Samvatsara, Sāṃvatsara, Saṃvatsara: 14 definitions
Samvatsara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: archive.org: South Indian Festivities (astronomy)
Samvatsara (hindu year).—According to legend, Naradi (the name of Nārada after he transformed into a woman) got married though capture and gave birth to sixty sons each year. Worried, exhausted, fatigued, bored to death by these numerous sons, Naradi at the end of the sixtieth year involuntarily prayed to Lord Vishnu. Transformed back, Narada appealed to Vishnu to silence his sixty sons. Vishnu gave them the Raj of the world to be enjoyed by turns for one year at a time. This is how each Hindu year has a separate name for a cycle of sixty years.
The list of the sixty sons of Naradi, after whom the lunar yearsin the cycle are still being called is as follows:
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, “year”).—At some period, a fivefold multiple, a cycle of 60 Jovian or Bārhaspatya years, each with a special name suffixed by the word saṃvatsara (= year) came into use. The earliest available evidence points to the 6th century A. D., as found in the inscription of the Cālukyan king Maṅgaleśa.
The sixty years are:
- Prajotpatti (Prajāpati);
- Dhātṛ (Dhātu);
- Vṛṣan (Viṣu);
- Subhānu (Svabhānu);
- Hevilambin (Hemalambin);
- Śobhakṛt; (Śobhana);
- Raktākṣa (Raktākṣin);
- Kṣaya (Akṣaya).
It was believed that the saṃvatsara names indicated different consequences for the years concerned.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर) refers to one of the five years (pañcasaṃvatsara), defined in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The expression pañcasaṃvatsara indicates the knowledge of five years, namely, Saṃvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
The Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.4.27-46 describes the selection of Sāṃvatsara by a king and gives a lengthy list of the qualities which a Sāṃvatsara should possess. He is just like mother, father, instructor and preceptor to the king. The king appoints Mantrīs and Purohitas after consulting him. Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.5.54-55 clearly establishes the superiority of the astrologer (Sāṃvatsara) over the Purohita by stating that a king should give up the Purohita if he acts against the Sāṃvatsara, otherwise the Purohita is also like mother and father to the king.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—A sage in the Darūvana.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 27. 104.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 14; V. 22. 7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 71-2.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 131; 24. 57, 141; 28. 15; III. 8. 17; 72. 30.
- 3) Ib. II. 28. 21; 29. 10, 16 and 18.
1c) A Śakti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 15.
1d) Is Agni.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 141. 18.
1e) Vārāha Viṣṇu got the form of.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 104.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर) refers to the Vedic “year”.—There are sixty different names for each year in the Vedic lunar calendar, which begins on the new moon day (amāvasyā) after the appearance day of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu (gaura-pūrṇimā), in February or march. the Vedic year, therefore, does not correspond exactly with the christian solar calendar year. in the christian calendar dates below, 2018, for example, refers to the period from the amāvasyā after gaura-pūrṇima 2018 to the amāvasyā after gaura-pūrṇima 2019.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, ‘year’) is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into 12 months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by 6 days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna-sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend 131/3 days in each of the 27 Nakṣatras.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Saṃvatsara.—(CII 3; 4; IA 17), ‘a year’; ‘an cra’, the earlier years of the Indian eras being quoted by this term (or by its abbreviations saṃ, saṃvat, etc.), without any dynastic or other appellation just as in the case of the year of a regnal reckoning. Note: saṃvatsara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
--- OR ---
Sāṃvatsara.—(HD), an astrologer. See Viṣṇu Dh. S., III. 75; Bṛhatasaṃhitā, 2. 9; cf. Sāṃvatsarika (EI 5). Note: sāṃvatsara is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m (S) A common term for the sixty years composing the Indian cycle, each bearing a peculiar name. These names never occurring but with the indicant word saṃvatsara prefixed (e. g. saṃvatsaraprabhava) cannot come before the learner as ordinary words bearing signification and demanding to be interpreted: they therefore do not appear in the columns, but are presented together here:--prabhava, citrabhānu, hēmalamba, paridhāvī, vibhava, subhānu, vilamba, pramādī, śukla, tāraṇa, vikārī, ānanda, pramōda, pārthiva, śārvarī, rākṣasa, prajāpati, avyaya, plava, nala, aṅgira, sarvajit, śubhakṛt, piṅgala, śrīmukha, sarvadhārī, śōbhana, kālayukta, bhāva, virōdhī, krōdhī, siddhārtha, yuva, vikṛti, viśvāvasu, raudra, dhātṛ, khara, parābhava, durmati, īśvara, nandana, plavaṅga, dundubhi, bahudhānya, vijaya, kilaka, rudhirōdgārī, pramāthī, jaya, saumya, raktākṣa, vikrama, manmatha, sādhāraṇa, krōdhana, vṛṣa, durmukha, virōdhakṛt, kṣaya. 2 A year in general; yet, especially, of the era of Wikramaditya. manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara Years numbered by the (duration of the) Manu; as manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara || rājya karīla mājhā putra ||.
--- OR ---
sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a S sāṃvatsarika a (S) Annual.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m A year. saṃvatsaracakra n Cycle.
--- OR ---
sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a Annual.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—[saṃvasanti ṛtavo'tra saṃvas-saran Tv.]
1) A year; न ह पुरा ततः संवत्सर आस (na ha purā tataḥ saṃvatsara āsa) Bṛ. Up.1.2.4.
2) A year of Vikramāditya's era.
3) Name of Śiva.
4) The first year in the cycle of five years.
Derivable forms: saṃvatsaraḥ (संवत्सरः).
--- OR ---
Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—(-rī f.)
1) , [sāṃvatsarika] (-kī f.) a. Annual, yearly,
-raḥ, -rakaḥ, -rikaḥ 1 An astrologer.
2) An almanac-maker.
3) A lunar month.
4) Black rice.
See also (synonyms): sāṃvatsarika.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) A year. E. sam with, completely, vatsara a year; or sam with vas to abide, saran Unadi aff., and ta substituted for the final.
--- OR ---
(-raḥ-rī-raṃ) Annual, perennial. m.
(-raḥ) An astrologer. E. saṃvatsara a year, aṇ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—i. e. sam-vatsara, m. A year, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 19; [Pañcatantra] 186, 20.
--- OR ---
Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—i. e. saṃvatsara + a, I. adj. Annual, perennial. Ii. m. An almanac-maker, an astrologer, Kām. Nītis. 4, 33; [Pañcatantra] iii. [distich] 67.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—[masculine] ([neuter]) year.
--- OR ---
Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—([feminine] ī) & rika a year old, lasting a year, yearly, annual; [masculine] astrologer.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर):—[=saṃ-vatsara] [from saṃ-vat] m. (rarely n.; cf. pari-v) a full year, a year (having 12 [Taittirīya-saṃhitā] or 13 [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā] months or 360 days [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; Suśruta]; am, ‘for a year’; eṇa ‘after or in course of a y°’; e or asya, ‘after or within a y°’), [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] a year of the Vikrama era (See above; varṣa is used for the śaka) the first in a cycle of five or six years, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] the Year personified (having the new and full moon for eyes and presiding over the seasons), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Purāṇa]
4) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata]
5) Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर):—mf(ī)n. ([from] saṃ-vatsara) yearly, annual, perennial, lasting or occupying year (with bhṛti, f., ‘annual wages’), [???; Mahābhārata; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
6) m. an astrologer, almanac-maker, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
7) a lunar month, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
8) black rice, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) (with dīkṣita) Name of an author, [Catalogue(s)]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+44): Samvatsara-shraddha, Samvatsara-variya, Samvatsara-vimoksha-shraddha, Samvatsarabhrami, Samvatsarabhrit, Samvatsarabhrita, Samvatsarabhritin, Samvatsarabhritokha, Samvatsarabhukti, Samvatsarabrahmana, Samvatsaradidhiti, Samvatsaradiksha, Samvatsaradikshita, Samvatsaradipamahatmya, Samvatsaradipavrata, Samvatsaradipavratamahatmya, Samvatsaradiphala, Samvatsaradiphaladhyaya, Samvatsaradiphalakalpalata, Samvatsaraka.
Ends with (+9): Adhikasamvatsara, Adityasamvatsara, Asamvatsara, Atisamvatsara, Bahusamvatsara, Dikshita samvatsara, Ekasamvatsara, Jatasamvatsara, Kalacurisamvatsara, Karmasamvatsara, Krauncasamvatsara, Kraunchasamvatsara, Kricchrasamvatsara, Nakshatrasamvatsara, Navasamvatsara, Pancasamvatsara, Panchasamvatsara, Parisamvatsara, Sahasrasamvatsara, Sardhasamvatsara.
Full-text (+215): Samvatsaranirodhatas, Vatsara, Samvatsarasattrabhashya, Samvatsarakrityadidhiti, Samvatsarasattrasad, Samvatsarabhritokha, Samvatsaramukhi, Samvatsarakaumudi, Samvatsarakalpalata, Samvatsarakaustubha, Samvatsaraprakasha, Samvatsarabhrit, Samvatsarakritya, Samvatsaravela, Samvatsaradipamahatmya, Samvatsaradidhiti, Samvatsaradikshita, Samvatsarakrityaprakasha, Samvatsarapradipa, Samvatsaraprakarana.
Search found 25 books and stories containing Samvatsara, Sāṃvatsara, Saṃvatsara, Sam-vatsara, Saṃ-vatsara; (plurals include: Samvatsaras, Sāṃvatsaras, Saṃvatsaras, vatsaras). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1.64 < [Section XXXVII - Measures of Time]
Verse 1.84 < [Section LII - The span of Human Life in each Cycle]
Verse 2.154 < [Section XXV - Meaning of the Title ‘Ācārya’]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 16 - On the motion of the planets < [Book 8]
Chapter 4 - On Gāyatrī Hridaya < [Book 12]
Chapter 15 - On the motion of the Sun < [Book 8]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 22 - The Orbits of the Planets < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
Chapter 21 - The Movements of the Sun < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
Chapter 18 - The Prayers Offered to the Lord by the Residents of Jambudvipa < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Appendix 3 - Purāṇic measurements of time < [Appendices]
Chapter 16 - Eulogy of Śiva by Brahmā < [Section 3 - Revā-khaṇḍa]
Viṣṇu-sahasranāma (Garland of a Thousand Epithets of Viṣṇu) < [Section 1 - Avantīkṣetra-māhātmya]