Masha, Māsa, Masa, Māṣa, Maśa, Ma-sha: 20 definitions
Masha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Māṣa and Maśa can be transliterated into English as Masa or Masha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
1) Māṣa (माष) is a Sanskrit word referring to Vigna mungo (“black gram”). It is a type of legume (śamīdhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant Māṣa is part of the Śamīdhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of legumes”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Māṣa is aphrodisisac, excellent vāta-alleviating, unctuous, hot, weet, heavy and strength-promoting in character. It causes an abundance of faeces and gives sexual potency.
2) Māṣa (माष) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘1 gram’ used in Āyurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Māṣa unit corresponds to 8 Raktikā units (a single Raktikā unit equals the weight of a Guñjā-seed, roughly 1/8th gram). You need a 10 Māṣa units to make a single Karṣa unit (1 Karṣa equals 10 grams).
Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:
- Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
- 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
- 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
- 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
- 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
- 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
- 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
- 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
- 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
- 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
- 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
- 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
- 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Māṣa (माष) refers to “black-gram” and is listed as one of the varieties of pulses, according to the Vājasaneyisaṃhitā XVIII.12, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—In Vedic literature, different varieties of pulses like māṣa (black-gram), mudga (green-gram) and masūra (lentils) were referred to. But it is interesting that for some reason māṣa is not considered edible as it is despised for sacrificial purposes. In Vālmīkirāmāyaṇa, pulses like māṣa (black-gram), mudga (green-gram), kulattha (horsegram) and caṇaka (hemp) are mentioned. [...] The medical works regard māṣa as the worst among all pulses because it is very difficult to digest.
Māṣa or “black gram” is mentioned as being harmful (ahita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here In the śimbīdhānya (legumes) group māṣa (black-gram) is mentioned as harmful to the body (ahita).
Māṣa or “black-gram” is mutually incompatible (viruddhāhāra) with Ānūpamāmṣa (the meat of animals living in marshy lands).
Māṣa (‘urad dal’ or ‘black-gram’) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., māṣa (urud dal)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., salila (water) or kitava (thorn apple)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
Māṣa (black gram) have many properties according to Ayurvedic treatises like it is very unctous, strengthening, alleviates bile, imparts taste etc. But Aṣṭāṅgahṛdaya states that it is most inferior grain and is very difficult to digest. Black-gram vaṭakas contains other constituents like ginger, asafoetida etc. which helps the digetion of black-gram in a proper manner.
The dishes described in Bhojanakutūhala in which black gram (māṣa) is a main ingredient are of three varieties:—
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Māṣa (माष) refers to Phaseolus radiatus, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to the powder of Māṣa as an unguent (verse 422). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Māṣa (माष).—A measure of weight in ancient Bhārata. (See under Trasareṇu).
2) Māsa (मास).—(months)
2) . General information. It is believed that every where for a year there are twelve months. There are six different kinds of months in force in Bhārata. They are the following:—Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
Māsa (मास) refers to “black gram”, which is given to the priest in the Prājāpatya ceremony, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“[...] silver coins and black gram (māsa) shall be given as fee to the priest as much as for two Prājāpatya ceremonies. If the devotee cannot afford it he shall give according to his capacity”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
2) Māsa (मास).—30 days and nights; two pakṣas; two months equal to a ṛtu; six months constitute an ayaṇa and two ayaṇas make one year; the twelve names of months Tapa, Tapasya, etc. are mentioned.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 20; 13. 14 and 114; Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 14; 30. 16 and 178; 31. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 58; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 9-10; II. 8. 81; VI. 3. 10.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Māsa (मास).—Month. Note: Māsa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Māṣa (माष) refers to “black gram” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism
Māsa (मास)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
Māṣa (माष) refers to a type of pulse (Phaseolus radiatus) and represents one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Māsa.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘twelve.’ Note: māsa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Māṣa.—(EI 21, 25, 30, 33; CII 4), according to the Kṛtya- kalpataru (Vyavahāra-kāṇḍa, ed. K. V. Rangaswami Aiyangar, p. 125), a gold coin as opposed to silver māṣaka; name of a weight; name of a coin; 5 ratis in weight; sometimes regarded as 10 ratis in weight and as equal to (1/4) of a śāna. See JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 41. It was sometimes regarded as (1/20) of a paṇa of 100 ratis (ibid., Vol. XV, p. 143). Cf. māṣaka, ādya-māṣa. Note: māṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
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Māṣa.—name of a weight or a coin weighing 5 ratis originally; later regarded as 10 ratis in weight; (1/4) of a śāna and (1/8) of a śatamāna; sometimes regarded as (1/20) of a paṇa of 100 ratis (i. e. 5 ratis); a gold coin (as opposed to the silver māṣaka) according to the Kṛtyakalpataru; cf. ādya-māṣa, māḍa. Note: māṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
māsa : (m.) a month; a kind of bean, Phaseolus Indica.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Masa, in line “āsadañ ca masañ jaṭaṃ” at J. VI, 328 is to be combined with ca, and read as camasañ, i.e. a ladle for sacrificing (C. : aggi-dahanaṃ). (Page 525)
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1) Māsa, 3 (identical with māsa2) a small coin (=māsaka) J. II, 425 (satta māsā=s. māsakā C.). (Page 531)
2) Māsa, 2 (Vedic māṣa, Phaseolus indica, closely related to another species: mudga Phaseolus mungo) a bean (Phaseolus indica or radiata); usually combined with mugga, e.g. Vin. III, 64; Miln. 267, 341; DA. I, 83. Also used as a weight (or measure?) in dhañña-māsa, which is said to be equal to 7 lice: VbhA. 343.—pl. māse Vv 806 (=māsa-sassāni VvA. 310).
3) Māsa, 1 (cp. Vedic māsa, & mās; Gr. mήn (Ionic meiζ); Av. māh (moon & month); Lat. mensis; Oir. mī; Goth. mēna=moon; Ohg. māno, mānōt month. Fr. *mē to measure: see mināti) a month, as the 12th part of the year. The 12 months are (beginning with what chronologically corresponds to our middle of March): Citta (Citra), Vesākha, Jeṭṭha, Āsāḷha, Sāvaṇa, Poṭṭhapāda, Assayuja, Kattika, Māgasira, Phussa, Māgha, Phagguna. As to the names cp. nakkhatta. Usually in Acc. , used adverbially; Nom. rare, e.g. aḍḍha-māso half-month VvA. 66; Āsāḷhi-māsa VvA. 307 (=gimhānaṃ pacchima māsa); pl. dve māsā PvA. 34 (read māse); cattāro gimhāna-māsā KhA 192 (of which the 1st is Citra, otherwise called Paṭhama-gimha “1st summer” and Bāla-vasanta “premature spring”).—Instr. pl. catūhi māsehi Miln. 82; PvA. I, 1012.—Acc. pl. as adv. : dasamāse 10 months J. I, 52; bahu-māse PvA. 135; also nt. chammāsāni 6 months S. III, 155. frequent Acc. sg. collectively: a period of ... , e.g. temāsaṃ 3 months DhsA. 15; PvA. 20; catu° DA. I, 83; PvA. 96; satta° PvA. 20; dasa° PvA. 63; aḍḍha° a fortnight Vin. IV, 117.—On māsa (& f. māsī), as well as shortened form °ma see puṇṇa.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
masa (मस).—m f (maṣī S) A natural spot or discoloration on the body, a mole. Applied also to a soft rising in the flesh. 2 fig. Slur, stain, sully, blot. 3 Soot, smut, lamp-black &c. See maśī.
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māṣa (माष).—m S A bean or pulse popularly called uḍīda (Phaseolus radiatus or max). 2 A weight of the jeweler or goldsmith, variously reckoned at five, eight, or ten ratī (seeds of Abrus precatorius).
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māsa (मास).—m (S) A month. For the twelve months see bārā mahinē. māsapakṣa lāgalā -lōṭalā-sāralā &c. A month or six weeks were taken up, are elapsed &c. māsāpakṣā- cyā ānta Within a month or fifteen days.
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māsa (मास).—n (māśī) Flies. A noun collective. 2 f R A swarm of flies.
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māsā (मासा).—m (matsya S) A fish. Pr. māśācyā pōrāsa pōhāyāsa śikavāyāsa nakō. Pr. jaḷānta rāhūna māśāṃsīṃ vaira Indulgence of hatred and hostility against all who dwell around and about us.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
masa (मस).—m f A mole. Fig. Slur. Soot, lampblack.
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māṣa (माष).—m A bean called uḍīda. A weight of the jeweller.
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māsa (मास).—m A month.
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māsa (मास).—n Flesh.
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māsā (मासा).—m A fish. A weight equal to eight guñjā.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) A mosquito.
2) Hum, humming.
Derivable forms: maśaḥ (मशः).
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Masa (मस).—A measure, weight.
Derivable forms: masaḥ (मसः).
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Māsa (मास).—[mā eva aṇ]
1) A month, (it may be cāndra, saura, sāvana, nākṣatra or bārhaspatya); न मासे प्रतिपत्तासे मां चेन्मर्तासि मैथिलि (na māse pratipattāse māṃ cenmartāsi maithili) Bk.8.95.
2) The moon (Ved.).
3) The number 'twelve'.
Derivable forms: māsaḥ (मासः), māsam (मासम्).
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Māṣa (माष).—[maṣ saṃjñāyāṃ kartari ghañ]
1) A bean; (the sing. being used for the plant and the pl. for the fruit or seed); तिलेभ्यः प्रति यच्छति माषान् (tilebhyaḥ prati yacchati māṣān) Sk.; मुद्राभावे माषाद्याः प्रति- निधित्वमर्हन्ति (mudrābhāve māṣādyāḥ prati- nidhitvamarhanti) J. N. V.
2) A particular weight of gold; पञ्चकृष्णलको माषस्ते सुवर्णस्तु षोडश (pañcakṛṣṇalako māṣaste suvarṇastu ṣoḍaśa) Ms.8.134; माषो विंशतिमो भागः पणस्य परिकीर्तितः (māṣo viṃśatimo bhāgaḥ paṇasya parikīrtitaḥ) or गुञ्जाभिरष्टभिर्माषः (guñjābhiraṣṭabhirmāṣaḥ)
3) A fool, blockhead.
4) A kind of pulse.
5) A cutaneous eruption resembling beans.
Derivable forms: māṣaḥ (माषः).
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Māṣa (माष).—epithets of Viṣṇu; हाटकनिभपीताम्बर अभयं कुरु मे मावर (hāṭakanibhapītāmbara abhayaṃ kuru me māvara) Nārāyaṇa.5.13.
Derivable forms: māṣaḥ (माषः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-śaḥ) 1. Anger. 2. Sounding. 3. A musquito. E. maśa to sound, &c., ac aff.
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(-saḥ) 1. Measure. 2. Weight. E. mas to measure, aff. ac .
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(-ṣaḥ) 1. A sort of kidney-bean, (Phaseolus radiatus.) “māṣakaḍāi” 2. A jeweller’s or goldsmith’s weight, variously reckoned at five, eight, or ten, Rattis, or seeds of the Abrus precatorius; the weight in common use, is about seventeen grains troy. 3. A blockhead, a fool. 4. A cutaneous disease. E. maṣ to hurt, aff. ghañ .
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(-saḥ) 1. A month, the twelfth part of the Hindu year; it is usually a lunar one, consisting of thirty Tit'his, but it may be a Saura or solar month, being equal to the sun’s passage through a sign of the zodiac; there is also a Savan month, consisting of thirty risings and settings of the sun; a Nakshatra month, or month regulated by the lunar asterisms, and a fifth description of month called Varhaspatya, depending on the motions of the planet Jupiter; the lunar month also, being of two kinds, as reckoned from the new or from the full moon, completes six different modes of monthly computation. 2. A jeweller’s weight: see māṣa. E. mās the moon, aff. aṇ; or mas to measure, (the year by it,) aff. ghañ .
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+20): Masada, Masana, Mashabdika, Mashacchada, Mashachchhada, Mashagata, Mashagati, Mashaghata, Mashahari, Mashajya, Mashaka, Mashakahari, Mashakakuti, Mashakavarana, Mashakin, Mashala, Mashalaci, Mashanca Vagha, Mashancem Jalem, Mashanna.
Ends with (+29): Adya-masha, Akalmasha, Akaramasha, Anumasha, Ardramasha, Atilomasha, Atiromasha, Atyumasha, Aviromasha, Dhanya-masha, Dhumasha, Dhutakalmasha, Gatakalmasha, Hamasha, Hamashadhumasha, Hamsalomasha, Hamsamasha, Hemamasha, Jalakalmasha, Kacamasha.
Full-text (+334): Samashi, Mashya, Adyamashaka, Karsha, Mashashas, Pancamashika, Akaramasha, Tanga, Masanta, Suvarna, Tanka, Kshayamasa, Masali, Candramasa, Mashahari, Shardulavikridita, Adya-masha, Makshuna, Masabali, Karshahva.
Search found 53 books and stories containing Masha, Māsa, Masa, Māṣa, Māsā, Maśa, Ma-sha, Mā-ṣa, Ma-sa; (plurals include: Mashas, Māsas, Masas, Māṣas, Māsās, Maśas, shas, ṣas, sas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 8.298 < [Section XLII - Assaults]
Verse 8.131 < [Section XXIII - Measures]
Verse 8.241 < [Section XXXIX - Disputes between Owner and Keeper]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
Kautilya Arthashastra (by R. Shamasastry)
Chapter 19 - The Superintendent of Weights and Measures < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Chapter 28 - The Superintendent of Ships < [Book 2 - The duties of Government Superintendents]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 1: Initiation, Mercury and Laboratory (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 2 - Measures of weight < [Chapter VII - Enumeration of technical terms]
Part 18 - Mercurial operations (16): Incineration of mercury (bhasmikarana) < [Chapter IV-V - Mercurial operations]
Part 1 - Additional process for transformation of base metals into gold and silver < [Chapter VIII - Conclusion of first volume]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 5: Treatment of various afflictions (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)