Carana, aka: Cāraṇa, Caraṇa; 21 Definition(s)
Carana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Charana.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Cāraṇa (चारण):—Tenth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Cāraṇa-saṃskāra is mainly used for transmutational alchemical purposes. In other words: the last ten saṃskāras are sequentially used for the ends of transmutational and elixir alchemy. Cāraṇa refers to the process called the ‘coursing’ of the mercury. What happens, is the corrosion (cāraṇa) of the mica or metal by mercury.Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Cāraṇa (literally “coursing”) is a phase in an alchemical process, invloving the “chewing” of the mica or metal by mercury.Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body
Caraṇa (चरण, “amalgamation”) represents to the tenth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.
Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (eg., caraṇa) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.Source: archive.org: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Cāraṇa (चारण) refers to a class of professional singers that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to four classes of professional singers viz. Sūta, Māgadha, Vandī and Cāraṇa who, according to the Dharmaśāstras, maintained themselves by lauding the deeds of others. Their mention in one and the same line indicates that some difference, may be minute, was believed to be existing in these different types of singers.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1a) Cāraṇa (चारण).—Spies employed by Pṛthu, also Cāras (s.v.).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 16. 12.
1b) Divine songsters.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 36; 6. 14; IV. 20. 35; V. 1. 8; VI. 7. 3; VII. 8. 38; X. 3. 6; 4. 11; 25-31; 62. 19. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 10, 23, III. 5. 16; 10. 37; IV. 33. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 191; 34. 21; 35. 19 and 58. 47. 46; 72. 35.
Cāraṇa (चारण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.82.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cāraṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Caraṇa (चरण) is another name (synonym) for stambha, a Sanskrit technical term referring to “pillar”. These synonyms are defined in texts such as Mayamata (verse 15.2), Mānasāra (verse 15.2-3), Kāśyapaśilpa (verse 8.2) and Īśānaśivagurudevapaddati (Kriya, verses 31.19-20).Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)
Caraṇa (चरण).—Explained as a synonym of the word शाखा (śākhā) which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; cf. चरण-शब्दाः कठकलापादयः (caraṇa-śabdāḥ kaṭhakalāpādayaḥ): Kas. on P.IV.2.46.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)
Cāraṇa (चारण) are singing songs for the Lord, who have come down from the heaven on his vehicle Garuḍa to save the elephant.
The five cāraṇas are
- Sudakṣa (yakṣa),
As there is a practice to give comfort to lord by using cāmara (a fan), the celestial beings pray to God and with their prayers try to make God happy. In the verse 138 of the Vṛttagajendramokṣa, which is written in Pañcacāmara metre, five wondering singers, dancers etc. Hence the name of the metre is justified.Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Caraṇa] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
s. vijjā-carana.Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Cāraṇa (चारण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Cāraṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Cāraṇa (चारण) or Cāraṇariddhi refers to the “capability to move in the sky” and represents one of the two types of extraordinary activity (kriyā), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).
Cāraṇa means experts who have attained high standards in right conduct, self restraint and abstinence from sinful activities. The extraordinary capability to move in the sky (without causing obstructions or hurt others) is called Cāraṇa-riddhi. It is of nine types namely:
- walk above water (jalacāraṇa),
- walk over earth (jaṅghācāraṇa),
- walk over flowers (puṣpacāraṇa),
- walk over fruits (phalacāraṇa),
- walking over leaves (patracāraṇa),
- walking over mountain peaks (śreṇicāraṇa),
- walking over creepers and spider webs (tantucāraṇa),
- walking over flames of fire (agniśikhācāraṇa).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Caraṇa.—(CII 4; IA 18, 20), a Vedic school; a sect or school studying a particular śākhā of the Vedas; e. g. Taittirīya-caraṇa. (CII 1), same as ācaraṇa; cf. dharma-caraṇa for dharm-ācaraṇa. Note: caraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Cāraṇa.—(EI 3), same as Vidyā-cāraṇa, a Jain monk endowed with magical powers. Cf. harita-pakva-sasy-ekṣu-cāraṇa-lavaṇ-opamardana (IE 8-5); grazing of cattle. Note: cāraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
caraṇa : (nt.) walking about; the foot; conduct; behaviour. || caraṇā (f.), wandering. cāraṇa (nt.) to causing move or act; management.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Cāraṇa, (adj.)=cāraka Sn. 162 (saṃsuddha°). (Page 265)
— or —
Caraṇa, (nt.) (of a deer, called pañca-hattha “having 5 hands,” i.e. the mouth and the 4 feet) 1. walking about, grazing, feeding VvA. 308 (°ṭṭhāna).—2. the foot Vin. IV, 212; J. V, 431.—3. acting, behaviour, good conduct, frequent in combination with vijjā, e.g. A. II, 163; V, 327; Dh. 144; Vism. 202 (in detail); PvA. 1, etc. ‹-› D. III, 97, 156; Sn. 410, 462, 536; Miln. 24. sampannacaraṇa (adj.) accomplished in right behaviour S. I, 153, 166; Sn. 1126; Pv. II, 138.—Cp. sañ°. (Page 263)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
caraṇa (चरण).—n (S) A foot. 2 fig. A metrical foot. 3 A quarter or fourth (as of a shlok, of a rupee &c.) 4 or prathamacaraṇa The beginning or first part. 5 A portion of a Prakrit poem or song as defined by the choral stanza. 6 n m A foot or a fourth part of hastanakṣatra. The four parts are, according to Kun̤bi-authority, lōkhaṇḍācā, tāmbyācā, rupyācā, sō- nyācā, or lōkhaṇḍī, tāmbērī, rupērī, sōnērī. Because rain, falling under the first, hardens the ground; falling under the second, it is better, and so on improvingly. caraṇa dharaṇēṃ or caraṇīṃ lāgaṇēṃ g. of o. To seek the protection of; to take refuge with, or to cling to dependently or humbly: also to embrace the feet in supplication or entreaty. Ex. saumitra caraṇīṃ lāgalā || tē sthaḷīṃ śaṅkara sthāpilā ||.
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caraṇa (चरण).—f (caraṇēṃ) Pasture; pasture-grass or a pasture-ground. 2 unc Price of pasturage. 3 unc Depasturing or grazing. Ex. tyā mhaśīcī ca0 tvarita.
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cāraṇa (चारण).—m (cara S Because they are always on the move.) A caste or an individual of it. They are carriers of grain, salt &c. The cā is tsa.
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cāraṇa (चारण).—m S A personage among the gods, the panegyrist.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
caraṇa (चरण).—n A foot. A metrical foot. A quarter or fourth. caraṇa varaṇēṃ or caraṇī lāgaṇēṃ To seek the protection of.
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caraṇa (चरण).—f Pasture; pasture-grass or a pas- ture-ground. Price of pasturage. Depasturing or grazing.
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cāraṇa (चारण).—m The panegyrist. A caste.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Caraṇa (चरण).—[car-karaṇe lyuṭ]
1) A foot; शिरसि चरण एष न्यस्यते वारयैनम् (śirasi caraṇa eṣa nyasyate vārayainam) Ve.3.38; जात्या काममवध्योऽसि चरणं त्विदमुद्धृतम् (jātyā kāmamavadhyo'si caraṇaṃ tvidamuddhṛtam) 39.
2) A support, pillar, prop.
3) The root of a tree.
4) The single line of a stanza.
5) A quarter.
6) A school or branch of any of the Vedas; e. g. चरणगुरवः (caraṇaguravaḥ) Mv.1; Māl.1; Pt.4.3.
7) A race.
8) (In prosody) A dactyl.
-ṇaḥ A foot-soldier.
2) A ray of light.
-ṇam 1 Moving, roaming, wandering.
2) Performance, practising; Ms.6.75.
3) Conduct of life, behaviour (moral).
5) Eating, consuming.
7) Acting, dealing, managing, conduct.
8) Fixed observance of any class, age (as priesthood &c.);
9) studying under strict rules of ब्रह्मचर्य (brahmacarya); विशुद्धवीर्याश्चरणोपपन्नाः (viśuddhavīryāścaraṇopapannāḥ) Mb.5.3.7.
Derivable forms: caraṇaḥ (चरणः), caraṇam (चरणम्).
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Cāraṇa (चारण).—[cārayati kīrtiṃ car-ṇic lyu]
1) A wanderer, a pilgrim.
2) A wandering actor or singer, a dancer, mimic, bard; Ms.12.44.
3) A celestial singer, heavenly chorister; सिद्धचारणविद्याध्रानृषीन् पितृपतीन् मनून् (siddhacāraṇavidyādhrānṛṣīn pitṛpatīn manūn) Bhāg.7.4.6; Ś.2.14.
4) A reader of scriptures.
5) A spy. अन्तर्बहिश्च भूतानां पश्यन् कर्माणि चारणैः (antarbahiśca bhūtānāṃ paśyan karmāṇi cāraṇaiḥ) Bhāg.4.16.12.
Derivable forms: cāraṇaḥ (चारणः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Caraṇa (चरण).—nt., (1) a high number: Mvy 7914 (cited from Gv; Tibetan gdab yas); Gv 106.16; 133.26; (2) residence (of a king): rājñaś caraṇa-koṣṭhe MSV ii.61.12, on the top part of the king's residence; so Tibetan, rgyal poḥi (king's) khap (read khab, residence, of a king) kyi (gen. suffix) khaṅ (house) tog tu (on top); for this meaning of koṣṭha compare dvāra-koṣṭha(ka).
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Cāraṇa (चारण).—(nt.; = Pali id., see below; = Sanskrit caraṇa), (1) conduct, practice; in Pali, Sn 162, comm. takes ā as m.c., which it could be in Mv i.177.2, but elsewhere in prose: Mv i.177.2 (verse) anupakruṣṭa-cāraṇā; Gv 333.2 dharmāṇāṃ grahaṇa-cāraṇa-pratibodhiṣu (dvandva); (2) trained, skilled behavior; practice of an acquired art (Tibetan cited as bslab pa, regularly = śikṣā): MSV i.34.11 (hasti- damako…) hastiratnam ekāhnā sarva-cāraṇebhir upa- saṃkrāmati, and in sequel; likewise with aśvaratnam (both of a cakravartin) i.35.11 ff.; both prose; (3) (rare in Sanskrit: pasturing, tending of animals: MSV iv.227.18.)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) 1. A foot. 2. The root of a tree. A race, a family. 4. A portion of the Vedas, 5. Fixed or instituted observance. 6. The peculiarity of condition or conduct implied by the English affix hood, as manhood, priesthood, &c. 7. The fourth part of a stanza. 4. (in Prosody,) A dactyl. n.
(-ṇaṃ) 1. Wandering, roaming, going round or about. 2. Eating. E. to car go affix karaṇe lyuṭ.
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(-ṇaḥ) 1. A dancer, a mime. 2. An actor of note. 3. A reader of scripture. 4. A panegyrist of the gods. 5. A bard, a herald. 6. A celestial singer. 7. A spy. 8. A pilgrim. E. cara in the causal, to cause to go, to diffuse, (fame, &c.) and ṇic lyuṭ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Starts with (+15): Caranabharana, Caranacala, Caranadara, Caranadhuli, Caranagata, Caranagranthi, Caranakamala, Caranakishalaya, Caranamrita, Carananamita, Caranangushtha, Carananyasa, Caranapa, Caranapadma, Caranaparvan, Caranapata, Caranapatana, Caranapatita, Caranaravinda, Caranarddha.
Ends with (+70): Abhicarana, Acarana, Adhicarana, Adhyacarana, Aggiparicarana, Agnishikhacarana, Anacarana, Anucarana, Anusamcarana, Anusancarana, Anuvicarana, Aticarana, Avacarana, Balaparicarana, Balopacarana, Bhagnadantoccarana, Bhaikshacarana, Bhericarana, Bhikshacarana, Carucarana.
Full-text (+112): Caranadara, Caranacala, Caranaseva, Caranagranthi, Caranaskandana, Caranapatita, Caranagata, Caranapata, Bhaikshacarana, Nadicarana, Caranaravinda, Caranodaka, Rathacarana, Vidya-carana, Parushakasthali, Pratibodhi, Koshtha, Yugala, Devasarga, Caranabharana.
Search found 49 books and stories containing Carana, Cāraṇa, Caraṇa; (plurals include: Caranas, Cāraṇas, Caraṇas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Great Chronicle of Buddhas (by Ven. Mingun Sayadaw)
Part 6f - Fifteen Kinds of Conduct and Fivefold Higher Knowledge < [Chapter 7 - On Miscellany]
Buddha attributes (3): Vijjācaraṇa sampanno < [Chapter 42 - The Dhamma Ratanā]
Part 10 - Story of Pokkharasāti Brahmin and Ambaṭṭha < [Chapter 35 - Story of Māra]
Śrī Hari-bhakti-kalpa-latikā (by Sarasvati Thkura)
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 8.362 < [Section XLVI - Adultery]
Verse 12.42-44 < [Section VIII - States of Existence due to the Three Qualities]
Verse 2.199 < [Section XXX - Rules to be observed by the Religious Student]
Śrī Kṛṣṇa-vijaya (by Śrī Gunaraja Khan)
Gautama Dharmasūtra (by Gautama)