Dharana, Dharaṇa, Dhāraṇa, Dhāraṇā: 50 definitions


Dharana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Dharan.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Dharana in Yoga glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Yoga

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “contemplation”) is a Sanskrit word referring to “your thoughts”. It is one of the eight brances of yoga, also known as the eightfold-path (aṣṭānga). Also see the fifth section of the Varāha-upaniṣad.

In yoga philosophy, this is the stage just before medition; the goal is to become aware of nothing but the object on which you are concentrating;

Source: Google Books: The Khecarividya of Adinatha

As Ballāla notes, Dhāraṇā (धारणा) can mean both fixing of the mind on a single object and fixing of the breath. (The two are linked: Vyāsa in his commentary to Yogasūtra 2.52 states that mental Dhāraṇā is brought about through breath-control; cf. Haṭhapradīpikā 4.23.)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Dharaṇa (धरण) refers to “carrying (a skull)”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] Putting on ochre garments, carrying a skull (kapāla-dharaṇa), plucking out clumps of hair, maintaining non-vedic religious observances, ashes, ascetic clothing and matted locks, behaving as if mad, [the ascetic practice of] nakedness, [studying] the Vedas, Tantras and so on and the meeting [of learned people] for [reciting] poetry in the assembly: All [this] is exertion for the sake of filling one's stomach and is not the cause of the highest good. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
context information

Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Yoga from relevant books on Exotic India

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Dhāraṇā (धारणा).—One of the eight means of Rājayoga (One of the ways of union with the supreme Spirit). Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma, Pratyāhāra, Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna and Samādhi are the eight means (See under Rājayoga).

2) Dhāraṇa (धारण).—A king born in the family of Candravatsa. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 7, Stanza 16).

3) Dhāraṇa (धारण).—A nāga (serpent) of the family of Kaśyapa. (Mahābhārata Udyoga Parva, Chapter 103, Stanza 16).

4) Dharaṇa (धरण).—A measure. In ancient times a dharaṇa was made up of ten palas. (Manusmṛti).

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to “retention” (i.e., to retain the pure wind by yogic means), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.30. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] having sipped water duly, covering up her body entirely with her cloth she closed her eyes and remembered her lord. She then entered the yogic trance. Keeping her face steady she balanced the winds Prāṇa and Apāna [i.e., prāṇāpāna]. She then lifted up the wind Udāna from the umbilical region, stabilised it in the cardiac region took it through the throat and finally fixed it in the middle of the eyebrows. She desired to cast-off her body due to her anger with Dakṣa. She desired to burn off the body and retain (dhāraṇa) the pure wind by yogic means (yogamārga). In this posture she remembered the feet of her lord and nothing else”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Dhāraṇā (धारणा).—A form of Yoga in which the mind is controlled; dhyāna; seeing in himself, the characteristic of Siddhi; the time and place for doing it; not near fire, forest, river-bed, burial place, Caitya; the performer should not be hungry, careworn or be anxious; else the doer becomes mad, deaf and dumb or blind; hence pure Dhāraṇā is required; one engaged in this Yoga could take curds and Yava paste; enables Vāyu to go up and stand in its place; other branches of; thinking. of the upper worlds, mountains and oceans in his heart; eating mud from dried beans; 1000 pots of water for bath;1 the dharma of the Yoga destroys sins;2 800 times in the head;3 Dhāraṇa Agneyī a special form of samādhi practised by Sati, the daughter of Dakṣa.4

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 2. 42-3; III. 4. 26; 22. 75; Vāyu-purāṇa 11. 22-64; Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 7. 75-8.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 76, 93.
  • 3) Ib. 12. 17; 19. 41; 104. 24.
  • 4) Ib. 30. 54.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Dhāraṇa (धारण) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. V.72.16, V.101.16/V.103, XIV.8.26, XIV.8) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Dhāraṇa) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Purana from relevant books on Exotic India

Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

Dhāraṇa (धारण) is another name (synonym) for stambha, a Sanskrit technical term referring to “pillar”. These synonyms are defined in texts such as Mayamata (verse 15.2), Mānasāra (verse 15.2-3), Kāśyapaśilpa (verse 8.2) and Īśānaśivagurudevapaddati (Kriya, verses 31.19-20).

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Vastushastra from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: archive.org: Vijnana Bhairava or Divine Consciousness

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “yoga practices”).—In Patañjali, the word dhāraṇā is used in a somewhat limited sense viz; ‘fixation of mind on a particular spot’. In Vijñānabhairava it is used in the wide sense of fixation or concentration of mind or yoga. The word yoga is used both in the sense of communion (with the Divine) and the means (upāya) for that communion. Vijñānabhairava mentions 112 dhāraṇās or types of yoga.

The means of communion with Bhairava have been classified under four broad heads in Śaivāgama, viz.,

  1. anupāya,
  2. śāmbhava,
  3. śākta,
  4. āṇava.
Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva

Dhāraṇa (धारण) or Dhāraṇāgama refers to one of upāgamas (supplementary scriptures) of the Vimalāgama which is one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgama: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu. The purpose of revealing upāgamas (e.g., Dhāraṇa Āgama) is to explain more elaborately than that of mūlāgamas (e.g., Vimala-āgama) and to include any new idea if not dealt in mūlāgamas.

Source: academia.edu: The Śaiva Yogas and Their Relation to Other Systems of Yoga

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “fixation”) refers to one of the six members (aṅga) of the Ṣaḍaṅgayoga, as taught in the early Śaiva Siddhānta.—Ṣaḍaṅgayoga is taught as the standard yoga of the Śaivasiddhānta (Siddhānta) a mainstream, Veda congruent dualist tradition. See, for example, the 6th century texts of Raurava-āgama, Kiraṇa-āgma, Sarvajñānottara-āgama, Svāyambhuvasūtrasaṃgraha, the 7th century Mālinīvijayottara and the 9th century Tantrasadbhāva.

Dhāraṇā (yogic fixation ) involves breath retention and internal mantra enunciation coupled with concentration on a particular location in the body while visualizing various structures and events. There are two main types that have come down to us. The older one is of four kinds, perhaps itself derived from a twofold type related to the sun correlated with fire, and the moon correlated with water. These are localised in the body in the navel and the forehead respectively. They become fourfold by the addition of transcendent fire and water. The second type utilises the five elements: earth, water, fire, air, and ether.

Source: academia.edu: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “introspections ”) is dealt with in the Yogapāda section of the Mālinīvijayottara’s, which is concerned with the conquest of the levels of reality (tattvajaya).

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to “wearing (garlands)” (in dreams), according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.21-27, while describing inauspicious dreams]—“[...] [He] who sees black and red garments or an altered self [has inauspicious dreams]. In dreams [he] laughs and dances while [he] wears faded garlands (mlāna-sragdāma-dhāraṇa), cuts up one's own flesh. [He dreams of] captivity, being eaten by a black snake, and [dreams of] a wedding. [If he] sees this in dreams, he is not successful”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Shaivism from relevant books on Exotic India

Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Dhāraṇa (धारण).—Suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; e.g. ह्वयामि (hvayāmi) when recited as वयामि (vayāmi); ef. धारणमनुपलब्धिः (dhāraṇamanupalabdhiḥ) Uvvata on R.Pr.XIV. 6;

2) Dhāraṇa.—Repetition of a consonant which is also a fault; e.g. ज्ज्योतिष्कृत् (jjyotiṣkṛt) for ज्योतिष्कृत्ः (jyotiṣkṛtḥ) cf. Uvvata on XIV.6;cf. also धारयन्त (dhārayanta); परक्रमं (parakramaṃ) etc. explained by Uvvata as सान्तस्थस्य संयोगस्य आदौ रक्तं धारयन्तो विलम्बमानाः परक्रमं कुर्वन्ति (sāntasthasya saṃyogasya ādau raktaṃ dhārayanto vilambamānāḥ parakramaṃ kurvanti) where धारयन्तः (dhārayantaḥ) means 'lengthening’ or 'prolonging' cf. R.Pr. on XIV.23;

3) Dhāraṇa.—The peculiar position of the mouth (मुखसं-धारणम् (mukhasaṃ-dhāraṇam)) by which a double consonant is recited as a single one, cf. द्विवर्णमेकवर्णवत् (dvivarṇamekavarṇavat) (एकप्रयत्ननिर्वर्त्य (ekaprayatnanirvartya)) धारणात् (dhāraṇāt) e.g. व्यात्तम्, कुक्कुटः (vyāttam, kukkuṭaḥ), cf. V.Pr. IV.144.

Vyakarana book cover
context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Vyakarana from relevant books on Exotic India

Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) refers to “concentration”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “What is the use of a rosary or keeping the eyes closed? If there is concentration [i.e., dhāraṇā] or meditation, one does not attain consciousness. There is no pure light in Iḍā, or in Piṅgalā, or Suṣumṇā, although (all these places) are said to be means to attainment. (This reality) is said to be ‘without support’ and it cannot be grasped even by the gods. Thus, it is beyond Form (rūpa) and Part (pada) and its sphere (of existence) is beyond the beyond. It is not an object of meditation. [...]”.

Source: academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) is explained by Lakṣmaṇadeśika in his 11th-century Śaradātilaka.—The sixth limb is dhāraṇā, which is the fixation of the vital air (prāṇa) on the sixteen parts of the body (24–5). These parts are known as “places” (sthāna) in the Prapañcas, as “vital points” (marmasthāna) in the Vasiṣṭha-saṃhitā, and as “supports” (ādhāra) in various other texts.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Shaktism from relevant books on Exotic India

Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) refers to one of the three functions of saṃyama (self-control).—The Pāñcarātrāgama offers its own treatment which has a significant contribution. Dhāraṇā is retaining the mind in God, dhyāna is joining the mind in God and meditating upon Him and samādhi is mere appearance of the nature of the object, (God). According to Viṣṇupurāṇa. (VI.7.86), dhāraṇā is stability of the citta In God, dhyāna is continuity of that cognition without any desire for other things (ibid. VI.7.91) and samādhi is a stage in Yogic practise in which God’s own nature is grasped without any imagined appendage (ibid. VI.7.92).

Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Pancaratra from relevant books on Exotic India

Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) refers to “concentration of the mind, the sixth step in aṣṭāṅga-yoga”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Vaishnavism from relevant books on Exotic India

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms

1) Dharaṇa (धरण):—A unit of Measurement; , Four seeds of masha are equal to one dharan and synonym of sana

2) Dhāraṇa (धारण):—Holding, carrying, preserving, protecting, Possessing. Common function of all Dhātus. Specific function of Asthi Dhātu.

Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India

Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to “stabilising” and is the action (karma) associated with Sthira (“static”): one of the twenty Śārīraguṇa (or Gurvādiguṇa), which refers to the “twenty qualities of the body”—where guṇa (property) represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—Śārīraka-guṇas are twenty in number. There are ten guṇas with their opposite guṇas. [...] Sthira (“static”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of earth and the associated actions of “stabilising/dhāraṇa”; while Cala (“mobile”) has the predominant bhūta (element) of air and is associated with the action “stimulating/preraṇa”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Ayurveda from relevant books on Exotic India

General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: The Tree of Life: An Illustrated Study in Magic

Dharana: Sanskrit word that means "holding" or "concentration." Refers to the yogic discipline of concentration on an object or symbol.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

See Varana.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Theravada from relevant books on Exotic India

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “meditation”) refers to one of six limbs of Yoga to be employed in Uttamasevā (excellent worship), according to the Guhyasamāja chapter 18.—[...] Dhāraṇā (meditation) is the meditation of one’s own Mantra on the heart, and the placing of it on the Prāṇabindu (heart centre) after restraining the jewel of sense-organs. When this is done Nimittas (signs) make their appearance. These signs are of five kinds and appear in succession. The first is the sign of the Marīcikā (mirage), the second is that of smoke, the third is of fire-flies, the fourth is of light, and the fifth of constant light like a cloudless sky.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Tibetan Buddhism from relevant books on Exotic India

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to the “keeping (of precious substance)”, according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter 41).—Accordingly, “[Digression on a case brought against the Buddha; B. The defense].—[6. Use of a Stone Bowl].—‘The Buddha forbade the Bhikṣus to use eight kinds of bowls (pātra)’.—[Bowls 1–4]: Precious bowls of gold (suvarṇa), silver (rūpya), [beryl (vaiḍūrya) and pearl (maṇi)]. – Since people covet precious things, since the latter are hard to find (durlabha) and because people are attached to them, the Buddha prohibits the keeping (dhāraṇa) of these precious substances. He does not allow even touching (sparśana) that which is ‘precious’ and neither does he allow keeping it. If such a gift is made [to the Bhikṣus], he allows them to realize their value, but not too expensive. [...]”.

Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to the “retention (of learning)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Son of good family, these are eight pure vigours of bodhisatvas. What are the eight? To wit, [...] (5) vigour to attain all dharmas that are wings of awakening although the awakening is not perceived since it is distinguished as the essential character; (6) vigour to purify Buddha-fields although the fields are not perceived since they are distinguished as open space; (7) vigour to retain all learning (sarvaśruta-dhāraṇa) while regarding the sound (śabda) as an echo (pratiśrutkā); (8) vigour to accomplish all qualities of the Buddha although they are not the objective support since they are distinguished as the homogeneity of absolute reality by nature. Son of good family, those eight are the pure vigours of the Bodhisattvas”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Mahayana from relevant books on Exotic India

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

Dharaṇa (धरण) is the father of Padmaprabha according to Digambara (according to Śvetāmbara he is named Dhara), according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri). Padmaprabha is the sixth of twenty-four Tīrthaṅkaras in Janism. A Tīrthaṅkara is an enlightened being who has conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leaving behind him a path for others to follow.

The wife of Dharaṇa is is Susīmā. It is an ancient Jain practice to worship the Tīrthaṅkara’s parents in various rites, such as the pratiṣṭhāvidhi.

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1a) Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to “remembering” and represents one of the eight dhīguṇas (eight qualities), named in the Yogaśāstra, comentary p. 53a (Bhavnagar ed.).

1b) Dhāraṇa (धारण) refers to “remembered knowledge leading to recognition” and represents one of the four classes of m “sense-knowledge” (mati-jñāna) which itself is one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon: “[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Mati-jñāna is said to be divided into [viz., dhāraṇa], etc., and these again into bahu, etc., and originates by means of the senses, and by means of the mind”.

2a) Dharaṇa (धरण) is the lord (i.e., Nāga-king) of the Nāgakumāras, according to chapter 1.3, “[...] with drawn swords, they [i.e., Nami and Vinami] served the Master as attendants day and night, like the Sun and Moon around Mt. Meru. Three times a day they bowed with folded hands and asked, ‘.There is no other Master. Give ns a kingdom, O Master’. One day, Dharaṇa, the lord of the Nāgakumāras, a layman, came there wishing to honor the Master’s feet. [...]”.

2b) Dharaṇa (धरण) is the name of one of the various childhood friends of Mahābala (son of king Bala from Vītaśoka), according to chapter 6.6 [śrī-mallinātha-caritra].—Accordingly:—“[...] A son, named Mahābala, having complete power, indicated by the dream of a lion, was borne to the king [i.e., Bala] by his wife Dhāriṇī. When he was grown, Mahābala married on one day five hundred princesses, Kamalaśrī and others. He had childhood-friends, Acala, Dharaṇa, Pūraṇa, Vasu, Vaiśravaṇa, and Abhicandra. [...]”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Dhāraṇā (धारणा, “retention”) refers to one of the four divisions of sensory knowledge (mati).What is retention (dhāraṇā)? After cognizing in perceptual judgment, retaining that knowledge for use in the future is retention e.g. after cognizing the crane not to forget the crane and its peculiarities in future.

according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 1.13, “The function of mati is the cognition with the aid of mind and sense organs through the stages of apprehension /sensation, speculation /discrimination, perceptual judgment and retention (dhāraṇā)”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 4: The celestial beings (deva)

Dharaṇa (धरण) refers to one of the two Indras (lords) of the Nāgakumāra (serpentine youths) class of “residential celestial beings” (bhavanavāsin), itself a main division of devas (celestial beings) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 4.3. The Nāgakumāras live on the mountains and in sandalwood trees. Dharaṇa and Bhūtānanda are the two lords in the Fiendish-youths residential celestial beings.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) refers to “conclusive decision” and represents one of the four thought processes relating to perception , as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—Comparable divisions are found in the Tattvārtha-sūtra I.15.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Dhāraṇā (धारणा) refers to “concentration”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “In abiding-in-objects [meditation], there are to be known five acts of concentration (pañca-dhāraṇāpañca vijñeyā dhāraṇā) described by the heroes [of the past]. The one who is restrained who is expert in them cuts through the bonds of life”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of General definition from relevant books on Exotic India

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dharaṇa.—(CII 4), name of a coin. (IE 8-8), a silver coin weighing 24 ratis (cf. JNSI, Vol. II, pp. 28-29) or the half of a gadyāṇaka according to the Līlāvatī; silver coin of 32 ratis according Manu, etc. (IE 8-8), same as kārṣāpaṇa or purāṇa. (EI 3), a gold coin or weight (320 ratis). (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 44), sometimes called śāna and ṭaṅka. Note: dharaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Dharaṇa.—old silver coin of 32 ratis (about 58 grains); also called kārṣāpaṇa and purāṇa; 24 (actually about 20) ratis in weight and half of gadyāṇa in value according to medieval autho- rities; otherwise called dramma, śāna or ṭaṅka; sometimes regarded as a gold coin or weight equal to ten palas or 40 suvarṇas or niṣkas (3200 ratis); cf. śalamāna (silver) = 10 dharaṇas (320 ratis). Note: dharaṇa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of India history from relevant books on Exotic India

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Dharana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dharaṇa : (nt.) a weight comprising about 2/5 of an ounce.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Dhāraṇā, (f.) (to dhāraṇa) 1. memory Miln.79.—2. the earth (“the upholder, ” cp. dharaṇī) J.VI, 180. (Page 341)

— or —

Dharaṇa, (adj.) bearing, holding, comprising VvA.104 (suvaṇṇassa pañcadasa° nikkha holding, i.e. worth or equal to 15 parts of gold).—f. —ī bearing, i.e. pregnant with Sn.26 (of cows: godharaṇiyo paveniyo=gabbhiniyo SnA 39). As n. the Earth J.V, 311; VI, 526; Miln.34; dharaṇī-ruha N. of a tree J.VI, 482, 497; Miln.376. (Page 340)

— or —

Dhāraṇa, (nt.) (cp. Sk. dhāraṇa, to dhāreti) 1. wearing, in mālā° (etc.) D.I, 5=A.II, 210=Pug.58; KhA 37; cīvara° A.II, 104=Pug.45.—2. maintaining, sustaining, keeping up Miln.320 (āyu° bhojana).—3. bearing in mind, remembrance Vin.IV, 305; M.II, 175 (dhamma°). (Page 341)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Pali from relevant books on Exotic India

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dharaṇa (धरण).—n (S) A dam or bank across a river or stream. 2 W An aggregate of nine āṇā. 3 S Holding, possessing, having. dha0 phuṭaṇēṃ g. of s. To have the menstrual discharge. dha0 bāndhaṇēṃ To tie a medicinal root with charms &c. around the neck of a pregnant woman (to prevent miscarriage).

--- OR ---

dhāraṇa (धारण).—f Rate, market or current price. Pr. dhā0 āṇi maraṇa kōṇhāsa samajata nāhīṃ.

--- OR ---

dhāraṇa (धारण).—n (S) Holding, having, keeping, maintaining, lit. fig. 2 Taking up or adopting (a fashion, a course).

--- OR ---

dhāraṇa (धारण).—m C or dhāraṇī f C The main post, in poor houses, reaching from the ground to the roof.

--- OR ---

dhāraṇā (धारणा).—f (S) Mental retention; remembrance or memory. 2 S Continuance in rectitude; perseverance in the right way. 3 Fortitude, firmness, steadiness. 4 A part of a Yog or religious exercise;--suspending the breath, abstracting the mind, and restraining all natural wants. 5 Way, style, fashion, particular or appropriate manner.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dharaṇa (धरण).—n A dam or bank across a river or stream, holding.

--- OR ---

dhāraṇa (धारण).—f Rate, market or current price. Holding.

--- OR ---

dhāraṇa (धारण).—m dhāraṇī f The main post. in poor houses, reaching from the ground to the roof.

--- OR ---

dhāraṇā (धारणा).—f Mental retention; memory. Fortitude, firmness, steadiness. Way, style, fashion.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Marathi from relevant books on Exotic India

Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dhāraṇa (धारण).—a. (-ṇī f.) [धृ-णिच्-ल्युट् (dhṛ-ṇic-lyuṭ)] Holding, bearing, carrying, preserving, sustaining, protecting, having, assuming, &c.

-ṇau (du.) The two female breasts.

-ṇam 1 The act of holding, bearing, supporting, preserving or keeping back.

2) Possessing, possession.

3) Observing; holding fast.

4) Retaining in the memory; ग्रहणधारणपटुर्बालकः (grahaṇadhāraṇapaṭurbālakaḥ).

5) Being indebted (to any one).

6) Steady abstraction of the mind.

7) Keeping, maintaining.

8) Restraining.

9) (In gram.) Pronouncing imperfectly.

-ṇī 1 A row or line.

2) A vein or tubular vessel.

3) Steadiness.

4) A mystical verse or charm to assuage pain.

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇā (धारणा).—1 The act of holding, bearing, supporting, preserving, &c.

2) The faculty of retaining in the mind, a good or retentive memory; धीर्धारणावती मेधा (dhīrdhāraṇāvatī medhā) Ak.

3) Memory in general.

4) Keeping the mind collected, holding the breath suspended, steady abstraction of mind; (paricetumupāṃśu dhāraṇām). R.8.18; Manusmṛti 6.72; Y.3. 21 (dhāraṇetyucyate ceyaṃ dhāryate yanmano tayā).

5) Fortitude, firmness, steadiness.

6) A fixed precept or injunction, a settled rule, conclusion; इति धर्मस्य धारणा (iti dharmasya dhāraṇā) Manusmṛti 8.184; 4.38;9.124.

7) Understanding, intellect; Y.3.73.

8) Continuance in rectitude, propriety, decorum.

9) Conviction or abstraction.

1) A kind of योगाङ्ग (yogāṅga); देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा (deśabandhaścittasya dhāraṇā) Yogadarśana.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dharaṇa (धरण).—(1) nt. (in Sanskrit a certain weight), a high number: Mahāvyutpatti 7726 = Tibetan gzhal (weight) dpag; compare varaṇa; (2) m., name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 13; 235.30.

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇa (धारण).—(nt.), °ṇā, in a list of sciences studied by young men, app. some branch of mathematics (memory is an established meaning of the word, but seems hardly possible here); seems to correspond to uddhāra, q.v., in Divyāvadāna (compare Senart iii n. 520); gaṇanāyāṃ pi mudrāyāṃ pi dhāra- ṇāyāṃ (loc.) pi Mahāvastu ii.423.15; otherwise always °ṇa, gaṇanāṃ dhāraṇa-mudrāṃ (dvandva [compound]?) Mahāvastu iii.184.7; gaṇanāṃ dhāraṇaṃ (mss. vār°) nikṣepaṇaṃ iii.394.9; nikṣepaṇaṃ (mss. add taṃ) dhāraṇaṃ iii.405.12.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dharaṇa (धरण).—mn.

(-ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ) 1. Holding, possessing, having. 2. A sort of measure, a weight of ten Palas. 3. A weight of silver, sixteen Mashas. m.

(-ṇaḥ) 1. The Himalaya mountain considered as king of mountains. 2. The sun. 3. A world. 4. A breast, a female breast. 5. Rice. 6. A ridge of land answering the purpose of a bridge, the edge of a river, the skirt of a mountain, a bridge. f. (-ṇī) 1. The earth. 2. The silk cotton tree. 3. A vessel of the body. 4. An esculent root. E. dhṛ to hold, to uphold or support, affix yuc, bhāve lyuṭ, fem, affix ṅīp .

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇa (धारण).—n.

(-ṇaṃ) Holding, having, keeping, maintaining. f.

(-ṇā) 1. Continuance in rectitude, keping in the right way. 2. Fortitude, firmness, steadiness, resolution. 3. A particular religious exercise; keeping the mind collected, the breath suspended, and all natural wants restrained; steady, immoveable abstraction. 4. Mental retention, memory. 5. Understanding, intellect. 6. Believing, conviction. 7. Certainty, conclusion. 8. Positive precept or injunction. 9. Debt. f. (-ṇī) 1. Any tubular vessel of the body. 2. A mystical verse or charm, or collection of such verses, among the Baudd'has 3. A row or line. E. dhṛ to hold, (purpose, intent, virtue, &c.) affix lyuṭ or bhāve yuc aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dharaṇa (धरण).—i. e. dhṛ + ana, I. adj., f. ṇī, Preserving, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 9643. Ii. f. ṇī, and dharaṇi dharaṇi, The earth, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 42, 2; 1, 44, 17. Iii. n. 1. Supporting, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 17. 2. Support, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 12823. 3. A weight of ten Palas, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 8, 135; 136.

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇa (धारण).—i. e. dhṛ + ana, I. adj., f. ṇī. 1. Preserving, Mahābhārata 12, 12751. 2. Keeping in remembrance, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 2, 7, 46. 3. Having the shape, Mahābhārata 13, 739. Ii. f. ṇā. 1. Bearing, Mahābhārata 7, 1912. 2. Supporting, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 109, 25 Gorr. 3. Suppression, [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 4, 4, 26. 4. Mental retention, Mahābhārata 1, 1010. 5. Keeping the mind collected, the breath suspended, and all natural wants restrained; steady immoveable abstraction, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 19. 6. A settled rule, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 4, 38. Iii. n. 1. Holding, bearing, [Kumārasaṃbhava, (ed. Stenzler.)] 7, 68; Mahābhārata 3, 9946. 2. Maintaining, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 3, 174. 3. Observance, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 3. 4. Mental retention, Mahābhārata 15, 756. 5. Possession, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 93. 6. Fixing one’s mind on one object, [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 217, 19. 7. Restraining, or rather stopping, the senses, Mahābhārata 3, 13939. 8. Enduring, [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 38, 16.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dharaṇa (धरण).—[feminine] ī bearing, holding; [masculine] [Name] of a serpent-demon, [masculine] [neuter] a cert. weight; [feminine] dharaṇī the earth; [neuter] holding, support, bringing, procuring.

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇa (धारण).—[feminine] ī holding, bearing, maintaining ([genetive] or —°).

— [feminine] ā wearing, keeping, retaining, maintenance, assistance; remembrance, memory; abstraction of mind, fixed attention (ph.); precept, rule ([jurisprudence]). [neuter] dhāraṇa holding, supporting, wearing, keeping ([especially] in the memory); bearing, suffering; abstraction or concentration (of the mind).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dharaṇa (धरण):—[from dhara] mf(ī)n. bearing, supporting, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-āraṇyaka]

2) [v.s. ...] m. a dike or bank, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] the world, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] the sun, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] the female breast, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] rice-corn, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a king of the Nāgas, [Śatruṃjaya-māhātmya]

8) [v.s. ...] m. or n. a sort of weight variously reckoned as = 10 Palas, = 16 silver Māṣakas, = 1 silver Purāṇa, = 1/10 Śatamāna, = 19 Niṣpāva, = 2/5 Karṣa, = 1/10 Pala, = 24Raktikā, [Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Suśruta; Varāha-mihira] etc.

9) [v.s. ...] n. the act of bearing, holding, etc., [Kāvya literature]

10) [v.s. ...] bringing, procuring (cf. kāma-)

11) [v.s. ...] support, prop, stay (cf. pṛtkivī-, savana.)

12) [v.s. ...] a [particular] high number, [Buddhist literature] (cf. dhamana, dhamara)

13) Dhāraṇa (धारण):—[from dhāra] mf(ī)n. holding, bearing, keeping (in remembrance), retention, preserving, protecting, maintaining, possessing, having (ifc. or with [genitive case]), [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka; Mahābhārata; Suśruta] : [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

14) [v.s. ...] assuming the shape of ([genitive case]), resembling, [Mahābhārata xiii, 739]

15) [v.s. ...] m. Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]

16) [v.s. ...] of a son of Kaśyapa, [ib.]

17) [v.s. ...] of a prince of the Candravatsas, [ib.]

18) [v.s. ...] [dual number] the two female breasts, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

19) [v.s. ...] n. the act of holding, bearing etc., [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Manu-smṛti; Yājñavalkya; Mahābhārata] etc.

20) [v.s. ...] wearing (See liṅga-)

21) [v.s. ...] suffering, enduring, [Rāmāyaṇa]

22) [v.s. ...] keeping in remembrance, memory, [Taittirīya-āraṇyaka; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa] : immovable concentration of the mind upon ([locative case]), [Vedāntasāra]

23) [v.s. ...] restraining (cf. śvāsa-)

24) [v.s. ...] keeping back id est. pronouncing imperfectly, [Prātiśākhya]

25) [v.s. ...] f(ā and ī). See dhāraṇā and ṇī.

26) Dhāraṇā (धारणा):—[from dhāra] f. (cf. ṇa, [column]1) the act of holding, bearing, wearing, supporting, maintaining, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

27) [v.s. ...] retaining, keeping back (also in remembrance), a good memory, [Kaṭha-upaniṣad; Gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

28) [v.s. ...] collection or concentration of the mind (joined with the retention of breath), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata; Suśruta; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa] etc.

29) [v.s. ...] cf. [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 239] (ṇāṃ-√dhṛ, to exercise concentration, [Yājñavalkya]; ṇāṃ gataḥ, having composed one’s self, [Rāmāyaṇa])

30) [v.s. ...] understanding, intellect, [Yājñavalkya iii, 73]

31) [v.s. ...] firmness, steadfastness, righteousness, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

32) [v.s. ...] fixed preceptor settled rule, certainty, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata]

33) [v.s. ...] [plural] the 8th to the 11th day in the light half of month Jyaiṣṭha, [Varāha-mihira]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dharaṇa (धरण):—[(ṇaḥ-ṇaṃ)] 1. m. n. Holding; a weight or measure. m. Himālaya mountain; the sun; world; breast; a ridge. f. The earth.

2) Dhāraṇa (धारण):—(ṇaṃ) 1. n. A holding. f. (ṇā) Stedfastness in rectitude; fortitude; memory, intellect; conviction; certainty; precept; debt. f. (ṇī) Tubular vessel; a mystical verse or charm.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Dharaṇa (धरण) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Dharaṇa, Dharaṇā, Dhāraṇa, Dhāraṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Dharana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Sanskrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Dharana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Dharaṇa (धरण) [Also spelled dharan]:—(nm) the act of holding/bearing.

2) Dharana (धरन) [Also spelled dharan]:—(nf) a beam.

3) Dharanā (धरना) [Also spelled dharna]:—(v) to hold; to place; to put; to arrest, to apprehend; to take as husband/wife, to pawn, to pledge; (nm) picketing, sitting doggedly to enforce compliance of a demand; [dharā-ḍhakā] kept in reserve, safely set aside for late use; [dhara dabānā] to pounce upon, to force into a tight corner; [dharāraha jānā] to prove of no avail; not to be utilised.

4) Dhāraṇa (धारण) [Also spelled dharan]:—(nm) holding; wielding; supporting, maintenance/maintaining; wearing; assumption; retention; ~[kartā] one who holds/maintains/wields/wears; -[kṣamatā/śakti] retentiveness, power of retention; capacity.

5) Dhāraṇā (धारणा) [Also spelled dharna]:—(nf) an impression; concept, notion, idea; (power of) retention (also -[śakti]).

context information


Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Hindi from relevant books on Exotic India

Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Dharaṇa (धरण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Dharaṇa.

2) Dharaṇā (धरणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dharaṇā.

3) Dhāraṇa (धारण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dhāraṇa.

4) Dhāraṇā (धारणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dhāraṇā.

5) Dhāraṇā (धारणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Dhāraṇā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Prakrit from relevant books on Exotic India

Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Dharaṇa (ಧರಣ):—[adjective] bearing; holding; carrying; supporting.

--- OR ---

Dharaṇa (ಧರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act or fact of bearing something or supporting.

2) [noun] that which bears or supports (a burden).

3) [noun] a barrier built to hold back flowing water; a dam.

4) [noun] the sun.

5) [noun] an ancient coin or gold or silver.

6) [noun] an old weight (equal to ten palas).

--- OR ---

Dharaṇa (ಧರಣ):—[noun] = ಧರಣಿ [dharani]2.

--- OR ---

Dhāraṇa (ಧಾರಣ):—

1) [noun] the act of holding, bearing.

2) [noun] the act of support as a prop.

3) [noun] something rigid which supports (as a beam, pole, etc.) a prop.

4) [noun] a wearing of clothes ornaments, etc.

5) [noun] an enduring; endurance; bearing.

6) [noun] a bringing up with care or helping to grow and develop; fostering.

7) [noun] the fact of having, possessing (something).

8) [noun] the power, act or process of recalling to mind facts previously learned or past experiences; memory.

9) [noun] a keeping (someone or something) under check; a controlling; control.

10) [noun] an abstaining from food; fasting.

11) [noun] (yoga.) a controlling of the extrovert tendencies of the mind.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

Discover the meaning of dharana in the context of Kannada from relevant books on Exotic India

See also (Relevant definitions)

Relevant text

Related products

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: