Prayaga, Prayāga, Prayāgā: 25 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Prayaga means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Google Books: Cultural History from the Vāyu Purāna

Prayāga (प्रयाग):—King Aila Purūravas ruled in Prayāga, or Pratiṣṭhāna (or, Pratiṣṭhānta) on the northern banks of the river Yamunā.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—A sacred place situated at the meeting point of Gaṅgā and Yamunā. He who bathes at this holy spot would get the benefit of doing ten aśvamedhas. (Śloka 35, Chapter 84, Vana Parva).

It is believed that at Prayāga there is the presence of Brahmā, devatās, dikpālakas (guardians of the quarters), lokapālakas (guardians of the world), Sādhyas (realised souls), Pitṛs (manes), Maharṣis like Sanatkumāra, Aṅgiras, Brahmarṣis, Nāgas, Garuḍa, Siddhas, Sūryadeva and Mahāviṣṇu. There are three fire-pits there. The river Gaṅgā runs through the centre of these pits. The Centre of the confluence of Gaṅgā and Yamunā is believed to be the waist of the world. There is at Prayāga the world-famous Triveṇī confluence. If one bathes at that place one gets the benefit of Aśvamedha and Rājasūya together.

The greatness of Prayāga is described thus: Prayāgatīrtha, Pratiṣṭhānatīrtha, Kambalatīrtha, Aśvataratīrtha, and Bhogavatītīrtha are said to be the Yāgavedīs of Prajāpati. At such a Prayāga Vedas and Yajñas live personified. If one praises it or chants its name in songs or smears the mud from it on one’s body, one would be absolved of all sins. If one gives away anything in charity at this place or conducts Śrāddha (ceremony of giving offerings to deceased relatives) or does pious mutterings one would get benefits of an imperishable nature. There are about seventy thousand tīrthas in this world, ten thousand of one kind and sixty thousand of another kind. Prayāga has the presence of all these tīrthas and so it is considered as the best of all tīrthas. Here is the Bhogavatītīrtha of Vāsuki and the tīrtha called Haṃsaprapatana. If one bathes in the ponds there for three days together one would get the credit of giving as charity a crore of cows. The three important places are the Gaṅgādvāra, Prayāga and Gaṅgāsāgarasaṅgama. Chapter 211, Agni Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Prayāgā (प्रयागा).—A tīrtha sacred to Hari. Sages of this place visited Dvārakā; was visited by Balarāma;1 capital of the Aila Purūravas on the north bank of the Yamunā.2 Lalitā enshrined at;3 fit for śrāddha;4 occupied by the Kurus,5 represents the nose of the personified Veda;6 a Janapada of the Gupta emperors.7

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VII. 14. 30; X. 90. 28 [3]; XII. 1. 37; X. 79. 10; Matsya-purāṇa 22. 8.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 13. 100; 66. 21; IV. 44. 98; Vāyu-purāṇa 91. 50.
  • 3) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 26.
  • 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 92.
  • 5) Ib. 99. 215.
  • 6) Ib. 104. 76; 106. 69.
  • 7) Ib. 99. 383; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 63; VI. 8. 29.

1b) (Māhātmyam): Markaṇḍeya to Yudhiṣṭhira on; here is Prajāpatikṣetra; people who bathe here go to heaven and who die here are liberated from saṃsāra; guarded by Indra; there are five deep channels in Prayāgā with the Ganges flowing in their midst. Sins are washed off by entering its boundary. The goddess Yamunā, the daughter of the Sun God is ever present: It is a place haunted by the Gods, Asuras, Ṛṣis and Siddhas;1 one who remembers Prayāgā from his own native home or from a foreign place on the eve of his death goes to the world of Brahmā. Leaving the heaven, he is reborn as a King of Jambūdvīpa; gifts of cows, jewels and gold here attain great merit: The giver is born in Uttara Kuru regions and enjoys long life.2 One should not drive to the place in a conveyance drawn by bullocks lest the virtue of bathing should be lost. Giving daughters in marriage, and death near the Akṣayavaṭa helps one in going to the world of Śiva. One should go and do charities with utmost faith. Here are 60 crores and 10000 holy spots; wellknown for a Śiva shrine: Pratiṣṭhāna lies to the east of the Ganges, and to its north lies the Haṃsaprapatana tīrtha. There are again Ūrvaśīramaṇa, Sandhya Vaṭa, Koṭī tīrtha, and others, all holy;3 by merely listening to the greatness of Prayāgā a man gets liberated. To the south of Prayāgā there is a Ṛṇamocana tīrtha where by residing for a night and by bathing, one never runs into debts. A pilgrimage to P. gives the benefit of an Aśvamedha sacrifice: relieves his manes for ten generations: its circumference is five yojanas and every step is sacred: the greatness of the Yamunā described;4 a man dying at P. gets the benefits of a Yogin: the king of all tīrthas P. is again the place where both Kambala and Aśvatara reside. It is the altar of Prajāpati. It is more sacred, being situated on the banks of the Ganges. It is the giver of heaven, the personification of bliss and truth: Reading the Mahātmya takes one to heaven;5 Here Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Śiva are all present. Brahmā stands on the Northern part of the tīrtha to protect it: Viṣṇu is represented as Veṇī Mādhava, while Śiva is present in the shape of a banyan tree. In addition to them, the gods, oceans and mountains also live there. It is known as Prajāpati Indrakṣetra. One who remembers this every day attains heaven. After hearing this, Yudhiṣṭhira is said to have bathed in Prayāgā.6

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa ch. 104.
  • 2) Ib. ch. 105.
  • 3) Ib. ch. 106.
  • 4) Ib. chh. 107-8.
  • 5) Ib. chh. 109-110.
  • 6) Ib. chh. 111-112; 180. 56; 192. 11; 193. 19.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Prayāga (प्रयाग) refers to the name of a Tīrtha (pilgrim’s destination) mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.83.65, III.85.14, VI.46.46). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Prayāga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Prayāga (प्रयाग) is the name of a Tīrtha (holy places) mentioned in the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—The most earliest reference to Prayāga is found in the Ṛgveda (X.75) which states that mokṣa can be secured by taking a dip at the place where two rivers, white (Gaṅgā) and dark (Yamunā) meet together. [...] Prayāga is called tīrtharāja in different Purāṇas.

The Saurapurāṇa (67.17-19a) states that the meeting place of the two rivers Gaṅgā and Yamunā is Prayāga which is also known as tīrtharāja. Having bathed at Prayāga and having seen Maheśvara there a person after death enjoys his desired objects in heaven.

Note: The greatness of Prayāga has been dealt with in the Mahābhārata (3.83.65-80, 85.13-14; 13.26.35-36) and in various Purāṇas. Matsyapurāṇa 102-111; Kūrmapurāṇa 1.14-37. Padmapurāṇa 1.40-49 and Skandapurāṇa IV 7.4-65.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kubjikāmata-tantra

1) Prayāga (प्रयाग):—The name for a ‘sacred site’ associated with the group of eight deities (mātṛ) born from Ātmī, according to the Kubjikāmata-tantra. Ātmī is the second of the Eight Mahāmātṛs, residing within the Mātṛcakra (third of the five cakras) and represents the ātman.

2) Prayāga (प्रयाग):—Sanskrit name for one of the twenty-four sacred sites of the Sūryamaṇḍala, the first maṇḍala of the Khecarīcakra, according to the kubjikāmata-tantra. The Khecarīcakra is the fifth and final cakra located just above the head. Each one of these holy sites (pītha) is presided over by a particular Khecarī (‘sky-goddess’). This Prayāga-pītha is connected with the goddess Vāyuvegā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Prayāga (प्रयाग) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Prayāga) is named Maheśvara. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.

2) Prayāga (प्रयाग) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) to be assigned to face (vaktra) during the pīṭhavidhi (‘ritual of sacred sites’) according to the Tantrāloka chapter 29. This chapter of the Tantrāloka by Abhinavagupta expounds details regarding the Kula initiation ritual. Kula or Kaula is a specific tradition within Śaivism, closely related to Siddhānta and Śaktism. In the Jñānārṇava-tantra it is also mentioned as a pīṭha and is also called Kolvagiri.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)

Prayāga (प्रयाग) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22). Prayāga is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Vāyuvegā accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Pavana. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the dhvaja and their abode is the udumbara-tree. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—(modern Allahabad) a very sacred place, mentioned in the Purāṇas, situated at the confluence of the holy Ganges, Yamunā and Sarasvatī Rivers. A Māgha-melā and a Kumbha-melā are celebrated here. Every year many thousands of pilgrims come to bathe in the holy waters. It was here that Lord Caitanya instructed Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī for ten days.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism

Prayāga (प्रयाग) is the name of a Śāktapīṭha mentioned in the Kulārṇavatantra. The Kulārṇava-tantra is an important 11th century work for the Kaula school of Śāktism. It refers to eighteen such Śākta-pīṭhas (eg. Prayāga) which is defined as a sacred sanctuary of Devī located here on earth. According to legend, there are in total fifty-one such sanctuaries (pīṭha) on earth, created from the corresponding parts of Devī’s body,

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous (P) next»] — Prayaga in Kavya glossary
Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Prayaga (प्रयग) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Allahabad, which is the eastern boundary of the Madhyadeśa or central India. It is bounded by the Himālayas, the Vindhyas and the Vināsana.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study (nirukta)

Prayāga (प्रयाग) can be derived according to the Mahābhārata (3.85.14) which suggests that it is derived from the root yaj meaning to sacrifice. Prajāpati performed a sacrifice here and hence it is called Prayāga. The Skandapurāṇa (IV.7.49) takes two parts—“pra” and “yāga” seperately and explains that it is called Prayāga since it is superior to all sacrifices.

context information

Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: archive.org: Geography in Ancient Indian inscriptions

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—Some of the inscriptions discovered at Bhita near Prayāga (Allahabad) mention the following kings, who were associated with Prayāga:

  1. Mahārāja Gautamiputra Śrīśivamegha.
  2. Rājan Vāsiṣṭhiputra Bhīmasena of 2nd or 3rd century A.D.
  3. Mahārāja Gautamīputra Vṛṣadhvaja of the 3rd or 4th century A.D.

The Aphsad stone inscription of Ādityasena tells us that Kumāragupta, who won victory over the Maukhari king Īśānavarman, performed religious suicide at Prayāga. Prayāga finds mention in Rithpur Plates of Bhavattavarman also.

In the Rāmāyaṇa, Mahābhārata, Sauryopurāṇa and in the Raghuvaṃśa, the saṅgama of the Gaṅgā and the Yamunā and sometimes with Sarasvatī is mentioned at this holy city of Prayāga. Hiuen-tsang refers to the practice of sacrificing one’s life before a Brahmanical temple situated in the middle of the city, due north of the pillar of Aśoka and Samudragupta. Harṣa’s assemblies at Prayāga, every five years, speak of the religious sanctity of the place and the benevolent attitude of the emperor.

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana (history)

Prayāga (प्रयाग) is a celebrated place of pilgrimage at the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna in the Naimiṣa forest (Śiva-purāṇa, Vidyeśvara-saṃhitā I. 4). It is situated on the northern bank of the Ganges (Skanda-purāṇa II.ii.12.36). The name ‘Prayāga’ is recorded by Hwen Thsang in the seventh century and is as old as the reign of Asoka who set up the stone pillar about 235 B. C. The Gupta emperors regarded the confluence at Prayāga as the visible symbol of Madhyadeśa.

Source: What is India: Inscriptions of the Śilāhāras

Prayāga is the name of a village mentioned in the “Tālale plates of Gaṇḍarāditya”. Prayāga where Gaṇḍarāditya caused a lakh Brāhmaṇas to be fed is not the well known tīrtha (modern Allāhābād) in North India, but the place of that name, regarded as holy even now, where the Bhogāvatī and the Kāsārī, two tributaries of the Pañcagaṅgā meet, about four miles north-west of the Kolhāpur City.

These copper plates (mentioning Prayāga) were discovered by Ramchandrarao Appaji while he was digging in a field at Tālale in the Kolhāpur District. It is dated Tuesday, the tenth tithi of the bright fortnight of Māgha in the expired year 1032 (Śaka), the cyclic year being Virodhin. It records the grants made by Gaṇḍarāditya.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

prayāga (प्रयाग).—m (S) A place of pilgrimage, the modern Allahabad, at the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna, with the supposed subterraneous addition of the Saraswati. In comp. it is applied to many places of reputed sanctity, situated at the confluence of two rivers; as dēvaprayāga, karṇaprayāga, nandaprayāga.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

prayāga (प्रयाग).—m A place of pilgrimage, the modern Allahabad.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—

1) A sacrifice.

2) Name of Indra.

3) A horse.

4) Name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage at the confluence of the Gaṅgā and Yamunā near the modern Allahabad; प्रत्यगेव प्रयागाच्च मध्यदेशः प्रकीर्तितः (pratyageva prayāgācca madhyadeśaḥ prakīrtitaḥ) Ms.2.21; (said to be n. also in this sense).

Derivable forms: prayāgaḥ (प्रयागः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—m.

(-gaḥ) 1. Sacrifice, oblation. 2. A celebrated place of pilgrimage, the confluence of the Ganges and Jamuna, with the supposed subterraneous addition of the Saraswati; the modern Allahabad. The term in composition is applied of many places of reputed sanctity, situated at the confluence of two rivers, as Deva-Prayaga, Rudra- Prayaga, Karna-Prayaga, and Nanda-Prayaga, in the Himalaya mountains, which with Prayaga or Allahabad, constitute the five principal places so termed. 3. A name of Indra. 4. A horse. E. pra principal, yaj to worship, and ghañ aff.; actual worship, or the place where worship is peculiarly efficacious; Allahabad is one of the places where Brahma is supposed to have consummated ten As'wamed'has or sacrifices of the horse, in commemoration of his recovery, of the four Vedas from Sank'Hasura.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—i. e. pra-yaj + a, m. 1. Sacrifice. 2. A celebrated place of pilgrimage, the confluence of the Gangā and Yamunā, Chr. 46, 27.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Prayāga (प्रयाग).—[masculine] [Name] of a region (lit. the place of sacrifice), [plural] its inhabitants.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

Prayāga (प्रयाग) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—father of Yadumaṇi, grandfather of Parama (Mukundavijaya 1534). L. 872.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Prayāga (प्रयाग):—[from pra-yaj] a m. ‘place of sacrifice’, Name of a celebrated place of pilgrimage (now called Allāhābād) at the confluence of the Gaṅgā and Yamunā with the supposed subterranean Sarasvatī (also -ka, [Agni-purāṇa]; cf. tri-veṇī; ifc. also in Deva-pilgrimage, Rudra-pilgrimage, Karṇa p° and Nanda-pilgrimage), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc. (cf. [Religious Thought and Life in India 375]; as Name of a country, [Priyadarśikā i, 3/4]; [plural] the inhabitants of P°, [Mahābhārata])

2) [v.s. ...] a sacrifice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. pra-yoga)

4) [v.s. ...] Name of Indra, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a man (also -ka), [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

6) [=pra-yāga] b yāja See pra-√yaj.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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