Tripura, Tripurā, Tri-pura: 26 definitions


Tripura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—A large district on the far eastern side of Bengal, just south of the Śrī Hatta (Sylhet) area of Assam. In olden times Tripura was part of Bengal. The kings of Tripura had a long-standing relationship with Ṭhākura Bhaktivinoda and later with Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura.

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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—A phantom city built by Maya. Origin. Kaśyapa Maharṣi son of Marīci and grandson of Brahmā had many wives. Of them Aditi got the first place and Diti the second place. Both of them were daughters of Dakṣa Devas were born of Aditi and the asuras were born of Diti. Armies of asuras under the leadership of Śūrapadma, Siṃhavaktra, Tārakāsura, Gomukha, Hiraṇyākṣa, and Hiraṇyakaśipu gave immense trouble to the devas. The devas joined together under the leadership of Indra and fought the asuras. The nectar received from the ocean of Milk always made the devas the conquerors. When Subrahmaṇya slew Tārakāsura the asuras became very weak. At this stage Kamalākṣa, Tārakākṣa and Vidyunmālī, sons of Tārakāsura, did severe penance and made Brahmā appear before them. They demanded a boon that they would never be killed by anybody in any of the three worlds. Brahmā told them to ask any boon other than that. Then they said: "Great Lord, we must live in three cities and then roam about freely in the three worlds by your grace. Every thousand years all the three of us should join together at a place with our cities. After that meeting, we should separate and roam about freely for another thousand years. If at all there is death for us, it should occur only when we three are together and that also by one arrow." Brahmā granted the boon and disappeared. (See full article at Story of Tripura from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Tripura (त्रिपुर) refers to the “three cities” (built by Maya for the Asuras), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.5.1 (“Description of Tripura—the three cities).—Accordingly, as Brahmā ordered Maya to build the three cities: “Then the intelligent Maya built the cities by means of his penance: the golden one for Tārakākṣa, the silver one for Kamalākṣa and the steel one for Vidyunmālī. The three fortlike excellent cities were in order in heaven, sky and on the earth. After building the three cities (tripura) for the Asuras, Maya established them there desiring their welfare. Entering the three cities (tripura) thus, the sons of Tāraka, of great strength and valour experienced all enjoyments. [...].

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tripura (त्रिपुर).—A city built by Māyā, of gold, silver and iron fortifications for the sake of Asuras.1 Really three towns under Tāraka, Maya and Vidyunmāli; city described. Battle of Tripuram; march of Śiva's army. First battle at Tārakākhyapuram; non-combatants visiting it; fight between Nandi and Vidyunmāli; Tāraka's fight with the Gaṇas; actual battle on the shores of the western sea, described; battle in the air and under water; Tāraka slain by Nandi, as also Vidyunmāli; burning the city including women and children by Śiva.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 17. 13; V. 24. 28; VII. 10. 54 and 68. VIII. 6. 31; XI. 16. 20; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 72. 82. Vāyu-purāṇa 97. 82.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa Chh. 129-130; Chh. 135-140; 187. 8, 14-6; 188. 9-10.

1b) An Asura having his city in the third Talam.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 20. 27; III. 38. 4.

1c) A Tīrtham sacred to Pitṛs.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 22. 43.

2) Tripurā (त्रिपुरा).—A name of Lalitā; worship of.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 5. 31.
Source: Archaeological Survey of India: Śaiva monuments at Paṭṭadakal (purāṇa)

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—With one arrow Śiva reduces to ashes three pura, towns with formidable fort walls, which were built by Maya the architect of demons. These towns were in possession of three demons Tārākṣa, Kamalākṣa and Vidyunmāli, sons of demon Tārakāsura. Owing to their invincibility, the three demons become very haughty and a menace to the earth. They cannot be conquered by ordinary heroes. Some super natural energy is necessary and Śiva fulfilled that need.

The Matsyapurāṇa describes the arrow thus: “The arrow with which Śiva consumed the castle Tripura was forged with the potency of the three Devas: 1) Mahā Viṣṇu, 2) Soma, and 3) Agni. ….. Viṣṇu presented himself in the form of violence and strength”.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Tripura (त्रिपुर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.38, VI.83.9) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Tripura) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Tripura (त्रिपुर) was destroyed by Śiva, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the description of Tripura; entrance of Māyin sent by Viṣṇu in Tripura to delude the inhabitants; the eulogy of Śiva by Viṣṇu for the destruction of Tripura, the description of Śiva’s chariot and destruction of Tripura by Śiva—are  all described vividly in chapters thirty-four and thirty-five.

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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Tripura (त्रिपुर) is the name of a country pertaining to the Āvantī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. It is also known by the name Traipura. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the grand style (sāttvatī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).

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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Tripura in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Tripurā (त्रिपुरा) is one of the epithets of Durgā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 53. Accordingly, as Vīravara praised Durgā: “... thou art the principle of life in creatures; by thee this world moves. In the beginning of creation Śiva beheld thee self-produced, blazing and illuminating the world with brightness hard to behold, like ten million orbs of fiery suddenly produced infant suns rising at once, filling the whole horizon with the circle of thy arms, bearing a sword, a club, a bow, arrows and a spear. And thou wast praised by that god Śiva in the following words ... [Tripurā, etc...]”.

Also, “... when Skanda, and Vasiṣṭha, and Brahmā, and the others heard thee praised, under these [eg., Tripurā] and other titles, by Śiva well skilled in praising, they also praised thee. And by praising thee, O adorable one, immortals, Ṛṣis and men obtained, and do now obtain, boons above their desire. ”

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Tripurā, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Tripura (त्रिपुर) is the name of a saṃdoha (meeting place) [or upasaṃdoha—secondary meeting place?), according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra verse 3.135-138, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—The first saṃdoha of the Yoginīs was emanated near to Śrīgiri and the second near the town of Ujjayinī. The others are Trikūṭa, Tripura, Gopura, Bhadrakarṇa ([Manuscript] Kh: Bhadrakaṣṭa; [Manuscript] G: Bhadrakīrṇa), Kirāta, the region of Kaśmīra, Sauvala (kh: Sauvara, g: Śaivāla) and Sindhudeśa.

2) Tripurā (त्रिपुरा) refers to the “threefold Goddess Tripurā (who is Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Īśa)”, according to the Nityāṣoḍaśikārṇava (also called Vāmakeśvarīmata), the root Tantra of Tripurā inspired by Trika doctrine and reinforced by the teachings of the Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “Tripurā, the Supreme Power is the first-born here (in this world)... Once she has assimilated all the seed letters (into herself), Vāmā abides (in the form of) a sprout. Then Jyeṣṭhā (assumes the form) of (a straight line which is like a) flame (śikhā). O Supreme Goddess, (when) she assumes the (triangular) form of a water chestnut, (she is) Raudrī, whose nature is to devour the universe. She is that Supreme Power who is the one Supreme Goddess (Parameśvarī), the threefold Goddess Tripurā who is Brahmā, Viṣṇu and Īśa. O beloved, she is the power of will, knowledge and action. She emanates the Triple World and so she is called Tripurā”.

3) Tripura (त्रिपुर) refers to the “three abodes” (of all the triads), according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, [while describing the Niṣkala Form of Śrīnātha]—“[...] (Navātman), the Tree called Kadamba, is the teacher who possesses the three abodes (tripurānvita) (of all the triads). Accompanied by (the Six Yoginīs) Ḍā (Ḍākinī), Rā (Rākinī), Lā (Lākinī), Kā (Kākinī) Śā (Śākinī) and Hā (Hākinī) (who surround him in the corners of the Hexagram), he is called Śrīnātha, the Stainless One. [...]”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Tripura (त्रिपुर) refers to an ancient kingdom identified with modern Tippera, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If the sun and moon should begin to be eclipsed when only half risen, deceitful men will suffer as well as sacrificial rites. [...] If the sun and moon should be eclipsed when in the sign of Leo (Siṃha) hill men, prince like people possessed of a single military force, princes and forest men will suffer miseries. If they should be eclipsed when in the sign of Virgo (Kanyā), crops, poets, writers and singers will suffer and the rice fields of Aśmaka and Tripura will be destroyed”.

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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Google Books: The Yoginihrdaya, a Sanskrit Tantric Treatise (iconography)

Tripura (त्रिपुर) refers to the tradition of worshiping Goddess Tripurasundarī.—There also does not seem to exist any iconographical evidence of Tripura’s worship before the tenth or eleventh century. It has indeed been suggested that an allusion to the śrīvidyā and perhaps to the śrīcakra is to be found in the South Indian Tamil work Tirumantiram, which some scholars date as far back as the seventh or eighth century. This, however, remains to be proved. There is also a belief in the modern Śrīvidyā tradition that a śrīcakra was installed in Śṛṅgerī, together with an image of the goddess Śāradā, by Śaṅkarācārya (8th c.).

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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Tripura (त्रिपुर, ‘a threefold stronghold’) is alluded to in the Brāhmaṇas as a secure protection. But as the passages are mythical no stress can be laid on them as evidence for the existence of forts with three concentric walls.

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Tripura (त्रिपुरा): Tripura (meaning three cities, in Sanskrit) was constructed by the great architect Mayasura. They were great cities of prosperity, power and dominance over the world, but due to their impious nature, Maya's cities were destroyed by Lord Shiva.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Tripura (त्रिपुर) is the name of an ancient city, according to chapter 5.2 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as a Goddess said to Sumati:—“[...] One day they (i.e., Kanakaśrī and Dhanaśrī) went out of curiosity to an aśoka-grove filled with pleasure-peaks, streams, tanks, and numerous kinds of trees. While they were playing there different games on a river-bank, a young Khecara, Vīrāṅga, the lord of Tripura, kidnaped them. His noble-hearted wife, Vajraśyāmalikā, made him release them, like a lion a pair of does. The girls fell instantly from the sky, like goddesses banished to earth by a curse, on a patch of bamboo on a river-bank in a terrible forest. [...]”.

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tripura (त्रिपुर).—n (S) A district, the modern Tipperah. 2 m A large lamp burned before the idol on the day of the full moon of Kartik; esp. as placed on the lamp-pillar standing in front of the temple. 3 The lights which, on the day of Shivaratra, women burn before the image of Shiva. 4 The lamppillar which is erected in front of a temple.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tripura (त्रिपुर).—m A large lamp burnt before the idol on the 15th of kārtika.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—

1) a collection of three cities.

2) the three cities of gold, silver, and iron in the sky, air and earth built for demons by Maya; (these cities were burnt down, along the demons inhabiting them, by Śiva at the request of the gods); Kumārasambhava 7.48; Amaruśataka 2; संरक्ताभिस्त्रिपुरविजयो गीयते किन्नरीभिः (saṃraktābhistripuravijayo gīyate kinnarībhiḥ) Meghadūta 56; Bhartṛhari 3.123;

-raḥ Name of a demon or demons presiding over these cities. °अधिपतिः (adhipatiḥ) Name of Maya, °अन्तकः, °अरिः, °घ्नः, °दहनः, °द्विष् (antakaḥ, °ariḥ, °ghnaḥ, °dahanaḥ, °dviṣ) m., हरः (haraḥ) &c. epithets of Śiva; अये गौरीनाथ त्रिपुरहर शम्भो त्रिनयन (aye gaurīnātha tripurahara śambho trinayana) Bhartṛhari 3.123; R.17.14. °दाहः (dāhaḥ) burning of the three cities; मुहुरनुस्मरयन्तमनुक्षपं त्रिपुरदाहमुमापतिसेविनः (muhuranusmarayantamanukṣapaṃ tripuradāhamumāpatisevinaḥ) Kirātārjunīya 5.14. °सुन्दरी (sundarī) Durgā. (-) 1 Name of a place near Jabalpura, formerly capital of the kings of Chedi.

Derivable forms: tripuram (त्रिपुरम्).

Tripura is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms tri and pura (पुर).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—name of a locality: Mahā-Māyūrī 88 (app. not the same as Sanskrit Tripurī which occurs Mahā-Māyūrī 50).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—nf. (-raṃ-rī) 1. The three cities gold, silver and iron erected by the demon Maya and burnt down by Siva. 2. A district, the modern Tipperah, &c. m.

(-raḥ) The name of an Asura, and king of Tripura. E. tri three, and pura a city, the district and dominion of that Asura, consisting of three strong and famous cities.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tripura (त्रिपुर).—[neuter] the triple city or the three cities (of the Asuras, destroyed by Śiva); also [Name] of the capital of the Cedis.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tripura (त्रिपुर):—[=tri-pura] [from tri] n. sg. idem (built of gold, silver, and iron, in the sky, air, and earth, by Maya for the Asuras, and burnt by Śiva, [Mahābhārata] etc.; cf. [Taittirīya-saṃhitā vi, 2, 3, 1]), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa vi, 3, 3, 25; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa ii, 11; Śāṅkhāyana-brāhmaṇa], Name of an Up.

2) [v.s. ...] of a town, [Kṣitīśa-vaṃśāvalī-carita iii, 17]

3) [v.s. ...] m. Śiva, [Śaktiratnākara v]

4) [v.s. ...] the Asura Bāṇa, [Revā-khaṇḍa]

5) Tripurā (त्रिपुरा):—[=tri-purā] [from tri-pura > tri] a f. a kind of cardamoms (cf. -puṭā), [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of rice, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of sorcery, [Śāradā-tilaka xii]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of an, [Upaniṣad]

9) [v.s. ...] Durgā, [Kālikā-purāṇa; Tantrasāra; Pañcadaṇḍacchattra-prabandha]

10) [=tri-purā] [from tri] b f. See ra

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tripura (त्रिपुर):—[tri-pura] (raṃ-rī) 1. n. 3. f. A district. m. A king of it; a demon.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Tripura (त्रिपुर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Tiura.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tripura in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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