Kevala: 35 definitions


Kevala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Keval.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Kevala (केवल):—Son of Nara (son of Sudhṛti). He had a son named Dhundhumān. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2.30)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kevala (केवल).—A city of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanzas 10 and 11 that Karṇa conquered this city.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Kevala (केवल) refers to “solely (me)” (lit. “alone”), according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.17 (“The dialogue between Indra and Kāmadeva”).—Accordingly, as Indra said to Kāma: “[...] O dear, the test of a real friend is in the time of distress and is also based on what he does behind the back. It is not otherwise. This is truth. Now that an adversity has befallen me, which cannot be thwarted [i.e., avārya] by anyone else, O dear friend, it shall be a test for you today. This is not a matter that brings pleasure to me alone [i.e., kevalana kevalaṃ madīyaṃ ca]. This is a matter that concerns all the gods and others too”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kevala (केवल).—The son of Nara (Candra, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and father of Bandhumat.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 30; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 36; 61. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 14; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 42-3.

1b) A deva (Ajita).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 94; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.

1c) A pupil of Yājñavalkya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 29.

1d) The son of Suvṛddhi and father of Sudhṛti.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 38-9.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kevala (केवल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.47, , VI.10.43, V.19.29) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kevala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kevala (केवल).—Isolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; cf. धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् (dharmādanic kevalāt | kevalānna padasamudāyāt) Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: cf. अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । (arthavattā nopapadyate kevalena avacanāt |) P. I. 2.45 Vārt. 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा (kṛttaddhitāntaṃ caivārthavat | na kevalāḥ kṛtastaddhitā bā) M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.

Vyakarana book cover
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Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Google Books: The Paramarthasara of Abhinavagupta

Kevala (केवल) refers to “(consciousness in) isolation”, according to the Paramārthasāra kārikā 27 of Abhinavagupta with the commentary of Yogarāja.—Accordingly, “[The many differing conceptions of the Ultimate—that it is] Consciousness [i.e., vijñāna], or the Inner Controller, or Breath, or the Sovereign Body, or the Genus, or, finally, that it is the Particular—all these are for purpose of disputation only; in ultimate terms, none of them exist [as characterizations of the Ultimate]”.

Note: By consciousness (vijñāna) is meant ‘nothing but consciousness’ (bodhamātra), in isolation (kevala), devoid of limiting attributes. Although devoid of name and form, [consciousness] appears variously, adopting the mode of externality, in shapes such as “blue” and “pleasure”, etc.,—thanks to the power of beginningless latent dispositions [constantly] reawakened (vāsanāprabodha) and infinitely various., Thus say the Vijñānavādins.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Kevala (केवल) refers to “that which alone remains”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñāvivṛtivimarśinī (KSTS vol. 65, 327–331).—Accordingly, “When, further, these elements of prāṇa, body, etc., [already] penetrated by the elixir of Awareness, are thoroughly permeated [by it], they are [then] ‘digested’ like the element of gold [is by mercury], by which [process] their purifier, the ‘liquefied essence’ [of Awareness] as it were, alone remains (kevala)—then that too is the state Beyond the Fourth”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Kevala (केवल) refers to the “pure (form of Śakti)”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 21.6-9ab]—“[...] What is conquerable [by one who is] imperfect? One supposes that [which is] imperfect. Somewhere Śakti exists. In this sense she is not empty of substance. The incorrect perception [is] that the pure form of Śakti (kevalakevalāstu viparyayaḥ) [constitutes] the mantras”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Kevala (केवल) refers to “unique”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “[...] I will now expound the sixfold introduction to the differentiated (sakala aspect). The Śāmbhava (state), supreme and tranquil, is above the six (Wheels). It is liberation (kaivalya), unique (kevala), tranquil, devoid of the Five Voids and beneficial. It is consciousness, supreme and pure. It is the inexplicable (kiñcit) Śāmbhava (state) that is pure consciousness (cinmātra). It is supreme. It is the supreme Nirvāṇa, the body made of consciousness along with Śiva. The subtle, pure consciousness of the Person is said to be subtle and omnipresent. (Thus) consciousness is said to be of three kinds, Individual (āṇava), Empowered (śākta), and Śāmbhava.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Kevalā (केवला) refers to “she who is alone (and perfectly established)” and is used to describe Goddess Śārikā, according to Sāhib Kaul’s Śārikāstrotra.—Accordingly, “[...] My devotion to you nourishes me every day, as the rise of the full moon always nourishes the ocean. On account of the true affluence of victorious devotion to you I even ignore the excellent Lakṣmī. The whole world consists of you, Goddess of Gods! Your body is consciousness, you are alone (kevalā) and perfectly established. Nowhere is there ignorance. Thus, where do we see the son of a barren woman run and raise his bow? [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: University of Vienna: Sudarśana's Worship at the Royal Court According to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā

Kevala (केवल) refers to “(dwelling) alone”, according to the Ahirbudhnyasaṃhitā, belonging to the Pāñcarātra tradition which deals with theology, rituals, iconography, narrative mythology and others.—Accordingly, “Lakṣmī does not dwell in the Brāhmaṇa alone (kevala), because of [his] excessive gentleness. Nor does She wish to remain in the Kṣatra alone (i.e. a member of the second social class to which also kings traditionally belong), being fearful of [his] excessive fierceness”.

Pancaratra book cover
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Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kevala (केवल) or Kevalajñāna refers to one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:

“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Kevala-jñāna has as its sphere all substances and their modifications, perceives every thing, is infinite, one (i.e., undivided), and beyond the pale of the sense-organs”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the five types of knowledge (jñāna) , according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.9-10.—What is meant by omniscience (kevala)? The knowledge which knows /cognizes all (concrete and non-concrete) entities of the past present and future simultaneously is called omniscience.

What is meant by omniscience (kevala)? It is the knowledge which is completely free from all veils of knowledge-obscuring karmas i.e. it is just pure knowledge. Who can acquire omniscience? It can be acquired by human beings only. Who cannot acquire omniscience? It cannot be acquired by the heavenly, infernal and subhuman beings. Who in the human beings can acquire omniscience? Only those human beings who are likely to achieve liberation in that life span can acquire omniscience.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the eighteen types of extraordinary intellect (buddhi), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

What is meant by omniscience (kevala-riddhi)? Omniscience knows all concrete and non-concrete objects of all places and times clearly.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the five divisions of Jñānāvaraṇa, or “knowledge obscuring (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.— What is meant by omniscience obscuring karma (kevala-jñānāvaraṇa)? The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the omniscience is called omniscience obscuring karma. Kevala is also known as Kevalajñānāvaraṇa or Kevalajñānāvaraṇīya.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Kevala (केवल) in both Prakrit and Sanskrit refers to “omniscience” and represents one of the five types of knowledge, as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—The heart of the Nandī-sūtra deals with the concept of cognition or knowledge in its various divisions and subdivisions. This is also an appropriate topic for a text that transcends all categories in the Śvetāmbara canon, for it can be regarded as a prerequisite to the scriptures. First comes the list of the five types of knowledge [viz., kevala, “omniscience”], known from other sources as well, such as the Tattvārtha-sūtra I. 9-33.

Omniscience (kevala) is the ability of the soul to grasp everything everywhere relating to past, present and future all at once. It is achieved only when all possible varieties of karmas have been totally destroyed so that total purity is reached.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Kevala in India is the name of a plant defined with Embelia ribes in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Antidesma ribes (Burm. f.) Raeusch. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Revisio Generum Plantarum (1891)
· Natural history (1877)
· Mantissa Plantarum (1771)
· Nomenclator Botanicus (1797)
· Flora Indica (1768)
· Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kevala, for example pregnancy safety, health benefits, extract dosage, diet and recipes, chemical composition, side effects, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kevala : (adj.) lonely; unmixed; whole; entire.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kevala, (adj. -adv.) (cp. Lat. caelebs=*caivilo-b° to live by oneself, i.e. to live in celibacy, perhaps also, Goth. hails, Ohg. heil, E. whole) expression of the concept of unity and totality: only, alone; whole, complete; adv. altogether or only — 1. °ṃ (adv.) (a) only=just: k. tvaṃ amhākaṃ vacanaṃ karohi “do all we tell you” PvA. 4;— only=but, with this difference: VvA. 203, 249;— k... . vippalapati he only talks PvA. 93; ‹-› and yet: “sakkā nu kiñci adatvā k. sagge nibbattituṃ? “ is it possible not to give anything, and yet go to heaven? kevalaṃ mano-pasāda-mattena only by purity of mind DhA. I, 33; kevalaṃ vacchake balava-piyacittatāya simply by the strong love towards the babycalf Vism. 313; (b) alone: k. araññaṃ gamissāmi VvA. 260;— exclusive Miln. 247.—na k... . atha kho not only ... but also VvA. 227.—2. whole, entire Sn. p. 108; Cp. I. 1019; Pv. II, 63 (=sakala PvA. 95); Vism. 528 (=asammissa, sakala); Pv. II, 63 (=sakala PvA. 95). ‹-› k. ›akevala entire›deficient M. I, 326. °ṃ entirely, thoroughly, all round: k° obhāsenti VvA. 282.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kēvala (केवल) [or ळ, ḷa].—a (kēvala S) Pure, mere, simple, unmingled, uncompounded. Ex. hēṃ bhāṇḍēṃ kē0 cāndīcēṃ āhē. 2 Alone, sole, only, one. Ex. kē0 tāndūḷa asalyānēṃ bhōjana hōta nāhīṃ. 3 Used as ad Exactly, precisely, strictly. Ex. kē0 nāhīṃ mhaṇavata nāhīṃ; kē0 hāca asā disata nāhīṃ; kē0 tūñca yāvēṃ nalagē tujhā bhāū ālā tara kāmāsa yēīla. 4 Altogether; in every respect; the very thing; the very same. Ex. hī nagarī kē0 laṅkāca. kēvalanaiyāyika A mere logician. kēvalavaiyākaraṇa A mere grammarian.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kēvala (केवल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—a Pure, simple, unmingled. Alone, sole, only. ad Exactly, precise- ly, strictly. Ex. kēvaḷa nāhīṃ mhaṇavata nāhīṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—a. [kev sevane vṛṣā° kala]

1) Peculiar, exclusive, uncommon; किं तया क्रियते लक्ष्म्या या वधूरिव केवला (kiṃ tayā kriyate lakṣmyā yā vadhūriva kevalā) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 2.134.

2) Alone, mere, sole, only, isolated; स हि तस्य न केवलां श्रियं प्रतिपेदे सकलान् गुणानपि (sa hi tasya na kevalāṃ śriyaṃ pratipede sakalān guṇānapi) R.8.5; न केवलानां पयसां प्रसूति- मवेहि मां कामदुघां प्रसन्नाम् (na kevalānāṃ payasāṃ prasūti- mavehi māṃ kāmadughāṃ prasannām) 2.63;15.1; Kumārasambhava 2.34.

3) Whole, entire, absolute, perfect.

4) Bare, uncovered (as ground); निषेदुषी स्थण्डिल एव केवले (niṣeduṣī sthaṇḍila eva kevale) Kumārasambhava 5.12.

5) Pure, simple, unmingled, unattended (by anything else); कातर्यं केवला नीतिः (kātaryaṃ kevalā nītiḥ) R.17.47.

6) Selfish, envious.

-lī, -lam 1 The doctrine of absolute unity of spirit and matter.

2) One of the five types of knowledge according to the Jainas; (śrutajñāna, matijñāna, avadhijñāna, manaḥparyayajñāna and kevalajñāna).

-lī Astronomical science.

-lam ind. Only, merely, solely, entirely, absolutely, wholly; केवलमिदमेव पृच्छामि (kevalamidameva pṛcchāmi) K.155; न केवलं--अपि (na kevalaṃ--api) not only-but;. वसु तस्य विभोर्न केवलं गुणवत्तापि परप्रयोजना (vasu tasya vibhorna kevalaṃ guṇavattāpi paraprayojanā) R.8.31; cf. also 3.19;2,31.

2) Silently, quietly; न हि मेऽव्याहृतं कुर्यात्सर्वलोकोऽपि केवलम् (na hi me'vyāhṛtaṃ kuryātsarvaloko'pi kevalam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.2.28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā or -lī-laṃ) 1. One, alone, only. 2. All, entire, whole. m.

(-laḥ) An envious or selfish man. n. adv.

(-laṃ) 1. Absolutely, certainly. 2. Only, alone. Subst. 3. A species of knowledge, that of the unity of spirit. E. kev to sprinkle, kala aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—i. e. eke (old loc. sing. of eka) + vala, I. adj., f. (ved. ). 1. Exclusively proper; vīkṣasva yad rūpaṃ mama kevalam, Look what shape is proper only to me, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 35, 52; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 4, 26. 2. Mere, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 199; nothing but, 3, 118. 3. Alone, only, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 12. 4. United, i. e. entire, Mahābhārata 13, 2686; whole, 4, 1485; all, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 95. Ii. lam, adv. 1. Only, [Pañcatantra] 31, 7. 2. Entirely (?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 87, 23; na kevalam

— api, Not only, but also, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 443. Iii. n. The knowledge of the unity of all the universe. Iv. m. The name of a prince. [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 2, 30. V. f. , The name of a locality, Mahābhārata 3, 15245.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—[feminine] ī (later ā) exclusive, belonging only to ([genetive] or [dative]); alone, simple, pure, mere; whole, entire, each, all. °— & [neuter] [adverb] only. na kevalam

api not only—but also.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kevala (केवल):—mf(ā, ī)n. (m. [nominative case] [plural] e, [Ṛg-veda x, 51, 9]) (f. ī, [Ṛg-veda x, 73, 6; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]; ā, [Manu-smṛti] etc. See, [Pāṇini 4-1, 30]) (n. in [compound] [Pāṇini 2-1, 49]) exclusively one’s own (not common to others), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

2) alone, only, mere, sole, one, excluding others, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.

3) not connected with anything else, isolated, abstract, absolute

4) simple, pure, uncompounded, unmingled, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

5) entire, whole, all, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) selfish, envious, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) m. (= kelaka) a dancer, tumbler, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) Name of a prince, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 2, 30]

9) Kevalā (केवला):—[from kevala] f. Name of a locality, [Mahābhārata iii, 254, 10] ([varia lectio] )

10) Kevala (केवल):—n. the doctrine of the absolute unity of spirit

11) the highest possible knowledge (= kevala-jñāna), [Jaina literature]

12) Name of a country ([varia lectio] kerala), [Mahābhārata vi, 9, 34.]

13) Kevālā (केवाला):—f. ī [gana] gaurādi (not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti] and, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi])

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल):—[(laḥ-lā-lī-laṃ) a.] One, alone, only; all. m. A selfish man. n. Unitarian knowledge; absolutely.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kevala (केवल) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Kevala.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kevala in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kevala (केवल) [Also spelled keval]:—(a and ind) only, mere; merely; simply.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Kevala (केवल) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Kevala.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kevala (ಕೆವಲ):—

1) [noun] the plant Ixora nigricans of Rubiaceae family.

2) [noun] its flower.

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Kēvala (ಕೇವಲ):—

1) [adjective] alone of its or their kind; by itself or by themselves; only.

2) [adjective] alone in its or their superiority; best; finest.

3) [adjective] perfect; complete; whole; absolute.

4) [adjective] not mixed; pure.

5) [adjective] not limited by a constitution, parliament, etc.; unrestricted.

6) [adjective] of very ordinary class; of the masses; common.

7) [adjective] nothing more or other than; mere; only (in limiting or restricting sense).

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Kēvala (ಕೇವಲ):—

1) [noun] (phil.) ultimate reality regarded as uncaused, unmodified, unified and complete, timeless, etc.; the Absolute.

2) [noun] a man who has transcended the mundanity.

3) [noun] the state of being free from worldly attachment or from the cycle of births and deaths; Final Emancipation of the soul.

4) [noun] a yogic breathing exercise, in which air is breathed out completely, and not inhaled for some time.

5) [noun] (Jain.) the Absolute knowledge.

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Kēvala (ಕೇವಲ):—

1) [noun] the plant Ixora nigricans of Rubiaceae family.

2) [noun] its flower.

3) [noun] the plant Ixora coccinea of Rubiaceae family.

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Kēvaḷa (ಕೇವಳ):—[adjective] = ಕೇವಲ [kevala]1.

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Kēvaḷa (ಕೇವಳ):—[noun] = ಕೇವಲ [kevala]2.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल):—adj. 1. alone; only; sole; 2. excluding others; n. pure or the highest knowledge (free from illusion);

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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