Carana, aka: Cāraṇa, Caraṇa; 18 Definition(s)


Carana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Charana.

In Hinduism

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Cāraṇa (चारण):—Tenth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Cāraṇa-saṃskāra is mainly used for transmutational alchemical purposes. In other words: the last ten saṃskāras are sequentially used for the ends of transmutational and elixir alchemy. Cāraṇa refers to the process called the ‘coursing’ of the mercury. What happens, is the corrosion (cāraṇa) of the mica or metal by mercury.

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Cāraṇa (literally “coursing”) is a phase in an alchemical process, invloving the “chewing” of the mica or metal by mercury.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Caraṇa (चरण, “amalgamation”) represents to the tenth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (eg., caraṇa) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

Source: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)
Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Rasashastra from relevant books on Exotic India


Carana in Purana glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

Cāraṇa (चारण) refers to a class of professional singers that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to four classes of professional singers viz. Sūta, Māgadha, Vandī and Cāraṇa who, according to the Dharmaśāstras, maintained themselves by lauding the deeds of others. Their mention in one and the same line indicates that some difference, may be minute, was believed to be existing in these different types of singers.

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Cāraṇa (चारण).—Spies employed by Pṛthu, also Cāras (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 16. 12.

1b) Divine songsters.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 36; 6. 14; IV. 20. 35; V. 1. 8; VI. 7. 3; VII. 8. 38; X. 3. 6; 4. 11; 25-31; 62. 19. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 10, 23, III. 5. 16; 10. 37; IV. 33. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 191; 34. 21; 35. 19 and 58. 47. 46; 72. 35.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Vastushastra (architecture)

Caraṇa (चरण) is another name (synonym) for stambha, a Sanskrit technical term referring to “pillar”. These synonyms are defined in texts such as Mayamata (verse 15.2), Mānasāra (verse 15.2-3), Kāśyapaśilpa (verse 8.2) and Īśānaśivagurudevapaddati (Kriya, verses 31.19-20).

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Vastushastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Caraṇa (चरण).—Explained as a synonym of the word शाखा (śākhā) which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; cf. चरण-शब्दाः कठकलापादयः (caraṇa-śabdāḥ kaṭhakalāpādayaḥ): Kas. on P.IV.2.46.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Cāraṇa (चारण) are singing songs for the Lord, who have come down from the heaven on his vehicle Garuḍa to save the elephant.

The five cāraṇas are

  1. Uragendra,
  2. Kinnara,
  3. Apsaras,
  4. Sudakṣa (yakṣa),
  5. Siddha.

As there is a practice to give comfort to lord by using cāmara (a fan), the celestial beings pray to God and with their prayers try to make God happy. In the verse 138 of the Vṛttagajendramokṣa, which is written in Pañcacāmara metre, five wondering singers, dancers etc. Hence the name of the metre is justified.

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Chandas from relevant books on Exotic India

Itihasa (narrative history)

Cāraṇa (चारण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.82.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cāraṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
context information

Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Itihasa from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Caraṇa] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

s. vijjā-carana.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Cāraṇa (चारण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Cāraṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Cāraṇa (चारण) or Cāraṇariddhi refers to the “capability to move in the sky” and represents one of the two types of extraordinary activity (kriyā), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

Cāraṇa means experts who have attained high standards in right conduct, self restraint and abstinence from sinful activities. The extraordinary capability to move in the sky (without causing obstructions or hurt others) is called Cāraṇa-riddhi. It is of nine types namely:

  1. walk above water (jalacāraṇa),
  2. walk over earth (jaṅghācāraṇa),
  3. walk over flowers (puṣpacāraṇa),
  4. walk over fruits (phalacāraṇa),
  5. walking over leaves (patracāraṇa),
  6. walking over mountain peaks (śreṇicāraṇa),
  7. walking over creepers and spider webs (tantucāraṇa),
  8. walking over flames of fire (agniśikhācāraṇa).



Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Carana in Pali glossary... « previous · [C] · next »

caraṇa : (nt.) walking about; the foot; conduct; behaviour. || caraṇā (f.), wandering. cāraṇa (nt.) to causing move or act; management.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Cāraṇa, (adj.)=cāraka Sn. 162 (saṃsuddha°). (Page 265)

— or —

Caraṇa, (nt.) (of a deer, called pañca-hattha “having 5 hands, " i.e. the mouth and the 4 feet) 1. walking about, grazing, feeding VvA. 308 (°ṭṭhāna).—2. the foot Vin. IV, 212; J. V, 431.—3. acting, behaviour, good conduct, freq. in combn with vijjā, e.g. A. II, 163; V, 327; Dh. 144; Vism. 202 (in detail); PvA. 1, etc. ‹-› D. III, 97, 156; Sn. 410, 462, 536; Miln. 24. sampannacaraṇa (adj.) accomplished in right behaviour S. I, 153, 166; Sn. 1126; Pv. II, 138.—Cp. sañ°. (Page 263)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

caraṇa (चरण).—n (S) A foot. 2 fig. A metrical foot. 3 A quarter or fourth (as of a shlok, of a rupee &c.) 4 or prathamacaraṇa The beginning or first part. 5 A portion of a Prakrit poem or song as defined by the choral stanza. 6 n m A foot or a fourth part of hastanakṣatra. The four parts are, according to Kun̤bi-authority, lōkhaṇḍācā, tāmbyācā, rupyācā, sō- nyācā, or lōkhaṇḍī, tāmbērī, rupērī, sōnērī. Because rain, falling under the first, hardens the ground; falling under the second, it is better, and so on improvingly. caraṇa dharaṇēṃ or caraṇīṃ lāgaṇēṃ g. of o. To seek the protection of; to take refuge with, or to cling to dependently or humbly: also to embrace the feet in supplication or entreaty. Ex. saumitra caraṇīṃ lāgalā || tē sthaḷīṃ śaṅkara sthāpilā ||.

--- OR ---

caraṇa (चरण).—f (caraṇēṃ) Pasture; pasture-grass or a pasture-ground. 2 unc Price of pasturage. 3 unc Depasturing or grazing. Ex. tyā mhaśīcī ca0 tvarita.

--- OR ---

cāraṇa (चारण).—m (cara S Because they are always on the move.) A caste or an individual of it. They are carriers of grain, salt &c. The is tsa.

--- OR ---

cāraṇa (चारण).—m S A personage among the gods, the panegyrist.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caraṇa (चरण).—n A foot. A metrical foot. A quarter or fourth. caraṇa varaṇēṃ or caraṇī lāgaṇēṃ To seek the protection of.

--- OR ---

caraṇa (चरण).—f Pasture; pasture-grass or a pas- ture-ground. Price of pasturage. Depasturing or grazing.

--- OR ---

cāraṇa (चारण).—m The panegyrist. A caste.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—[car-karaṇe lyuṭ]

1) A foot; शिरसि चरण एष न्यस्यते वारयैनम् (śirasi caraṇa eṣa nyasyate vārayainam) Ve.3.38; जात्या काममवध्योऽसि चरणं त्विदमुद्धृतम् (jātyā kāmamavadhyo'si caraṇaṃ tvidamuddhṛtam) 39.

2) A support, pillar, prop.

3) The root of a tree.

4) The single line of a stanza.

5) A quarter.

6) A school or branch of any of the Vedas; e. g. चरणगुरवः (caraṇaguravaḥ) Mv.1; Māl.1; Pt.4.3.

7) A race.

8) (In prosody) A dactyl.

-ṇaḥ A foot-soldier.

2) A ray of light.

-ṇam 1 Moving, roaming, wandering.

2) Performance, practising; Ms.6.75.

3) Conduct of life, behaviour (moral).

4) Accomplishment.

5) Eating, consuming.

6) Course.

7) Acting, dealing, managing, conduct.

8) Fixed observance of any class, age (as priesthood &c.);

9) studying under strict rules of ब्रह्मचर्य (brahmacarya); विशुद्धवीर्याश्चरणोपपन्नाः (viśuddhavīryāścaraṇopapannāḥ) Mb.5.3.7.

Derivable forms: caraṇaḥ (चरणः), caraṇam (चरणम्).

--- OR ---

Cāraṇa (चारण).—[cārayati kīrtiṃ car-ṇic lyu]

1) A wanderer, a pilgrim.

2) A wandering actor or singer, a dancer, mimic, bard; Ms.12.44.

3) A celestial singer, heavenly chorister; सिद्धचारणविद्याध्रानृषीन् पितृपतीन् मनून् (siddhacāraṇavidyādhrānṛṣīn pitṛpatīn manūn) Bhāg.7.4.6; Ś.2.14.

4) A reader of scriptures.

5) A spy. अन्तर्बहिश्च भूतानां पश्यन् कर्माणि चारणैः (antarbahiśca bhūtānāṃ paśyan karmāṇi cāraṇaiḥ) Bhāg.4.16.12.

Derivable forms: cāraṇaḥ (चारणः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of carana in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Relevant definitions

Search found 108 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Caraṇācala (चरणाचल).—The setting mountain; यातोऽस्तमेष चरमाचलचूड- चुम्बी (yāto'stameṣa caramāca...
Caraṇāmṛta (चरणामृत).—water in which the feet of a (revered) Brāhmaṇa or spiritual guide have b...
Dvicaraṇa (द्विचरण).—a. having two legs, two-legged; द्विचरणपशूनां क्षितिभुजाम् (dvicaraṇapaśūn...
Dharmacaraṇa (धर्मचरण).—observance of the law, performance of religious duties; शिवेन भर्त्रा स...
Caraṇāyudha (चरणायुध).—a cock; आकर्ण्य संप्रति रुतं चरणायुधानाम् (ākarṇya saṃprati rutaṃ caraṇā...
Jaṅghācāraṇa (जङ्घाचारण) or Jaṅghācāraṇariddhi refers to the “powers to walk over earth” and, c...
Puṣpacāraṇa (पुष्पचारण) or Puṣpacāraṇariddhi refers to the “powers to walk over flowers” and, c...
Phalacāraṇa (फलचारण) or Phalacāraṇariddhi refers to the “powers to walk over fruits” and, class...
Patracāraṇa (पत्रचारण) or Patracāraṇariddhi refers to the “powers to walk over leaves” and, cla...
Jalacāraṇa (जलचारण) or Jalacāraṇariddhi refers to the “powers to walk above water” and, classif...
Caraṇakamala (चरणकमल).—a lotuslike foot. Derivable forms: caraṇakamalam (चरणकमलम्).Caraṇakamala...
Caraṇaparvan (चरणपर्वन्).—n. the ankle. Caraṇaparvan is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the t...
Caraṇapatana (चरणपतन).—falling down or prostration (at the feet of another); Amaru.17. Derivabl...
Caraṇagata (चरणगत).—a. fallen at the feet, prostrate. Caraṇagata is a Sanskrit compound consist...
Caraṇasevā (चरणसेवा).—1) prostration. 2) service, devotion.Caraṇasevā is a Sanskrit compound co...

Relevant text

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: