Carana, Cāraṇa, Caraṇa, Caraná: 46 definitions


Carana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Charana.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Rasashastra (Alchemy and Herbo-Mineral preparations)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Cāraṇa (चारण):—Tenth of the eighteen Saṃskāra (special purification process). They are used to purify rasa (mercury) as per Rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy), and are mentioned in texts such as the Rasaprakāśasudhākara. In Āyurveda, Saṃskāra refers to the “detoxification” process of metals and herbs. The Cāraṇa-saṃskāra is mainly used for transmutational alchemical purposes. In other words: the last ten saṃskāras are sequentially used for the ends of transmutational and elixir alchemy. Cāraṇa refers to the process called the ‘coursing’ of the mercury. What happens, is the corrosion (cāraṇa) of the mica or metal by mercury.

Source: Google Books: The Alchemical Body

Cāraṇa (literally “coursing”) is a phase in an alchemical process, invloving the “chewing” of the mica or metal by mercury.

Source: History of Indian Science Technology (rasashastra)

Caraṇa (चरण, “amalgamation”) represents to the tenth of eighteen alchemical purification processes of mercury (mahārasa, rasendra or pārada). A religio-philosophic base was given to mercury-based alchemy in India. Mercury was looked upon as the essence of God Śiva, and sulphur as that of Goddess Pārvatī.

Mercury had to undergo 18 processes (e.g., caraṇa) before it could be used for transforming either metals or the human body. A combination of male and female principles (i.e. mercury and sulphur) forming cinnabar or mercuric sulphide or even of mercury and mica, was supposed to be highly potent and was therefore consumed as a Rasāyana or medicine for increasing body fluids or vitality. The earliest mention of Rasāyana was found in Āyurveda which was probably composed by 8th or 9th century BC, since it was a part of Atharvaveda, the last of the four Vedas.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “root” of a tree, as mentioned in a list of five synonyms in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees [viz., Caraṇa] and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Cāraṇa (चारण):—It is one of the process of mercury where measured quantity of material has to be added for further process of digestion

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Cāraṇa (चारण) refers to a class of professional singers that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to four classes of professional singers viz. Sūta, Māgadha, Vandī and Cāraṇa who, according to the Dharmaśāstras, maintained themselves by lauding the deeds of others. Their mention in one and the same line indicates that some difference, may be minute, was believed to be existing in these different types of singers.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “feet”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.13 (“Śiva-Pārvatī dialogue”).—Accordingly, after Śiva permitted Pārvatī to stay by his side: “[...] She washed Śiva’s feet [i.e., caraṇaprakṣālya caraṇau] and drank that holy water. With a cloth heated in fire she wiped his body. After worshipping Him with sixteen types of offerings duly, and bowing to Him repeatedly she used to return to her father’s abode. O excellent sage, a long time elapsed as she continued her service to Him who was engrossed in meditation. [...]”

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Cāraṇa (चारण).—Spies employed by Pṛthu, also Cāras (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 16. 12.

1b) Divine songsters.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa II. 1. 36; 6. 14; IV. 20. 35; V. 1. 8; VI. 7. 3; VII. 8. 38; X. 3. 6; 4. 11; 25-31; 62. 19. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 15. 10, 23, III. 5. 16; 10. 37; IV. 33. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 191; 34. 21; 35. 19 and 58. 47. 46; 72. 35.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Cāraṇa (चारण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. III.82.4) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cāraṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Caraṇa (चरण) is another name (synonym) for stambha, a Sanskrit technical term referring to “pillar”. These synonyms are defined in texts such as Mayamata (verse 15.2), Mānasāra (verse 15.2-3), Kāśyapaśilpa (verse 8.2) and Īśānaśivagurudevapaddati (Kriya, verses 31.19-20).

Source: OpenEdition books: Architectural terms contained in Ajitāgama and Rauravāgama

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to “pillar, level of pillars §§ 3.16; 4.6,36.”.—(For paragraphs cf. Les enseignements architecturaux de l'Ajitāgama et du Rauravāgama by Bruno Dagens)

Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Caraṇa (चरण).—Explained as a synonym of the word शाखा (śākhā) which means a branch or a school of Vedic Learning; cf. चरण-शब्दाः कठकलापादयः (caraṇa-śabdāḥ kaṭhakalāpādayaḥ): Kas. on P.IV.2.46.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

Cāraṇa (चारण) are singing songs for the Lord, who have come down from the heaven on his vehicle Garuḍa to save the elephant.

The five cāraṇas are

  1. Uragendra,
  2. Kinnara,
  3. Apsaras,
  4. Sudakṣa (yakṣa),
  5. Siddha.

As there is a practice to give comfort to lord by using cāmara (a fan), the celestial beings pray to God and with their prayers try to make God happy. In the verse 138 of the Vṛttagajendramokṣa, which is written in Pañcacāmara metre, five wondering singers, dancers etc. Hence the name of the metre is justified.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to “magical rites”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “(The true teacher is dedicated to) truthfulness, ritual purity and cleanliness, compassion, and forbearance; he unites with his wife when it is her season, not out of passion, but for a son for the benefit of (his) clan and lineage. He practices the six magical rites [i.e., ṣaṭkarma-caraṇa], bathes (regularly) and worships at the three times of day. He avoids the Śūdra and the low caste as well as (accepting food from others), whether cooked or raw. One who is endowed with such qualities is a Brahmin (vipra), not by caste or by virtue of (his) sacred thread (and the like). These are the qualities of a (true) Brahmin. He who possesses them is a (true) teacher. Moreover, he removes error, and he reveals the meaning of the Kula scripture. Previously consecrated, (such a one) should always be made (one’s) teacher”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “feet”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 2), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “We shall now proceed to give a brief description of (the qualifications of) a jyotiṣaka. He must be of noble birth and of agreeable appearance; meek, truthful and without jealousy; of proportional limbs; of joints well built and of good growth; have no physical defects; be of fine hands, feet [i.e., caraṇa], nails, eyes, chin, teeth, ears, forehead, eye-brows and head; of fine physique and of high, sonorous voice”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Caraṇa (चरण) or Vratacaraṇa refers to the “performance (of timed religious observances)”.—Cf. Caryā which, in early Śaiva works, may refer specifically to ascetic observance, presumably indeed because it is a contraction of the collocation vratacaryā/vratacaraṇa, “the performance (caryā/caraṇa) of timed religious observances (vrata)”. The verb car, “to move,” but also “to be engaged in”, has indeed long been the natural idiomatic verb of choice for use with vrata, and this accounts for the frequency of such bahuvrīhi expressions as cīrṇavrata (“who has observed his observances”), both in non-Mantramārga works (e.g. Bodhāyanagṛhyasūtra 4.12.2 on p. 118, Yājñavalkyasmṛti 3.298c, Mahābhārata 3.81.135c) and in works of the Mantramārga (e.g. Mālinīvijayottara 10.17c and 10.34c, Mohacūḍottara 1.14a, etc), as well as for the distinctively Tantric bahuvrīhi expression cīrṇavidyāvrata (e.g. Siddhayogeśvarīmata 13.1a).

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (vaishnavism)

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “feet (of Yatīndra/Yatipati)”, according to the Vedānta Deśika’s Yatirājasaptati.—This view of Rāmānuja’s central role in the establishment of a new, Viśiṣṭādvaita Vedānta is the second central motif in the poem. Thus, even while we also have verses in the poem that, like in the Irāmāṉuja Nūṟṟantāti, echo the sentiments of taking refuge at the feet of Rāmānuja, such as verses Verse 18, where those who take refuge at the feet of Yatipati become free of sin or Verse 20, where the feet (yatīndra-caraṇa) are a refuge compared to medicine that stills the fluctuations of the mind, it becomes clear that the framework of the poem does not allow for a predominant focus on the analogy between Rāmānuja and Kṛṣṇa nor that his feet themselves are the predominant upāya for mokṣa.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kavya)

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “feet”, according to Bāṇa’s Kādambarī (p. 225-226).—Accordingly, while describing the shire of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, “[Then follows the image of the Goddess Caṇḍikā, which matches the conception of Kālarātri in the passage from the Mahābhārata:] Her feet (caraṇa-mūla) were never bereft of cloths [dyed with] red lac thrown upon the mound of her seat [on the altar] as if they were the lives of all creatures arrived there for shelter; she resembled an inhabitant of the Underworld because of the intense darkness obstructed [only] by the flashes from axes, spears, etc., weapons deadly for beings, that seemed to hold nets of hair stuck from decapitations because of the reflections of black yak-tail whisks cast [upon their surfaces]; [...]”.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to the “feet”, according to the Dattātreyayogaśāstra verse 35-38ab.—Accordingly, while describing the lotus pose (padmāsana): “Having carefully placed the upturned feet (uttāna-caraṇauttānau caraṇau) on the thighs and the upturned hands in between the thighs, [the Yogin] should fix the eyes on the tip of the nose. Having lifted the uvula with the tongue; having fixed the chin on the chest and having drawn in the breath slowly according to his capacity, he should fill [the region of] the stomach. After that, he should exhale the breath slowly according to his capacity. This is said to be padmāsana, which destroys all diseases”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

s. vijjā-carana.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to “instep”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 19).—Accordingly, “Furthermore, some say that generosity is the cause and condition (hetupratyaya) for obtaining the thirty-two marks. Why is that? [...] When one gives, one says: “May I be useful”, and the generous disposition (dānacitta) increases; this is why one obtains the marks consisting of having a high instep (utsaṅga-caraṇa) and hair standing up (ūrdhvāgraroma). [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to “conduct”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as the Lord said to Śrīgupta: “Good, very good, householder, you fully understand the meaning of what I have preached. I prophesy that you, having honoured, revered, venerated, and worshipped all Buddhas in the good aeon with your mind and highest intension, will practice the holy life in their places, and will grasp the true dharma. After that, since you have pleased innumerable Buddhas, after seven hundred innumerable aeons, in the stainless aeon, you will be born in the world as the Tathāgata Sarvaparyutthānavikiraṇa, equipped with knowledge, conduct (caraṇa) and other qualities, the Awakened Lord”.

Mahayana book cover
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to a “phase” (of a particular yuga), according to the Guru Mandala Worship (maṇḍalārcana) ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “[...] Today, in the time of thrice sacred glorious Śākyasiṃha Tathāgata, In the Bhadra Kalpa, in the world division Sahā, in the Vaivasvata Manu age, After the Satya, Tretā, Dvāpara, in the Kali Yuga, in the first phase (prathama-caraṇa) [...]”.,

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Cāraṇa (चारण) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Cāraṇa] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Cāraṇa (चारण) or Cāraṇariddhi refers to the “capability to move in the sky” and represents one of the two types of extraordinary activity (kriyā), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

Cāraṇa means experts who have attained high standards in right conduct, self restraint and abstinence from sinful activities. The extraordinary capability to move in the sky (without causing obstructions or hurt others) is called Cāraṇa-riddhi.

Cāraṇa-riddhi is of nine types namely:

  1. walk above water (jalacāraṇa),
  2. walk over earth (jaṅghācāraṇa),
  3. walk over flowers (puṣpacāraṇa),
  4. walk over fruits (phalacāraṇa),
  5. walking over leaves (patracāraṇa),
  6. walking over mountain peaks (śreṇicāraṇa),
  7. walking over creepers and spider webs (tantucāraṇa),
  8. walking over flames of fire (agniśikhācāraṇa).
Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Caraṇa (चरण) refers to “feet”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “This world totters to the limit of the world of Brahmā with the fear of the beginning of a frown, and mountains immediately fall asunder by force of [the fact that] the earth is overcome by the weight of the heavy feet (caraṇacaraṇagurubharākrāntadhātrīvaśena), of those heroes who are all led to death by the king of time in [the space of] some days. Nevertheless, desire is intense only in a living being who is bereft of sense”.

Synonyms: Pada.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha

Cāraṇa (चारण) or Cāraṇaśramaṇa refers to “one who moves in the air from place to place”, according to the 8th-century Kuvalayamālā written by Uddyotanasūri, a Prakrit Campū (similar to Kāvya poetry) narrating the love-story between Prince Candrāpīḍa and the Apsaras Kādambarī.—There is a reference to Cāraṇa Śramaṇa who moved alone in the air from place to place, whereas the other kind of teacher was gaccha-pariggahi who took his whole Gaccha or Gaṇa with him while on the move. In line 18 there is a reference to the holy mountain Śatruṃjaya which seems to have become a famous religious centre before 779 A.D. when Uddyotanasūri was writing.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Caraṇa.—(CII 4; IA 18, 20), a Vedic school; a sect or school studying a particular śākhā of the Vedas; e. g. Taittirīya-caraṇa. (CII 1), same as ācaraṇa; cf. dharma-caraṇa for dharm-ācaraṇa. Note: caraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Cāraṇa.—(EI 3), same as Vidyā-cāraṇa, a Jain monk endowed with magical powers. Cf. harita-pakva-sasy-ekṣu-cāraṇa-lavaṇ-opamardana (IE 8-5); grazing of cattle. Note: cāraṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Carana in Brazil is the name of a plant defined with Lepidocaryum tenue in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Mauritia gracilis (Mart.) Spruce, nom. illeg., non Mauritia gracilis Wallace (among others).

2) Carana in Nicaragua is also identified with Liquidambar styraciflua It has the synonym Molinadendron guatemalense (Radlk. ex Harms) P.K. Endress (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Journal of the Linnean Society, Botany (1869)
· Caldasia (1944)
· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1994)
· Historia Naturalis Palmarum (1823)
· Bot. Commelins (1983)
· Flora Brasiliensis (Martius) (1881)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Carana, for example extract dosage, diet and recipes, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

caraṇa : (nt.) walking about; the foot; conduct; behaviour. || caraṇā (f.), wandering. cāraṇa (nt.) to causing move or act; management.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Cāraṇa, (adj.)=cāraka Sn. 162 (saṃsuddha°). (Page 265)

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Caraṇa, (nt.) (of a deer, called pañca-hattha “having 5 hands,” i.e. the mouth and the 4 feet) 1. walking about, grazing, feeding VvA. 308 (°ṭṭhāna).—2. the foot Vin. IV, 212; J. V, 431.—3. acting, behaviour, good conduct, frequent in combination with vijjā, e.g. A. II, 163; V, 327; Dh. 144; Vism. 202 (in detail); PvA. 1, etc. ‹-› D. III, 97, 156; Sn. 410, 462, 536; Miln. 24. sampannacaraṇa (adj.) accomplished in right behaviour S. I, 153, 166; Sn. 1126; Pv. II, 138.—Cp. sañ°. (Page 263)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

caraṇa (चरण).—n (S) A foot. 2 fig. A metrical foot. 3 A quarter or fourth (as of a shlok, of a rupee &c.) 4 or prathamacaraṇa The beginning or first part. 5 A portion of a Prakrit poem or song as defined by the choral stanza. 6 n m A foot or a fourth part of hastanakṣatra. The four parts are, according to Kun̤bi-authority, lōkhaṇḍācā, tāmbyācā, rupyācā, sō- nyācā, or lōkhaṇḍī, tāmbērī, rupērī, sōnērī. Because rain, falling under the first, hardens the ground; falling under the second, it is better, and so on improvingly. caraṇa dharaṇēṃ or caraṇīṃ lāgaṇēṃ g. of o. To seek the protection of; to take refuge with, or to cling to dependently or humbly: also to embrace the feet in supplication or entreaty. Ex. saumitra caraṇīṃ lāgalā || tē sthaḷīṃ śaṅkara sthāpilā ||.

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caraṇa (चरण).—f (caraṇēṃ) Pasture; pasture-grass or a pasture-ground. 2 unc Price of pasturage. 3 unc Depasturing or grazing. Ex. tyā mhaśīcī ca0 tvarita.

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cāraṇa (चारण).—m (cara S Because they are always on the move.) A caste or an individual of it. They are carriers of grain, salt &c. The is tsa.

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cāraṇa (चारण).—m S A personage among the gods, the panegyrist.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

caraṇa (चरण).—n A foot. A metrical foot. A quarter or fourth. caraṇa varaṇēṃ or caraṇī lāgaṇēṃ To seek the protection of.

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caraṇa (चरण).—f Pasture; pasture-grass or a pas- ture-ground. Price of pasturage. Depasturing or grazing.

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cāraṇa (चारण).—m The panegyrist. A caste.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—[car-karaṇe lyuṭ]

1) A foot; शिरसि चरण एष न्यस्यते वारयैनम् (śirasi caraṇa eṣa nyasyate vārayainam) Ve.3.38; जात्या काममवध्योऽसि चरणं त्विदमुद्धृतम् (jātyā kāmamavadhyo'si caraṇaṃ tvidamuddhṛtam) 39.

2) A support, pillar, prop.

3) The root of a tree.

4) The single line of a stanza.

5) A quarter.

6) A school or branch of any of the Vedas; e. g. चरणगुरवः (caraṇaguravaḥ) Mv.1; Mālatīmādhava (Bombay) 1; Pañcatantra (Bombay) 4.3.

7) A race.

8) (In prosody) A dactyl.

-ṇaḥ A foot-soldier.

2) A ray of light.

-ṇam 1 Moving, roaming, wandering.

2) Performance, practising; Manusmṛti 6.75.

3) Conduct of life, behaviour (moral).

4) Accomplishment.

5) Eating, consuming.

6) Course.

7) Acting, dealing, managing, conduct.

8) Fixed observance of any class, age (as priesthood &c.);

9) studying under strict rules of ब्रह्मचर्य (brahmacarya); विशुद्धवीर्याश्चरणोपपन्नाः (viśuddhavīryāścaraṇopapannāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 5.3.7.

Derivable forms: caraṇaḥ (चरणः), caraṇam (चरणम्).

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Cāraṇa (चारण).—[cārayati kīrtiṃ car-ṇic lyu]

1) A wanderer, a pilgrim.

2) A wandering actor or singer, a dancer, mimic, bard; Manusmṛti 12.44.

3) A celestial singer, heavenly chorister; सिद्धचारणविद्याध्रानृषीन् पितृपतीन् मनून् (siddhacāraṇavidyādhrānṛṣīn pitṛpatīn manūn) Bhāgavata 7.4.6; Ś.2.14.

4) A reader of scriptures.

5) A spy. अन्तर्बहिश्च भूतानां पश्यन् कर्माणि चारणैः (antarbahiśca bhūtānāṃ paśyan karmāṇi cāraṇaiḥ) Bhāgavata 4.16.12.

Derivable forms: cāraṇaḥ (चारणः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—nt., (1) a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7914 (cited from Gaṇḍavyūha; Tibetan gdab yas); Gaṇḍavyūha 106.16; 133.26; (2) residence (of a king): rājñaś caraṇa-koṣṭhe Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya ii.61.12, on the top part of the king's residence; so Tibetan, rgyal poḥi (king's) khap (read khab, residence, of a king) kyi (gen. suffix) khaṅ (house) tog tu (on top); for this meaning of koṣṭha compare dvāra-koṣṭha(ka).

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Cāraṇa (चारण).—(nt.; = Pali id., see below; = Sanskrit caraṇa), (1) conduct, practice; in Pali, Sn 162, commentary takes ā as m.c., which it could be in Mahāvastu i.177.2, but elsewhere in prose: Mahāvastu i.177.2 (verse) anupakruṣṭa-cāraṇā; Gaṇḍavyūha 333.2 dharmāṇāṃ grahaṇa-cāraṇa-pratibodhiṣu (dvandva); (2) trained, skilled behavior; practice of an acquired art (Tibetan cited as bslab pa, regularly = śikṣā): Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya i.34.11 (hasti- damako…) hastiratnam ekāhnā sarva-cāraṇebhir upa- saṃkrāmati, and in sequel; likewise with aśvaratnam (both of a cakravartin) i.35.11 ff.; both prose; (3) (rare in Sanskrit: pasturing, tending of animals: Mūla-Sarvāstivāda-Vinaya iv.227.18.)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—mn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) 1. A foot. 2. The root of a tree. A race, a family. 4. A portion of the Vedas, 5. Fixed or instituted observance. 6. The peculiarity of condition or conduct implied by the English affix hood, as manhood, priesthood, &c. 7. The fourth part of a stanza. 4. (in Prosody,) A dactyl. n.

(-ṇaṃ) 1. Wandering, roaming, going round or about. 2. Eating. E. to car go affix karaṇe lyuṭ.

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Cāraṇa (चारण).—m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. A dancer, a mime. 2. An actor of note. 3. A reader of scripture. 4. A panegyrist of the gods. 5. A bard, a herald. 6. A celestial singer. 7. A spy. 8. A pilgrim. E. cara in the causal, to cause to go, to diffuse, (fame, &c.) and ṇic lyuṭ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—i. e. car + ana, I. m. A foot soldier, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 5957. Ii. m. and n. 1. A foot, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 277. 2. A verse, Śrut. 22. 3. A school, Mahābhārata 12, 6369. Iii. n. 1. Fixed observances, good conduct, Mahābhārata 13, 3044. 2. Practice, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 31, 2.

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Cāraṇa (चारण).—i. e. caraṇa + a, m. 1. A strolling player, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 12, 44. 2. A panegyrist of the gods, Chr. 24, 46. 3. A spy, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 16, 12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Caraṇa (चरण).—[masculine] [neuter] foot, [masculine] [plural] the feet of — i.e. the venerable (—°); line or verse of a stanza; sect or school of the Veda. [neuter] moving, walking, course, way; practice, performance, [especially] rel. observance; behaving, conduct, [especially] good conduct, morality.

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Cāraṇa (चारण).—[adjective] belonging to the (same) sect or school; [masculine] wandering actor, celestial singer; spy, scout.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caraṇa (चरण):—[from car] mn. ([gana] ardharcādi) a foot, [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa; Manu-smṛti ix, 277; Bādarāyaṇa’s Brahma-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Harivaṃśa 3914; Mālavikāgnimitra])

2) [v.s. ...] (ifc. [plural]) ‘the feet of’, the venerable (Name Name), [Mahābhārata xii, 174, 24 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

3) [v.s. ...] a pillar, support, [Harivaṃśa 4643]

4) [v.s. ...] the root (of a tree), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] a Pāda or line of a stanza, [Śrutabodha]

6) [v.s. ...] a dactyl

7) [v.s. ...] a 4th part (pāda), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhajjātaka; Līlāvatī of bhāskara]

8) [v.s. ...] a section, subdivision, [Bhāvaprakāśa; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha] (catuś- q.v.)

9) [v.s. ...] a school or branch of the Veda, [Nirukta, by Yāska i, 17; Pāṇini; Mahābhārata xii, xiii; Pañcatantra iv, 3]

10) [v.s. ...] n. going round or about, motion, course, [Ṛg-veda iii, 5, 5; ix, 113, 9; x, 136, 6 and 139, 6; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ii, x; Sāhitya-darpaṇa]

11) [v.s. ...] acting, dealing, managing, (liturgical) performance, observance, [Atharva-veda vii, 106, 1; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Viṣṇu-purāṇa iii, 5, 13]

12) [v.s. ...] behaviour, conduct of life, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra; Chāndogya-upaniṣad v, 10]

13) [v.s. ...] good or moral conduct, [Kauśika-sūtra 67; Mahābhārata xiii, 3044; Lalita-vistara]

14) [v.s. ...] practising (generally ifc. cf. tapaś- [tapasaś c, [Manu-smṛti vi, 75]], bhikṣā-, bhaikṣa-), [Gobhila-śrāddha-kalpa iii, 1, 12; Nalopākhyāna]

15) [v.s. ...] grazing, [Horace H. Wilson]

16) [v.s. ...] consuming, eating, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

17) [v.s. ...] a particular high number, [Buddhist literature; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.] (cf. dvi-, puraś-, ratha-).

18) Cāraṇa (चारण):—[from cāra] mfn. depending on a Vedic school (caraṇa), [Āpastamba-dharma-sūtra]

19) [v.s. ...] belonging to the same Vedic school (‘reading the scripture’ [Horace H. Wilson]), [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

20) [v.s. ...] m. a wandering actor or singer, [Manu-smṛti xii, 44; Mahābhārata v, 1039 and 1442; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Pañcatantra] etc.

21) [v.s. ...] a celestial singer, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Śakuntalā; Bhāgavata-purāṇa; Gīta-govinda i, 2]

22) [v.s. ...] a spy, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa iv, 16, 12; Bālarāmāyaṇa]

23) [v.s. ...] n. (√car, [Causal]) ‘pasturing, tending’ See go-

24) [v.s. ...] a kind of process applied to mercury

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Caraṇa (चरण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ)] 1. m. n. A foot; root of a tree; a race; part of the vedas; fixed institute; a dactyl. n. Wandering; eating.

2) Cāraṇa (चारण):—(ṇaḥ) 1. m. A dancer, an actor, a panegyrist, a bard, a herald.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Caraṇa (चरण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Caraṇa, Calaṇa, Cāraṇa.

[Sanskrit to German]

Carana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Caraṇa (चरण) [Also spelled charan]:—(nm) a foot (also of a verse); step; quarter; phase; -[kamala/padma] lotus-like feet; -[cinha] footprint; ~[tala] sole of the foot; ~[dhūli/~raja] dust of the feet (of); to be no match to, to be too inferior for comparison; -[suśrūṣā/sevā] obsequious attendance; reverential service; ~[sevī] an obsequious attendant; one who renders reverential service; —[cāṃpanā/cūmanā] to press/lick the feet of, to be extremely servile/submissive, to keep on flattering; —[chūnā] to touch one’s feet (as a traditional mark of respect); —[dhokara pīnā] to be very reverential and respectful; [caraṇoṃ meṃ arpita karanā/caḍhānā] to make a respectful offering to; to surrender with deference.

2) Caranā (चरना) [Also spelled chrna]:—(v) to graze.

3) Carānā (चराना) [Also spelled charana]:—(v) to (cause to) graze; to befool, to hoodwink.

4) Cāraṇa (चारण) [Also spelled charan]:—(nm) a wandering minstrel, bard; grazing; a sub-caste of Rajasthan Brahmans; —[kāvya] bardic poetry.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Caraṇa (चरण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Caraṇa.

2) Caraṇa (चरण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Caraṇa.

3) Cāraṇa (चारण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Cāraṇa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caraṇa (ಚರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act or an instance of moving; movement.

2) [noun] the way a person behaves or acts; conduct; manners; behaviour.

3) [noun] that part of the leg on which a person stands or moves; the foot.

4) [noun] an arrangement of a certain number of lines, usu. four or more, sometimes having a fixed length, meter or rhyme scheme, forming a division of a poem; a stanza.

5) [noun] a symbol for the number two.

6) [noun] (jain.) that part of jaina scriptures that deals with the conduct of, procedures to be observed by, ascetics and householders.

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Cāraṇa (ಚಾರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act, process or an instance of wandering.

2) [noun] a particular kind of methodical skill, dexterity or posture in wrestling.

3) [noun] a wandering actor.

4) [noun] a poet and singer of poems; a bard.

5) [noun] a man who praises another highly (either habitually or intentionally).

6) [noun] a celestial singer.

7) [noun] that which causes or urges (something) to move.

8) [noun] (Jain.) a man who knows the art of moving in the air and preaches Jaina religion.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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