Samvatsara, Sāṃvatsara, Saṃvatsara: 14 definitions

Introduction

Samvatsara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samvatsara in Jyotisha glossary
Source: archive.org: South Indian Festivities (astronomy)

Samvatsara (hindu year).—According to legend, Naradi (the name of Nārada after he transformed into a woman) got married though capture and gave birth to sixty sons each year. Worried, exhausted, fatigued, bored to death by these numerous sons, Naradi at the end of the sixtieth year involuntarily prayed to Lord Vishnu. Transformed back, Narada appealed to Vishnu to silence his sixty sons. Vishnu gave them the Raj of the world to be enjoyed by turns for one year at a time. This is how each Hindu year has a separate name for a cycle of sixty years.

The list of the sixty sons of Naradi, after whom the lunar yearsin the cycle are still being called is as follows:

  1. Prabhav,
  2. Vibhav,
  3. Shukla,
  4. Paramoda,
  5. Prajapati,
  6. Angira,
  7. Shrimukha,
  8. Bhava,
  9. Yuva,
  10. Dhatu,
  11. Ishwar,
  12. Bahudanya,
  13. Pramathi,
  14. Vikrama,
  15. Vrisha,
  16. Chitrabhanu,
  17. Subhanu,
  18. Taran,
  19. Prartiva,
  20. Vyaya,
  21. Sarvajit,
  22. Sarvadhari,
  23. Virodhi,
  24. Vikriti,
  25. Khara,
  26. Nandana,
  27. Vijaya,
  28. Jaya,
  29. Marmath,
  30. Durmikha,
  31. Hemalambi,
  32. Vilambi,
  33. Vikari,
  34. Sharvar,
  35. Plava,
  36. Shubakrit,
  37. Hhobhana,
  38. Krodhi,
  39. Vishvavasu,
  40. Parabhava,
  41. Plavanga,
  42. Kilaka,
  43. Saumya,
  44. Sadharana,
  45. Virodhikrita,
  46. Paridhavi,
  47. Pramadi,
  48. Ananda,
  49. Rakshasa,
  50. Nala,
  51. Pingala,
  52. Kalayukta,
  53. Sitdharti,
  54. Raudri,
  55. Durmati,
  56. Dundubhi,
  57. Rudhirodgari,
  58. Raktakshi,
  59. Krodhana,
  60. Akshaya.
Source: A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism: Bārhaspatya-māna

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, “year”).—At some period, a fivefold multiple, a cycle of 60 Jovian or Bārhaspatya years, each with a special name suffixed by the word saṃvatsara (= year) came into use. The earliest available evidence points to the 6th century A. D., as found in the inscription of the Cālukyan king Maṅgaleśa.

The sixty years are:

  1. Prabhava;
  2. Vibhava;
  3. Śukla;
  4. Pramodūta;
  5. Prajotpatti (Prajāpati);
  6. Aṅgiras;
  7. Śrīmukha;
  8. Bhāva;
  9. Yuvan;
  10. Dhātṛ (Dhātu);
  11. Īśvara;
  12. Bahudhānya;
  13. Pramāthin;
  14. Vikrama;
  15. Vṛṣan (Viṣu);
  16. Citrabhānu;
  17. Subhānu (Svabhānu);
  18. Tāraṇa;
  19. Pārthiva;
  20. Vyaya;
  21. Sarvajit;
  22. Sarvadhārin;
  23. Virodhin;
  24. Vikṛti;
  25. Khara;
  26. Nandana;
  27. Vijaya;
  28. Jaya;
  29. Manmatha;
  30. Durmukha;
  31. Hevilambin (Hemalambin);
  32. Vilambin;
  33. Vikārin;
  34. Śārvarin;
  35. Plava;
  36. Śubhakṛt;
  37. Śobhakṛt; (Śobhana);
  38. Krodhin;
  39. Viśvāvasu;
  40. Parābhava;
  41. Plavaṅga;
  42. Kīlaka;
  43. Saumya;
  44. Sādhāraṇa;
  45. Virodhikṛt;
  46. Parī-dhāvin;
  47. Pramādin;
  48. Ānanda;
  49. Rākṣasa;
  50. Anala;
  51. Piṅgala;
  52. Kālayukta;
  53. Siddhārtha;
  54. Raudra;
  55. Durmati;
  56. Dundubhi;
  57. Rudhirodgāra;
  58. Raktākṣa (Raktākṣin);
  59. Krodhana;
  60. Kṣaya (Akṣaya).

It was believed that the saṃvatsara names indicated different consequences for the years concerned.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samvatsara in Purana glossary
Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर) refers to one of the five years (pañcasaṃvatsara), defined in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The expression pañcasaṃvatsara indicates the knowledge of five years, namely, Saṃvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.

The Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.4.27-46 describes the selection of Sāṃvatsara by a king and gives a lengthy list of the qualities which a Sāṃvatsara should possess. He is just like mother, father, instructor and preceptor to the king. The king appoints Mantrīs and Purohitas after consulting him. Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.5.54-55 clearly establishes the superiority of the astrologer (Sāṃvatsara) over the Purohita by stating that a king should give up the Purohita if he acts against the Sāṃvatsara, otherwise the Purohita is also like mother and father to the king.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—A sage in the Darūvana.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 27. 104.

1b) A part of the five-year yuga;1 a year, the first among years; is Agni; represented by Kāvya pitṛs;2 of different kinds—dīvyasamvatsara, Dhruvasamvatsara, Pitṛsamvatsara, and Saptaṛṣisamvatsara.3

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 14; V. 22. 7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 71-2.
  • 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 131; 24. 57, 141; 28. 15; III. 8. 17; 72. 30.
  • 3) Ib. II. 28. 21; 29. 10, 16 and 18.

1c) A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 15.

1d) Is Agni.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 141. 18.

1e) Vārāha Viṣṇu got the form of.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 104.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर) refers to the Vedic “year”.—There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or march. the Vedic year, therefore, does not correspond exactly with the christian solar calendar year. in the christian calendar dates below, 2018, for example, refers to the period from the amāvasyā after gaura-pūrṇima 2018 to the amāvasyā after gaura-pūrṇima 2019.

  1. Prabhava
  2. Vibhava
  3. Śukla
  4. Pramodūta
  5. Prajotpatti
  6. Āṅgirasa
  7. Śrīmukha
  8. Bhāva
  9. Yuva
  10. Dhāta
  11. Īśvara
  12. Bahudhānya
  13. Pramādi
  14. Vikrama
  15. Vṛṣa
  16. Citrabhānu
  17. Svabhānu
  18. Tāraṇa
  19. Pārdiva
  20. Vyaya
  21. Sarvajittu
  22. Sarvadhāri
  23. Virodhi
  24. Vikṛti
  25. Khara
  26. Nandana
  27. Vijaya
  28. Jaya
  29. Manmadha
  30. Durmukhi
  31. Hīvalambi
  32. Vilambi
  33. Vikāri
  34. Sārvari
  35. Plava
  36. Śubhakṛti
  37. Śobhakṛti
  38. Krodha
  39. Viśvāvasu
  40. Parābhāva
  41. Plavanga
  42. Kīlaka
  43. Saumya
  44. Sādhāraṇa
  45. Virodhikṛti
  46. Parīdhāvi
  47. Pramādīca
  48. Ānanda
  49. Rākṣasa
  50. Nala
  51. Piṅgalā
  52. Kālayukti
  53. Sidhārdhi
  54. Raudri
  55. Durmati
  56. Dundubhi
  57. Rudirodgāri
  58. Raktākṣi
  59. Krodhan
  60. Akṣaya
Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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General definition (in Hinduism)

[«previous (S) next»] — Samvatsara in Hinduism glossary
Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, ‘year’) is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into 12 months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by 6 days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna-sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend 131/3 days in each of the 27 Nakṣatras.
 

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Saṃvatsara.—(CII 3; 4; IA 17), ‘a year’; ‘an cra’, the earlier years of the Indian eras being quoted by this term (or by its abbreviations saṃ, saṃvat, etc.), without any dynastic or other appellation just as in the case of the year of a regnal reckoning. Note: saṃvatsara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Sāṃvatsara.—(HD), an astrologer. See Viṣṇu Dh. S., III. 75; Bṛhatasaṃhitā, 2. 9; cf. Sāṃvatsarika (EI 5). Note: sāṃvatsara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samvatsara in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m (S) A common term for the sixty years composing the Indian cycle, each bearing a peculiar name. These names never occurring but with the indicant word saṃvatsara prefixed (e. g. saṃvatsaraprabhava) cannot come before the learner as ordinary words bearing signification and demanding to be interpreted: they therefore do not appear in the columns, but are presented together here:--prabhava, citrabhānu, hēmalamba, paridhāvī, vibhava, subhānu, vilamba, pramādī, śukla, tāraṇa, vikārī, ānanda, pramōda, pārthiva, śārvarī, rākṣasa, prajāpati, avyaya, plava, nala, aṅgira, sarvajit, śubhakṛt, piṅgala, śrīmukha, sarvadhārī, śōbhana, kālayukta, bhāva, virōdhī, krōdhī, siddhārtha, yuva, vikṛti, viśvāvasu, raudra, dhātṛ, khara, parābhava, durmati, īśvara, nandana, plavaṅga, dundubhi, bahudhānya, vijaya, kilaka, rudhirōdgārī, pramāthī, jaya, saumya, raktākṣa, vikrama, manmatha, sādhāraṇa, krōdhana, vṛṣa, durmukha, virōdhakṛt, kṣaya. 2 A year in general; yet, especially, of the era of Wikramaditya. manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara Years numbered by the (duration of the) Manu; as manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara || rājya karīla mājhā putra ||.

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sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a S sāṃvatsarika a (S) Annual.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m A year. saṃvatsaracakra n Cycle.

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sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a Annual.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

[«previous (S) next»] — Samvatsara in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—[saṃvasanti ṛtavo'tra saṃvas-saran Tv.]

1) A year; न ह पुरा ततः संवत्सर आस (na ha purā tataḥ saṃvatsara āsa) Bṛ. Up.1.2.4.

2) A year of Vikramāditya's era.

3) Name of Śiva.

4) The first year in the cycle of five years.

Derivable forms: saṃvatsaraḥ (संवत्सरः).

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Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—(- f.)

1) , [sāṃvatsarika] (- f.) a. Annual, yearly,

-raḥ, -rakaḥ, -rikaḥ 1 An astrologer.

2) An almanac-maker.

3) A lunar month.

4) Black rice.

See also (synonyms): sāṃvatsarika.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m.

(-raḥ) A year. E. sam with, completely, vatsara a year; or sam with vas to abide, saran Unadi aff., and ta substituted for the final.

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Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—mfn.

(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Annual, perennial. m.

(-raḥ) An astrologer. E. saṃvatsara a year, aṇ aff.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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