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 67.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Nyāsa (न्यास).—[masculine] putting in, placing, settling; putting down, writing, painting; depositing, deposit, pledge ([jurisprudence]); giving up, abandoning, renunciation.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Nyāsa (न्यास) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—[grammatical] See Kāśikāvṛttinyāsa, Anunyāsa, Bālabodhinīnyāsa, Mahānyāsa, Śiṣyahitānyāsa. Quoted in Gaṇaratnamahodadhi, in Mādhavīyadhātuvṛtti, by Ujjvaladatta, Rāyamukuṭa, Mallinātha, Bharatasena on Bhaṭṭikāvya 14, 63,
—[commentary] on Abhidhānacintāmaṇi Oxf. 185^b. A Nyāsa is also alluded to by Māgha 2, 112.

2) Nyāsa (न्यास):—a gloss on Śākaṭāyana’s grammar. Rice. 308.

3) Nyāsa (न्यास):—[dharma] Oppert. 6515. 6750 (Nyāsakhaṇḍa).

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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