Samvatsara, aka: Sāṃvatsara, Saṃvatsara; 8 Definition(s)
Samvatsara means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)
Samvatsara (hindu year).—According to legend, Naradi (the name of Nārada after he transformed into a woman) got married though capture and gave birth to sixty sons each year. Worried, exhausted, fatigued, bored to death by these numerous sons, Naradi at the end of the sixtieth year involuntarily prayed to Lord Vishnu. Transformed back, Narada appealed to Vishnu to silence his sixty sons. Vishnu gave them the Raj of the world to be enjoyed by turns for one year at a time. This is how each Hindu year has a separate name for a cycle of sixty years.
The list of the sixty sons of Naradi, after whom the lunar yearsin the cycle are still being called is as follows:
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, “year”).—At some period, a fivefold multiple, a cycle of 60 Jovian or Bārhaspatya years, each with a special name suffixed by the word saṃvatsara (= year) came into use. The earliest available evidence points to the 6th century A. D., as found in the inscription of the Cālukyan king Maṅgaleśa.
The sixty years are:
- Prajotpatti (Prajāpati);
- Dhātṛ (Dhātu);
- Vṛṣan (Viṣu);
- Subhānu (Svabhānu);
- Hevilambin (Hemalambin);
- Śobhakṛt; (Śobhana);
- Raktākṣa (Raktākṣin);
- Kṣaya (Akṣaya).
It was believed that the saṃvatsara names indicated different consequences for the years concerned.(Source): A Concise Encyclopaedia of Hinduism: Bārhaspatya-māna
Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर) refers to one of the five years (pañcasaṃvatsara), defined in the Nīlamatapurāṇa. The expression pañcasaṃvatsara indicates the knowledge of five years, namely, Saṃvatsara, Parivatsara, Idvatsara, Anuvatsara and Vatsara.
The Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.4.27-46 describes the selection of Sāṃvatsara by a king and gives a lengthy list of the qualities which a Sāṃvatsara should possess. He is just like mother, father, instructor and preceptor to the king. The king appoints Mantrīs and Purohitas after consulting him. Viṣṇudharmottara-purāṇa II.5.54-55 clearly establishes the superiority of the astrologer (Sāṃvatsara) over the Purohita by stating that a king should give up the Purohita if he acts against the Sāṃvatsara, otherwise the Purohita is also like mother and father to the king.(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1a) Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—A sage in the Darūvana.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 27. 104.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 11. 14; V. 22. 7; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 8. 71-2.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 21. 131; 24. 57, 141; 28. 15; III. 8. 17; 72. 30.
- 3) Ib. II. 28. 21; 29. 10, 16 and 18.
1c) A Śakti.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 15.
1d) Is Agni.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 141. 18.
1e) Vārāha Viṣṇu got the form of.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 104.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर, ‘year’) is repeatedly mentioned from the Rigveda onwards. Its duration was, according to the concurrent evidence of the Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas, 360 days, divided into 12 months, being, no doubt, roughly a lunar synodic year, which, however, it exceeded in length by 6 days. As a solar year it appears only in the Nidāna-sūtra of the Sāmaveda, where the sun is stated to spend 131/3 days in each of the 27 Nakṣatras.
Languages of India and abroad
saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m (S) A common term for the sixty years composing the Indian cycle, each bearing a peculiar name. These names never occurring but with the indicant word saṃvatsara prefixed (e. g. saṃvatsaraprabhava) cannot come before the learner as ordinary words bearing signification and demanding to be interpreted: they therefore do not appear in the columns, but are presented together here:--prabhava, citrabhānu, hēmalamba, paridhāvī, vibhava, subhānu, vilamba, pramādī, śukla, tāraṇa, vikārī, ānanda, pramōda, pārthiva, śārvarī, rākṣasa, prajāpati, avyaya, plava, nala, aṅgira, sarvajit, śubhakṛt, piṅgala, śrīmukha, sarvadhārī, śōbhana, kālayukta, bhāva, virōdhī, krōdhī, siddhārtha, yuva, vikṛti, viśvāvasu, raudra, dhātṛ, khara, parābhava, durmati, īśvara, nandana, plavaṅga, dundubhi, bahudhānya, vijaya, kilaka, rudhirōdgārī, pramāthī, jaya, saumya, raktākṣa, vikrama, manmatha, sādhāraṇa, krōdhana, vṛṣa, durmukha, virōdhakṛt, kṣaya. 2 A year in general; yet, especially, of the era of Wikramaditya. manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara Years numbered by the (duration of the) Manu; as manusaṅkhyāsaṃvatsara || rājya karīla mājhā putra ||.
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sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a S sāṃvatsarika a (S) Annual.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—m A year. saṃvatsaracakra n Cycle.
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sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—a Annual.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Saṃvatsara (संवत्सर).—[saṃvasanti ṛtavo'tra saṃvas-saran Tv.]
1) A year; न ह पुरा ततः संवत्सर आस (na ha purā tataḥ saṃvatsara āsa) Bṛ. Up.1.2.4.
2) A year of Vikramāditya's era.
3) Name of Śiva.
4) The first year in the cycle of five years.
Derivable forms: saṃvatsaraḥ (संवत्सरः).
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Sāṃvatsara (सांवत्सर).—(-rī f.)
1) , [sāṃvatsarika] (-kī f.) a. Annual, yearly,
-raḥ, -rakaḥ, -rikaḥ 1 An astrologer.
2) An almanac-maker.
3) A lunar month.
4) Black rice.
See also (synonyms): sāṃvatsarika.(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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sāṭha saṃvatsara (साठ संवत्सर).—m pl The sixty years of the Hindu cycle. See under saṃvatsara.
Saurasaṃvatsara (सौरसंवत्सर).—Solar year. Note: Saura-saṃvatsara is a Sanskrit technical term u...
Saṃvatsarakara (संवत्सरकर).—an epithet of Śiva. Derivable forms: saṃvatsarakaraḥ (संवत्सरकरः).S...
Saṃvatsaranirodha (संवत्सरनिरोध).—Imprisonment for a year; वैश्यः सर्वस्वदण्डः स्यात् संवत्सरनि...
Pañcasaṃvatsara (पञ्चसंवत्सर) refers to a time period of five years, defined in the Nīlama...
Saṃvatsararaya (संवत्सररय).—a year's course.Derivable forms: saṃvatsararayaḥ (संवत्सररयः).Saṃva...
Sārdhasaṃvatsara (सार्धसंवत्सर).—a year and a half.Derivable forms: sārdhasaṃvatsaram (सार्धसंव...
Ṣaṣṭisaṃvatsara (षष्टिसंवत्सर).—a period of sixty years. Derivable forms: ṣaṣṭisaṃvatsaraḥ (षष्...
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Krauñcasaṃvatsara (क्रौञ्चसंवत्सर).—Equal to 9090 years of human calculation.** Vāyu-purā...
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Search found 20 books and stories containing Samvatsara, Sāṃvatsara or Saṃvatsara. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 1.84 < [Section LII - The span of Human Life in each Cycle]
Verse 2.154 < [Section XXV - Meaning of the Title ‘Ācārya’]
Verse 1.64 < [Section XXXVII - Measures of Time]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 16 - On the motion of the planets < [Book 8]
Chapter 15 - On the motion of the Sun < [Book 8]
Chapter 24 - On the glory of Tulasī < [Book 9]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 22 - The Orbits of the Planets < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
Chapter 21 - The Movements of the Sun < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
Chapter 18 - The Prayers Offered to the Lord by the Residents of Jambudvipa < [Canto V - The Creative Impetus]
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)