Kevala: 22 definitions



Kevala means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

Kevala (केवल):—Son of Nara (son of Sudhṛti). He had a son named Dhundhumān. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2.30)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Kevala (केवल).—A city of ancient India. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanzas 10 and 11 that Karṇa conquered this city.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Kevala (केवल).—The son of Nara (Candra, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and father of Bandhumat.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 30; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 8. 36; 61. 9; Vāyu-purāṇa 86. 14; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 42-3.

1b) A deva (Ajita).*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 94; Vāyu-purāṇa 31. 7.

1c) A pupil of Yājñavalkya.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 29.

1d) The son of Suvṛddhi and father of Sudhṛti.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 1. 38-9.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Kevala (केवल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.47, , VI.10.43, V.19.29) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kevala) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

Kevala (केवल).—Isolated;a term applied to a letter or a word when it is not combined with another letter or another word in a compound; cf. धर्मादनिच् केवलात् । केवलान्न पदसमुदायात् (dharmādanic kevalāt | kevalānna padasamudāyāt) Kāś. on P.V.4.124; (2) simple (word) without an affix added: cf. अर्थवत्ता नोपपद्यते केवलेन अवचनात् । (arthavattā nopapadyate kevalena avacanāt |) P. I. 2.45 Vārt. 7, also कृत्तद्धितान्तं चैवार्थवत् । न केवलाः कृतस्तद्धिता बा (kṛttaddhitāntaṃ caivārthavat | na kevalāḥ kṛtastaddhitā bā) M.Bh.on P.I.4.14.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Kevala (केवल) or Kevalajñāna refers to one of the five types of “right-knowledge” (samyagjñāna), as mentioned in chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, as mentioned in Ṛṣabha’s sermon:

“[...] mokṣa is attained by those who practice unceasingly the brilliant triad of knowledge, faith, and conduct. Among these, exact knowledge which comes from a summary or detailed study of the principles, jīva, etc., is called ‘right-knowledge’ (samyagjñāna). [...] Kevala-jñāna has as its sphere all substances and their modifications, perceives every thing, is infinite, one (i.e., undivided), and beyond the pale of the sense-organs”.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 1

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the five types of knowledge (jñāna) , according to Tattvārthasūtra 1.9-10.—What is meant by omniscience (kevala)? The knowledge which knows /cognizes all (concrete and non-concrete) entities of the past present and future simultaneously is called omniscience.

What is meant by omniscience (kevala)? It is the knowledge which is completely free from all veils of knowledge-obscuring karmas i.e. it is just pure knowledge. Who can acquire omniscience? It can be acquired by human beings only. Who cannot acquire omniscience? It cannot be acquired by the heavenly, infernal and subhuman beings. Who in the human beings can acquire omniscience? Only those human beings who are likely to achieve liberation in that life span can acquire omniscience.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the eighteen types of extraordinary intellect (buddhi), which itself is a subclass of the eight ṛddhis (extraordinary powers). These powers can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people) in order to produce worldly miracles. The Āryas represent one of the two classes of human beings according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46, the other being Mleccha (barbarians).

What is meant by omniscience (kevala-riddhi)? Omniscience knows all concrete and non-concrete objects of all places and times clearly.

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas

Kevala (केवल, “omniscience”) refers to one of the five divisions of Jñānāvaraṇa, or “knowledge obscuring (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8.— What is meant by omniscience obscuring karma (kevala-jñānāvaraṇa)? The karma which obstructs the full manifestation of the omniscience is called omniscience obscuring karma. Kevala is also known as Kevalajñānāvaraṇa or Kevalajñānāvaraṇīya.

Source: JAINpedia: Jainism

Kevala (केवल) in both Prakrit and Sanskrit refers to “omniscience” and represents one of the five types of knowledge, as explained in the Nandīsūtra.—The heart of the Nandī-sūtra deals with the concept of cognition or knowledge in its various divisions and subdivisions. This is also an appropriate topic for a text that transcends all categories in the Śvetāmbara canon, for it can be regarded as a prerequisite to the scriptures. First comes the list of the five types of knowledge [viz., kevala, “omniscience”], known from other sources as well, such as the Tattvārtha-sūtra I. 9-33.

Omniscience (kevala) is the ability of the soul to grasp everything everywhere relating to past, present and future all at once. It is achieved only when all possible varieties of karmas have been totally destroyed so that total purity is reached.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kevala : (adj.) lonely; unmixed; whole; entire.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kevala, (adj. -adv.) (cp. Lat. caelebs=*caivilo-b° to live by oneself, i.e. to live in celibacy, perhaps also, Goth. hails, Ohg. heil, E. whole) expression of the concept of unity and totality: only, alone; whole, complete; adv. altogether or only — 1. °ṃ (adv.) (a) only=just: k. tvaṃ amhākaṃ vacanaṃ karohi “do all we tell you” PvA. 4;— only=but, with this difference: VvA. 203, 249;— k... . vippalapati he only talks PvA. 93; ‹-› and yet: “sakkā nu kiñci adatvā k. sagge nibbattituṃ? “ is it possible not to give anything, and yet go to heaven? kevalaṃ mano-pasāda-mattena only by purity of mind DhA. I, 33; kevalaṃ vacchake balava-piyacittatāya simply by the strong love towards the babycalf Vism. 313; (b) alone: k. araññaṃ gamissāmi VvA. 260;— exclusive Miln. 247.—na k... . atha kho not only ... but also VvA. 227.—2. whole, entire Sn. p. 108; Cp. I. 1019; Pv. II, 63 (=sakala PvA. 95); Vism. 528 (=asammissa, sakala); Pv. II, 63 (=sakala PvA. 95). ‹-› k. ›akevala entire›deficient M. I, 326. °ṃ entirely, thoroughly, all round: k° obhāsenti VvA. 282.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kēvala (केवल) [or ळ, ḷa].—a (kēvala S) Pure, mere, simple, unmingled, uncompounded. Ex. hēṃ bhāṇḍēṃ kē0 cāndīcēṃ āhē. 2 Alone, sole, only, one. Ex. kē0 tāndūḷa asalyānēṃ bhōjana hōta nāhīṃ. 3 Used as ad Exactly, precisely, strictly. Ex. kē0 nāhīṃ mhaṇavata nāhīṃ; kē0 hāca asā disata nāhīṃ; kē0 tūñca yāvēṃ nalagē tujhā bhāū ālā tara kāmāsa yēīla. 4 Altogether; in every respect; the very thing; the very same. Ex. hī nagarī kē0 laṅkāca. kēvalanaiyāyika A mere logician. kēvalavaiyākaraṇa A mere grammarian.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kēvala (केवल) [-ḷa, -ळ].—a Pure, simple, unmingled. Alone, sole, only. ad Exactly, precise- ly, strictly. Ex. kēvaḷa nāhīṃ mhaṇavata nāhīṃ.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—a. [kev sevane vṛṣā° kala]

1) Peculiar, exclusive, uncommon; किं तया क्रियते लक्ष्म्या या वधूरिव केवला (kiṃ tayā kriyate lakṣmyā yā vadhūriva kevalā) Pt.2.134.

2) Alone, mere, sole, only, isolated; स हि तस्य न केवलां श्रियं प्रतिपेदे सकलान् गुणानपि (sa hi tasya na kevalāṃ śriyaṃ pratipede sakalān guṇānapi) R.8.5; न केवलानां पयसां प्रसूति- मवेहि मां कामदुघां प्रसन्नाम् (na kevalānāṃ payasāṃ prasūti- mavehi māṃ kāmadughāṃ prasannām) 2.63;15.1; Ku.2.34.

3) Whole, entire, absolute, perfect.

4) Bare, uncovered (as ground); निषेदुषी स्थण्डिल एव केवले (niṣeduṣī sthaṇḍila eva kevale) Ku.5.12.

5) Pure, simple, unmingled, unattended (by anything else); कातर्यं केवला नीतिः (kātaryaṃ kevalā nītiḥ) R.17.47.

6) Selfish, envious.

-lī, -lam 1 The doctrine of absolute unity of spirit and matter.

2) One of the five types of knowledge according to the Jainas; (śrutajñāna, matijñāna, avadhijñāna, manaḥparyayajñāna and kevalajñāna).

-lī Astronomical science.

-lam ind. Only, merely, solely, entirely, absolutely, wholly; केवलमिदमेव पृच्छामि (kevalamidameva pṛcchāmi) K.155; न केवलं--अपि (na kevalaṃ--api) not only-but;. वसु तस्य विभोर्न केवलं गुणवत्तापि परप्रयोजना (vasu tasya vibhorna kevalaṃ guṇavattāpi paraprayojanā) R.8.31; cf. also 3.19;2,31.

2) Silently, quietly; न हि मेऽव्याहृतं कुर्यात्सर्वलोकोऽपि केवलम् (na hi me'vyāhṛtaṃ kuryātsarvaloko'pi kevalam) Mb.12.2.28.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—mfn.

(-laḥ-lā or -lī-laṃ) 1. One, alone, only. 2. All, entire, whole. m.

(-laḥ) An envious or selfish man. n. adv.

(-laṃ) 1. Absolutely, certainly. 2. Only, alone. Subst. 3. A species of knowledge, that of the unity of spirit. E. kev to sprinkle, kala aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—i. e. eke (old loc. sing. of eka) + vala, I. adj., f. (ved. ). 1. Exclusively proper; vīkṣasva yad rūpaṃ mama kevalam, Look what shape is proper only to me, [Rāmāyaṇa] 5, 35, 52; [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 6, 4, 26. 2. Mere, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 199; nothing but, 3, 118. 3. Alone, only, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 12. 4. United, i. e. entire, Mahābhārata 13, 2686; whole, 4, 1485; all, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 95. Ii. lam, adv. 1. Only, [Pañcatantra] 31, 7. 2. Entirely (?), [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 87, 23; na kevalam

— api, Not only, but also, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 443. Iii. n. The knowledge of the unity of all the universe. Iv. m. The name of a prince. [Bhāgavata-Purāṇa, (ed. Burnouf.)] 9, 2, 30. V. f. , The name of a locality, Mahābhārata 3, 15245.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kevala (केवल).—[feminine] ī (later ā) exclusive, belonging only to ([genetive] or [dative]); alone, simple, pure, mere; whole, entire, each, all. °— & [neuter] [adverb] only. na kevalam

api not only—but also.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kevala (केवल):—mf(ā, ī)n. (m. [nominative case] [plural] e, [Ṛg-veda x, 51, 9]) (f. ī, [Ṛg-veda x, 73, 6; Atharva-veda; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]; ā, [Manu-smṛti] etc. See, [Pāṇini 4-1, 30]) (n. in [compound] [Pāṇini 2-1, 49]) exclusively one’s own (not common to others), [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

2) alone, only, mere, sole, one, excluding others, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] etc.

3) not connected with anything else, isolated, abstract, absolute

4) simple, pure, uncompounded, unmingled, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc.

5) entire, whole, all, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) selfish, envious, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) m. (= kelaka) a dancer, tumbler, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

8) Name of a prince, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 2, 30]

9) Kevalā (केवला):—[from kevala] f. Name of a locality, [Mahābhārata iii, 254, 10] ([varia lectio] )

10) Kevala (केवल):—n. the doctrine of the absolute unity of spirit

11) the highest possible knowledge (= kevala-jñāna), [Jaina literature]

12) Name of a country ([varia lectio] kerala), [Mahābhārata vi, 9, 34.]

13) Kevālā (केवाला):—f. ī [gana] gaurādi (not in [Kāśikā-vṛtti] and, [Gaṇaratna-mahodadhi])

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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