The Brahmanda Purana

by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246

This page describes the real nature of kala (time) which is Chapter 13 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.

Chapter 13 - The Real Nature of Kāla (time)

Sūta said:

1. Even as Brahmā was creating sons formerly in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara, the human beings, the Asuras and the Devas were born out of his limbs.

2. The Pitṛs also were born, considering him as their father (?). The mode of their creation has been described before. Let it be heard briefly once again.

3. After creating the Devas, Asuras and the human beings, Brahmā took pride in them. (He conceived of a further creation also). (The Pitṛs) who were being considered like fathers, were born of his flanks.

4. The six seasons beginning with Madhu (Spring) (were born of his flanks). They call them Pitṛs. The vedic text says,—“The seasons are the Pitṛs and Devas.”

5. In all the Manvantaras, past and future (the same is repeated). Formerly, these were born in the auspicious Manvantara of Svāyambhuva.

6-7a. They are remembered by the name Agniṣvāttas and Barhiṣads. Those of theṃ who were householders, who did not perform Yajñas are remembered as the Pitṛs of the group Agniṣvāttas. They were not Āhitāgnis (those who regularly maintained sacrificial fires).

7b-9. Those of them who performed Yajñas are the Pitṛs (known as) Somapīṭhins. Those who performed Agnihotras are remembered as the Pitṛs called Barhiṣads. In this sacred lore, it has been decisively mentioned that the Ṛtus (seasons) are the Pitṛs and the Devas. The months of Madhu and Mādhava (i.e. Cakra and Vaiśākha) should be known as Rasas; the month of Śuci and Śukra (i.e. Jyeṣṭha and Āṣāḍha) are Śuṣmins (Lustrous ones). The months of Nabhas and Nabhsys (i.e. Śrāvaṇa and Bhādrapada)—these two are cited as Jīvas.

10. The months of Iṣa and Ūrja (i.e. Āśvina and Kārttika) are cited as Svadhāvats. The months of Saha and Sahasya (i.e. Mārgaśīrṣa and Pauṣa) are cited as Ghoras.

11. The months of Tapas and Tapasya (i.e. the months of Māgha and Phālguna) pertain to the winter, they are Manyumats. The units of time called Māsas (months) are included in the six periods of time (seasons).

12. These are called Ṛtus. The Ṛtus are the sons of Brahmā. They should be known as those identifying themselves with both sentient and non-sentient (objects).

13. In the abodes of Māsa (month) and Ardhamāsa (fortnight), the Ṛtus (seasons) are considered the Sthānins (the abiders). By means of the change of abodes, the Sthānābhimānins( those who identify themselves with the abodes) should be understood.

14. The days, the nights, the months, the seasons, the Ayanas (tropical transits of the sun) and the years are the abodes; the names of Abhimānins (deities identifying themselves) are in the same order.

15. The Sthānins (those who identify themselves with the abodes) who are established in these, are the states of time. They are having those as their own selves, since they are of the same essence as they. Understand as I shall mention them.

16.[1] The various units (or states) of time are the Tithis of Parvans (dates of lunar fortnights), the junctions, the fortnights that are on a par with halves of months, the moments, the Kalās, Kāṣṭhās, Muhūrtas, days and nights.

17-18. Two half-months make one Māsa (month). Two months make what is called Ṛtu. Three Ṛtus make one Ayana and the two Ayanas, (viz.: the southern and the northern) together constitute a year. These are the abodes for the Sthānins. The Ṛtus are the sons of Nimi. Similarly, they should be known as six in number.

19-20. The five types of subjects (i.e. human beings, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles and trees) are remembered as the sons of Ṛtu. They are characterised by their seasonal change. Since the mobile and the immobile beings are born through the Ārtavas (seasonal changes, menstruation etc.) the Ārtavas are fathers and the Ṛtus are grandfathers. When they come together, the subjects of the Prajāpati are born.

21. Hence the Vatsara (year) is considered the great grand-father of the subjects. These Sthānins of the nature of the abodes in their respective abodes have been recounted.

22. They are declared as those who have the same names, the same essence and the same nature as they (i.e. units of time). It is Saṃvatsara (the year) that is considered and remembered as Prajāpati.

23. Agni, the son of Saṃvatsara, is called ṛta by scholars. Since they are born of Ṛta, they are called Ṛtus.

24-25. Years should be known as having six seasons. To the five types of subjects, viz.: bipeds, quadrupeds, birds, reptiles and the stationary beings, there are five Ārtavas (seasonal changes). The flower is remembered as Kālārtava (seasonal change indicating particular period of time of trees. The state of being Ṛtu and Ārtava is recounted as Pitṛtva (the state of being Pitṛs).

26. Thus the Ṛtus and the Ārtavas should be known as Pitṛs because all the living beings are born of them through the Ṛtukāla(the time of Ṛtu—period favourable for conception).[2]

27. Hence these Ārtavas are indeed the Pitṛs—so we have heard. These have stayed throughout the Manvantaras as Kālābhimānins (identifying themselves with the Kāla or time).

28-30. They are endowed with causes and effects; they have pervaded everything through their supremacy and indeed these identify themselves with the abodes and they stand here in consequence of that special contact (?).

The Pitṛs are of various kinds viz.: Agniṣvāttas and Barhiṣads. Two daughters well known in the worlds were born of Svadhā and the Pitṛs. They were Menā and Dhāraṇī by whom the entire universe is sustained. These two were expounders of Brahman. These two were Yoginīs also.

31-34. Menā was the mental daughter of those Pitṛs who are mentioned as Agniṣvāttas. They are remembered as Upahūtas too.

Dhāraṇī is remembered as the mental daughter of Barhiṣads. These Pitṛs, the Barhiṣads are remembered as Somapāyins too.[3]

These two Pitṛs gave their splendid daughters in marriage for the sake of righteousness.

The Agniṣvāttas gave Menā as the wife unto the Himavān, The Barhiṣads gave the splendid daughter Dhāraṇī as wife unto Meru. Understand their grandsons.

Menā the wife of Himavān gave birth to Maināka.

35. She gave birth to Gaṅgā also, the most excellent river who became the wife of the salt sea. Krauñca is the son of Maināka. It is due to him that the continent Krauñca has been so named.

36. Dhāraṇī. the wife of Meru, gave birth to the son Mandara endowed with divine medicinal herbs as well as three well reputed daughters.

37. They were Velā, Niyati and the third (daughter) Āyati. Āyati is remembered as the wife of Dhātṛ and Niyati that of Vidhātṛ.

38. The progeny of these two, formerly in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara have already been recounted. Velā (seashore) gave birth to a praiseworthy (lit. uncensured) daughter of Sāgara (the ocean).

39. The daughter of the ocean named Savarṇā became the wife of Prācīnabarhiṣ. Ten sons were born to Savarṇā of Prācīnabarhiṣ.

40. All of them were called Pracetasas and were masters of the science. Lord Dakṣa, the son of the self-born lord, assumed the status of their son.

41. It was on account of the curse of the three-eyed lord (and it took place) in the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara.

On hearing this, Śāṃśapāyani asked Sūta.

42. “How was it that Dakṣa was born formerly in the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara, due to the curse of Bhava? Even as we ask, narrate that to us.”

43. On being told thus, Sūta addressed Śāṃśapāyani and told the story connected with Dakṣa (along with) the cause of the curse of Tryambaka.

Sūta said:

44. “Dakṣa had eight daughters who have already been mentioned by me. The father brought them from their (husbands’) houses to his own house and honoured them.

45-46. Then, honoured very well thus, all of them stayed in their father’s house.

The eldest among them was named Satī who was the wife of Tryambaka (Three-eyed god Śiva)

Dakṣa who hated śiva did not invite that daughter. Maheśvara never bowed down to Dakṣa.

47-48. The son-in-law who was stationed in his own brilliance did not bow down to his father-in-law.

On knowing that all her sisters had arrived at her father’s house, Satī, too went to her father’s house although she had not been invited. The father accorded to her an honour inferior to that accorded to other daughters and which was disagreeable to her as well.

49-50. That goddess who had been infuriated and annoyed spoke to her father:—“O Lord, by according tome a welcome and honour inferior to that of my younger sisters, O father, by dishonouring me thus, you have done a despicable thing. I am the eldest and the most excellent. It behoves you to honour me.”

51. On being told thus, Dakṣa spoke to her with his eyes turned red:—“These girls, my daughters, are more worthy of respect and more excellent than you.

52. O Satī, their husbands also are highly respected by me. They are highly proficient in the Vedas, endowed with good power of penance; possessing great Yogic power and very pious.

53-54a. O Satī, all of them are superior to Tryambaka, on account of their good qualities and are more praiseworthy. They are my excellent sons-in-law, viz.: Vasiṣṭha, Atri, Pulastya, Aṅgiras, Pulaha, Kratu, Bhṛgu and Marīci.

54b-56. Since Śarva always defies and disregards me, I do not honour and welcome you. Indeed Bhava is antagonistic to me.” Thus spoke Dakṣa then, on account of his deluded mind, the consequence of which was a curse unto himself and to the great sages who were mentioned by him.

On being told thus the infuriated goddess said to her father thus—

57. “Since you insult me although I am devoid of defects verbally, mentally and physically, O father, I am abandoning this body born of you”.

58. Then, being infuriated and aggrieved on account of that dishonour, goddess Satī bowed down to the self-born lord and spoke these words.

59-60a. “Wherever I am born again with a brilliant body whether lam not born (of a womb) or whether I am born of a righteous person, I should necessarily attain the status of the virtuous wife of the self-possessed three-eyed lord alone.”

60b-61. Seated there itself she entered the Yogic trance. She united her soul (to the supreme lord). With her mind she retained the Āgneyi Dhāraṇā. Then the fire born of her soul rose up from all her limbs. Kindled by the wind it reduced her body to ashes.

62. The trident-bearing lord heard about that death of Satī. Śaṅkara came to know about their conversation factually. Hence, the lord became angry with Dakṣa and the sages.

Rudra said:

63. “Bhūrloka is spoken of as the first one among all the worlds. At the behest of Parameṣṭhin (supreme lord), I shall sustain it always.

64. All the lustrous worlds stand by on being held on to this earth. At his behest, I shall hold them here always.

65. There is the fourfold classification of the Devas. Still they partake of food at one place. I will not partake of food aloṇg with them. Therefore, they will offer it separately unto me.

66-68. O Dakṣa, since, on account of me sinless Sati had been insulted, and all other daughters were praised along with their husbands, hence when the Vaivasvata Manvantara begins, these great sages who are not born of a womb will be born again during my second Yajña”. After announcing this to all of them, he cursed Dakṣa once again, “In the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara when Sukra’s Homa is performed by Brahmā (?), you will become a human king in the family of Cākṣuṣa.

69-71. You will be born as the grandson of Prācīnabarhiṣ and the son of Pracetas. You will be born by the name of Dakṣa itself, as the son of Māriṣā, the daughter of Śākhins (trees).

When the Vaivasvata Manvantara arrives, there also, O evil-minded one, I will cause obstacles in a holy rite endowed with virtue though it may be difficult of access”.

Sūta said:

72. On hearing that, Dakṣa cursed Rudra once again:—“Since, on account of me you rendered evil to the sages, the Brāhmaṇas will not worship you along with the Devas in the course of a Yajña.

73. O ruthless one, after offering the Āhuti unto you in the course of their holy rites, they will touch the holy water again. At the close of the Yuga, they will abandon heaven and will stay here alone”.

74-75. Thereafter, he (Rudra) is not worshipped along with the Devas. He is worshipped separately.

Thereupon, Dakṣa who was thus addressed by Rudra of unmeasured, splendour and cursed abandoned his body originating from the self-born lord, and was born among human beings.

76. After realising the lord and deity of Yajñas, Dakṣa, the householder, worshipped him with the entire Yajña along with the other deities.

77. After the advent of the Vaivasvata Manvantara, the lord of mountains begot of Menā the goddess Umā who had been the noble lady Satī previously.

78. She who had been the noble lady Satī previously became Umā afterwards. She is the wife of Bhava always. Bhava is never abandoned by her.

79-80. Just as the noble lady Aditi follows for ever Kaśyapa, the son of Marīci; just as goddess Śrī follows Nārāyaṇa, just as Śacī follows Maghavan (i.e. Indra), (so also Satī follows Bhava.)

These following noble ladies never leave off their husbands, viz.: Lakṣmī does not leave off Viṣṇu, Uṣā does not leave off Sūrya (the Sun) nor does Arundhatī leave of Vasiṣṭha.

81. They return and are born again and again in the Kalpas along with them.

Thus Dakṣa was born as the son of Pracetas in the Cākṣuṣa Manvantara.

82. This has been heard by us that on account of the curse he was born second time as king, as the son of Māriṣā and the ten Pracetas.

83-86. The seven great sages, Bhṛgu and others were born formerly in the first Tretā yuga of the Vaivasvata Manvantara. They assumed body from Varuṇa, at that sacrifice of the great lord.

Between Dakṣa, the Prajāpati, and Triyambaka, the intelligent self-possessed Lord, there was intense enmity continued from their previous birth. Hence intense enmity should never be pursued at the time of personal antagonism.

Due to merits and demerits, the living being does not leave off the awareness of what is intensely conceived in the mind, though it may pertain to the previous birth. That should not be pursued by a learned person.

87. Thus began the story that rids one of sins and that pertains to Dakṣa.[4] It has been formerly urged for narration by you.

88. This story had been recounted in the context of narration of the line of the Pitṛs.[5] Henceforth, I shall recount the Devas in the same order as that of the Pitṛs.

89. Formerly, in the beginning of the Tretā yuga in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara, there were the Devas well-known as Yāmas and they were the sons of Yajña.[6]

90. They were the well-reputed sons of Brahmā. Since they were Ajas (unborn), they are Ajitas (unconquered). These are the mental sons of Svāyambhuva. They are named Śakta.

91. Therefore, these are remembered as the three groups of Devas (? Yāma, Ajita and Śakta). The Cchandajas[7] were thirty-three in the creation of Svāyambhuva.

92-94. The twelve Yāmas are recounted as follows: Yadu, Yayāti, Vīvadha, Trāsata, Mati, Vibhāsa, Kratu, Prayāti, Viśruta, Dyuti, Vāyavya and Saṃyama. Yadu and Yayāti were two Devas (?)

The twelve Ajitas are as follows: Asama, Ugraḍṛṣṭi, Sunaya, Śuciśravas, Kevala, Viśvarūpa, Sudakṣa, Madhupa, Turīya, Indrayuk, Yukta and Ugra.

95-96. The twelve Śaktas are recounted as follows:

Janiman, Viśvadeva, Javiṣṭha, Mitavān, Jara, Vibhu, Vibhāva, Ṛcika, Durdiha, Śruti, Gṛṇāna and Bṛhat.

These were Somapāyins in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara.

97. These Gaṇas were lustrous, valorous and very powerful at the outset; lord Viśvabhuk was their Indra.

98-100. The Asuras who lived then were their cousins and kinsmen.

The Suparṇas, Yakṣas, Gandharvas, Piśācas, Uragas and Rākṣasas—these along with the Pitṛs (and the Devas) constituted the eight Devayonis (divine groups), they passed away in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara. They have thousands of subjects (progeny). They were richly endowed with majestic lustre, beauty, longevity and physical strength. They are not mentioned in detail here, lest there should be irrelevancy of context.

101-102. The Svāyambhuva creation should be understood by means-of the current one.[8] The past creation is observed through the present one which is Vaivasvata in regard to the subjects, deities, sages and Pitṛs. Understand the seven sages who had been existing before.

103. Bhṛgu, Aṅgiras, Marīci, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Atri and Vasiṣṭha, these seven (?) were in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara.

104-105. Āgnīdhra, Agnibāhu, Medhā, Medhātithi, Vasu, Jyotiṣmān, Dyutimān, Havya, Savana and Sattra—these were the ten sons of Svāyambhuva Manu. They were extremely mighty with the velocity of the wind. They were kings of great magnificence in the first Manvantara.

106-107. That race along with the Asuras, the excellent Gandharvas, the Yakṣas, the Uragas, the Rākṣasas, the Piśācas, the human beings, the Suparṇas and the groups of Apsaras cannot be recounted in due order even in the course of hundreds of years. Since their names are many where is the limit to their number in that family.

108. Those subjects who were in the Svāyambhuva Manvantara with the names of the Yugas (?) passed away due to the great efflux of time in the order of Ayanas, years and Yugas.

The sages asked:[9]

109. Who is this lordly Kāla (Time)? Who is this annihilator of all living beings? Of what is he the source of origin? What is his beginning, what is the intrinsic essence, his soul?

110. What is his eye? What is the form? What are remembered as his limbs? What is his name? What is his self? Mention these factually.

Sūta said:

ÌH. Let the real nature of Kāla (Time) be listened to.[10] After listening, let it be retained in the mind. The sun is his source and the period of the twinkling of the eye is his beginning. He is called Saṃkhyācakṣus (Having the number for his eyes).

112. The day and night together constitute its form. The Nimeṣa (moments) are his limbs. The year (Saṃvatsara) is his essence. His name is Kalātmaka (one whose soul is the digit).

113-115. That lord of subjects is of the nature of the present, future and past times. Understand the condition of the Kāla divided into five, by means of the day, the fortnight, the month, the reasons and the Ayanas. The first (year) is Saṃvatsara; the second one is Parivatsara; the third one is Iḍvatsara; the fourth is Anuvatsara; and the fifth among them is Vatsara. That period of time is termed Yuga.[11]

116. I shall explain their principle (Tattva). Even as it is being recounted, understand it that which is mentioned as Kratu and Agni is considered Saṃvatsara.

117-120. This sun, the son of Aditi, and the fire of time is Parivatsara.

Soma (the moon) which is of the nature of the essence of waters, which has two movements, the bright and the dark ones (i.e. the bright half and the dark half of the month) is Iḍva-tsara and has been decisively determined so in the Purāṇas. He who purifies the worlds with his seven times seven bodies (i.e. 49 Maruts); he who blows favourable to the world—that wind is Anuvatsara.

He who was born of the Ahaṃkāra (ego) of Brahmā as Udagrudra[12]—that blue-red (complexioned) Rudra should be known as their Vatsara.

I shall explain his Satattva (essential nature); understand it even as it is being recounted.

121. Due to the contact of limbs and minor limbs, the Kālātman (the soul of time) is the great-grandfather. He is the lord and source of origin of Ṛk, Yajus and Sāman; he is the master of the five (i.e. day, fortnight etc.).

122. 126. He is Agni, Yama, Kāla, Sambhūti and Prajāpati. He is source of origin of the sun. He is mentioned as Saṃvatsara by learned men.

The sun should be known as Parivatsara. He is the source of origin of the divisions of Kāla (Time), of the months, seasons and the two Ayanas; of the planets, stars, chillness, heat, rain, span of life and holy rites; the Bhāskara (sun) is the source of origin of the smaller divisions and the days; he is Vaikārika (an evolute?), of kindly disposition, the son of Brahmā and the Lord protector of subjects. He is one. He is (in a way) not one. He is day, month, season and grandfather. He is Āditya, Savitṛ, Bhānu, Jīvana (Enlivener) and honoured by Brahmā. He is the Prabhava (source of birth) and Apyaya (end or that in which they merge themselves at death)of all living beings. Therefore, Bhāskara the presiding deity of the Tārās (constellations), should be known as the second Parivatsara.

127-129. Since Soma (the moon god) is the lord of all medicinal herbs, since he is the grandfather, since he is the enlivener of all living beings, since he is the lord, causing Yoga (acquisition of what is not attained) and Kṣema (preservation of what is acquired); since he always looks after and upholds the universe by means of his rays; since he is the source of origin of the Tithis (days of the lunar fortnight), junctions of Parvans, full moon and the New moon; since he causes the night; since he is the Prajāpati with nectarine soul—for all these reasons Soma (Moon) with the Pitṛs is remembered as Iḍvatsara.

For the following reasons Vayu (the Wind god) is Anuvatsara:

130. In the world he is the propeller of all activities of the living beings through the five types of vital winds viz.: Prāṇa, Apāna, Samāna, Vyāna, and Udāna.

131. He causes the unified and simultaneous activities of the five units of the physical body. viz.; the sense organs, the mind, the intellect, the memory and the strength.

132. He is the soul of all; he is the lord of all worlds through the (spatial winds) Āvaha, Pravaha etc. He exists through his seven times seven bodies (known as Maruts) that render help to others.

133-134. He is the maker of the destiny of all living beings; he is the Prabhañjana (violent gust of wind also); he perpetually causes the well-being of all living beings; he is the source of origin of fire, waters, earth, the sun and the moon; the wind is Prajāpati: he is the soul of all the worlds; he is the great grandfather and he causes days and nights. Hence, it is that Vāyu (wind god) is Anuvatsara.

135. All these four (i.e. Kāla, the sun, the Moon and the wind god) are lords of subjects; they are born of the flanks (of Brahmā); they are the fathers of all the worlds. They have been glorified as the souls of the worlds.

136-137. Bhava came out crying, through the mouth of Brahmā who was meditating. The great lord is mentioned (in the Vedas) of Ṛṣi (sage), Vipra (Brāhmaṇa), the soul of the living beings, the great grandfather, the lord of all living beings and the Praṇava (Om). It is through the penetration of the Ātman (soul) that the limbs and minor limbs of the living beings take shape.

138-139. Rudra who causes Unmāda (Madness) and (at the same time) blesses, is called Vatsara. Thus the sun, the moon, the fire, the wind and Rudra are all identifiers with Yuga (?). Lord Rudra who is the soul of Kāla is always the cause of annihilation. Lord Rudra entered this universe by means of his own brilliance.

14-0-141. Due to the contact with the soul that is the support, by means of the bodies and the appellations (he enters the universe). Therefore, through his own vitality he has the status of Deva, Pitṛ and Kāla and this status blesses the worlds. It is the greatest. So Rudra is always worshipped by those who are the knowers of that (Rudra?)

142-144. Since the lord is the master of the lords of subjects, since he is Prajāpati, since he is the conceiver of all living beings, since Nīlalohita is the soul of all, since Rudra resuscitates the fading and declining medicinal herbs again and again; since at the time when medicinal herbs decline, the lord is worshipped by the Devas, the leader of whom is Prajāpati and who seek fruits eagerly desired by them—(He is worshipped by offering Puroḍāśa in three Kapālas) otherwise called Three Ambakas—So the lord is called Tryambaka.[13]

145. The three Vedic metres viz.: Gāyatrī, Triṣṭubh and Jagatī are remembered by the name Tryambakas. Out of love they are the sources of origin of the vegitable kingdom.

146. The Puroḍāśa offering consecrated by the repetition of those three metrical verses united into one is called Trikapāla because it has three means and it is instilled with their virility in three ways.

147. Hence that Puroḍāśa is Tryambaka. Therefore, he (the lord Rudra) is also declared as Tryambaka.

Thus the Yuga is mentioned by learned men as one that consists of five years.

148. The Saṃvatsara that has been mentioned by Brāhmaṇas as one having five selves became a unit of six selves[14] with the names of Madhu (spring) and other seasons.

149-151. The five Ārtavas are the sons of the Ṛtus. Thus the creation is recounted briefly.

Thus the unattached Kāla with many measures and units removes the lives of living beings and runs like the rapidly speeding current of water.

The progeny of these, cannot be enumerated authoritatively, because they are innumerable. The group of sons and grandsons is endless.

Glorifying this family of great lords of subjects of holy rites and meritorious fame, one shall achieve great Siddhi (spiritual attachment).

Footnotes and references:


VV. 16-18 detail the units of time.


This explains why Ṛtus (Seasons) are regarded as Pitṛs (manes).


There is a difference of opinion among the Purāṇas about the names of the daughters of these Pitṛs. Such differences are reconciled by presuming that the events in Purāṇas refer to different Kalpas or Manvantaras.


This and a number of verses from this chapter are found in Vā.P. chapter 31


Dakṣa, in the 2nd incarnation, was a descendant of Pitṛ-gods (vide V.40 above). Hence the story of Dakṣa and the destruction of his sacrifice by Śiva is inserted here.


From this verse, the section of the race of gods (Deva-vaṃśa) begins.


Vā.P.31.5 reads chandogāḥ ‘Chanters of the Sāma-veda’.


The author regards the first Manu (Svāyambhuva) and the present Manu (Vaivasvata) as more important and gives so to say a comparative statement between the events etc. in these two Manvantara.


This is a new section dealing with the nature of Kāla (Time). Cf. Vā.P.31.22 ff.


VV.111-112 describe the person of Kāla, while V.113 gives the five divisions of Kāla (time) viz. the day, the fortnight, the month, the season and the Āyana.


Kāla is now identified with Yuga. It is comprised of five years which are named as (1) Saṃvatsara, (2) Parivatsara, (3) Iḍvatsara, (4) Anuvatsara and (5) Vatsara. The following verses describe the “principle” as to how and why (1) Kratu-Agni, (2) The Sun-god, (3) Soma or the Moon-god with Pitṛs, (4) The Wind-god and (5) Rudra should be associated with these five years.


Udagrudra=Udagra Rudra. Or we may adopt the reading of Vā.P. 31.32a:

ahaṅkārād rudan rudraḥ /

“Rudra who roared out of haughtiness and conceit.”


This is a repetition of the explanation of the identification of Tryambaka and the three Kapālas (pot-sherds) on which Puroḍāśa is offered.


The year, said to be of five souls (vide V.113), is again divided into six divisions according to season (Ṛtus).

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