Masha, aka: Ma-sha, Māsa, Masa, Māṣa, Maśa; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Masha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Māṣa and Maśa can be transliterated into English as Masa or Masha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

1) Māṣa (माष) is a Sanskrit word referring to Vigna mungo (“black gram”). It is a type of legume (śamīdhānya), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Āyurvedic work. The plant Māṣa is part of the Śamīdhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of legumes”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Māṣa is aphrodisisac, excellent vāta-alleviating, unctuous, hot, weet, heavy and strength-promoting in character. It causes an abundance of faeces and gives sexual potency.

2) Māṣa (माष) is the Sanskrit name for a weight unit corresponding to ‘1 gram’ used in Āyurvedic literature, according to the Ṣoḍaśāṅgahṛdayam. A single Māṣa unit corresponds to 8 Raktikā units (a single Raktikā unit equals the weight of a Guñjā-seed, roughly 1/8th gram). You need a 10 Māṣa units to make a single Karṣa unit (1 Karṣa equals 10 grams).

Below follows a table of the different weight units in relation to one another and their corresponding values in brackets:

  • Guñjā (Raktikā) = 1 seed of Guñjā
  • 8 Raktikā = 1 Māṣa (1 gram)
  • 10 Māṣa = 1 Karṣa (10 grams)
  • 2 Karṣa = 1 Śukti (20 grams)
  • 2 Śukti = 1 Pala (40 grams)
  • 2 Pala = 1 Prasṛta (80 grams)
  • 2 Prasṛta = 1 Kuḍava (Añjali) (160 grams)
  • 2 Kuḍava = 1 Śarāva (320 grams)
  • 2 Śarāva = 1 Prastha (640 grams)
  • 4 Prastha = 1 Āḍhaka (Pātra) (2.56 kilograms)
  • 4 Āḍhaka = 1 Droṇa (10.24 kilograms)
  • 4 Droṇa = 1 Droṇī (40.96 kilograms)
  • 100 Pala = 1 Tulā (4 kilograms).
Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana

Māṣa (माष) refers to Phaseolus radiatus, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to the powder of Māṣa as an unguent (verse 422). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1) Māṣa (माष).—A measure of weight in ancient Bhārata. (See under Trasareṇu).

2) Māsa (मास).—(months)

2) . General information. It is believed that every where for a year there are twelve months. There are six different kinds of months in force in Bhārata. They are the following:—

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Māṣa (माष).—A tribe;1 a kind of grain.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 52.
  • 2) Ib. 217. 38.

1b) A small coin; fine of, for removing the rope, pot, etc., from a well;1 a weight.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 227. 98.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 3. 8.

2) Māsa (मास).—30 days and nights; two pakṣas; two months equal to a ṛtu; six months constitute an ayaṇa and two ayaṇas make one year; the twelve names of months Tapa, Tapasya, etc. are mentioned.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 7. 20; 13. 14 and 114; Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 14; 30. 16 and 178; 31. 26; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 58; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 3. 9-10; II. 8. 81; VI. 3. 10.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Māsa (मास).—Month. Note: Māsa is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Māṣa (माष) refers to “black gram” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru”.

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Buddhism

General definition (in Buddhism)

Māsa (मास)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Māṣa (माष) refers to a type of pulse (Phaseolus radiatus) and represents one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Masha in Pali glossary... « previous · [M] · next »

māsa : (m.) a month; a kind of bean, Phaseolus Indica.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Masa, in line “āsadañ ca masañ jaṭaṃ” at J. VI, 328 is to be combd with ca, and read as camasañ, i.e. a ladle for sacrificing (C. : aggi-dahanaṃ). (Page 525)

— or —

1) Māsa, 3 (identical with māsa2) a small coin (=māsaka) J. II, 425 (satta māsā=s. māsakā C.). (Page 531)

2) Māsa, 2 (Vedic māṣa, Phaseolus indica, closely related to another species: mudga Phaseolus mungo) a bean (Phaseolus indica or radiata); usually combd with mugga, e.g. Vin. III, 64; Miln. 267, 341; DA. I, 83. Also used as a weight (or measure?) in dhañña-māsa, which is said to be equal to 7 lice: VbhA. 343.—pl. māse Vv 806 (=māsa-sassāni VvA. 310).

—odaka bean-water KhA 237. —khetta a field of beans VvA. 808; VvA. 308. —bīja bean-seed DhA. III, 212. —vana plantation J. V, 37 (+mugga°). (Page 531)

3) Māsa, 1 (cp. Vedic māsa, & mās; Gr. mήn (Ionic meiζ); Av. māh (moon & month); Lat. mensis; Oir. mī; Goth. mēna=moon; Ohg. māno, mānōt month. Fr. *mē to measure: see mināti) a month, as the 12th part of the year. The 12 months are (beginning with what chronologically corresponds to our middle of March): Citta (Citra), Vesākha, Jeṭṭha, Āsāḷha, Sāvaṇa, Poṭṭhapāda, Assayuja, Kattika, Māgasira, Phussa, Māgha, Phagguna. As to the names cp. nakkhatta. Usually in Acc. , used adverbially; Nom. rare, e.g. aḍḍha-māso half-month VvA. 66; Āsāḷhi-māsa VvA. 307 (=gimhānaṃ pacchima māsa); pl. dve māsā PvA. 34 (read māse); cattāro gimhāna-māsā KhA 192 (of which the 1st is Citra, otherwise called Paṭhama-gimha “1st summer” and Bāla-vasanta “premature spring”).—Instr. pl. catūhi māsehi Miln. 82; PvA. I, 1012.—Acc. pl. as adv. : dasamāse 10 months J. I, 52; bahu-māse PvA. 135; also nt. chammāsāni 6 months S. III, 155. Freq. Acc. sg. collectively: a period of ... , e.g. temāsaṃ 3 months DhsA. 15; PvA. 20; catu° DA. I, 83; PvA. 96; satta° PvA. 20; dasa° PvA. 63; aḍḍha° a fortnight Vin. IV, 117.—On māsa (& f. māsī), as well as shortened form °ma see puṇṇa.

—puṇṇatā fullness or completion of the month DA. I, 140; —mattaṃ (adv.) for the duration of a month PvA. 19. (Page 531)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

masa (मस).—m f (maṣī S) A natural spot or discoloration on the body, a mole. Applied also to a soft rising in the flesh. 2 fig. Slur, stain, sully, blot. 3 Soot, smut, lamp-black &c. See maśī.

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māṣa (माष).—m S A bean or pulse popularly called uḍīda (Phaseolus radiatus or max). 2 A weight of the jeweler or goldsmith, variously reckoned at five, eight, or ten ratī (seeds of Abrus precatorius).

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māsa (मास).—m (S) A month. For the twelve months see bārā mahinē. māsapakṣa lāgalā -lōṭalā-sāralā &c. A month or six weeks were taken up, are elapsed &c. māsāpakṣā- cyā ānta Within a month or fifteen days.

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māsa (मास).—n (māśī) Flies. A noun collective. 2 f R A swarm of flies.

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māsā (मासा).—m (matsya S) A fish. Pr. māśācyā pōrāsa pōhāyāsa śikavāyāsa nakō. Pr. jaḷānta rāhūna māśāṃsīṃ vaira Indulgence of hatred and hostility against all who dwell around and about us.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

masa (मस).—m f A mole. Fig. Slur. Soot, lampblack.

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māṣa (माष).—m A bean called uḍīda. A weight of the jeweller.

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māsa (मास).—m A month.

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māsa (मास).—n Flesh.

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māsā (मासा).—m A fish. A weight equal to eight guñjā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maśa (मश).—

1) A mosquito.

2) Hum, humming.

3) Anger.

Derivable forms: maśaḥ (मशः).

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Masa (मस).—A measure, weight.

Derivable forms: masaḥ (मसः).

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Māsa (मास).—[mā eva aṇ]

1) A month, (it may be cāndra, saura, sāvana, nākṣatra or bārhaspatya); न मासे प्रतिपत्तासे मां चेन्मर्तासि मैथिलि (na māse pratipattāse māṃ cenmartāsi maithili) Bk.8.95.

2) The moon (Ved.).

3) The number 'twelve'.

Derivable forms: māsaḥ (मासः), māsam (मासम्).

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Māṣa (माष).—[maṣ saṃjñāyāṃ kartari ghañ]

1) A bean; (the sing. being used for the plant and the pl. for the fruit or seed); तिलेभ्यः प्रति यच्छति माषान् (tilebhyaḥ prati yacchati māṣān) Sk.; मुद्राभावे माषाद्याः प्रति- निधित्वमर्हन्ति (mudrābhāve māṣādyāḥ prati- nidhitvamarhanti) J. N. V.

2) A particular weight of gold; पञ्चकृष्णलको माषस्ते सुवर्णस्तु षोडश (pañcakṛṣṇalako māṣaste suvarṇastu ṣoḍaśa) Ms.8.134; माषो विंशतिमो भागः पणस्य परिकीर्तितः (māṣo viṃśatimo bhāgaḥ paṇasya parikīrtitaḥ) or गुञ्जाभिरष्टभिर्माषः (guñjābhiraṣṭabhirmāṣaḥ)

3) A fool, blockhead.

4) A kind of pulse.

5) A cutaneous eruption resembling beans.

Derivable forms: māṣaḥ (माषः).

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Māṣa (माष).—epithets of Viṣṇu; हाटकनिभपीताम्बर अभयं कुरु मे मावर (hāṭakanibhapītāmbara abhayaṃ kuru me māvara) Nārāyaṇa.5.13.

Derivable forms: māṣaḥ (माषः).

Māṣa is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms and ṣa (ष). See also (synonyms): māpati, māvara.

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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