Tapasya, Tapasyā, Tāpasya: 29 definitions

Introduction

Introduction:

Tapasya means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Yoga (school of philosophy)

[«previous next»] — Tapasya in Yoga glossary
Source: Siddha Life Mastery: What is Tapasya Really?

Tapasya refers to the “art of self-control” according to ###. Tapasya is often translated as “austerities”, and a Tapasvi is often called an ascetic when translated into English. Tapasya is not a form of “penance” to atone for or purify “sins”, nor is Tapas a form of Self-Denial. True tapasya is none other than a Super Refined Art of Self-Control and Surrender.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: The Garuda puranam

Tapasyā (तपस्या, “penance”) is another name for vrata according to the Garuḍa-purāṇa 2.128:—A Vrata signifies an act of living in conformity with the rules of conduct and self-control, as laid down in the Śāstras. The Vratam is but another name for penance (Tapasyā). A Vrati (performer of a Vratram) is under the obligation of observing sepecific rules of conduct and self-control. He should bathe, thrice every day, during the entire term of the Vratam, and sleep on the bare ground, contented, and controlled in his mind and senses, and renouncing all talk with women, Śudrsā, and degraded persons.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Tapasya (तपस्य).—Phālguna, the month sacred to Kratu.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 11. 40; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 30. 9.

1b) A son of Tāmasa Manu.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 9. 17.
Source: Astrojyoti: Vishnu Purana

Tapasya (तपस्य).—In satya-yuga one had to do a lot of tapasya to earn some punya. In kali-yuga the same punya can be acquired through a little tapasya. The equivalence is like this. Ten years of tapasya in satya-yuga are equal to one year of tapasya in treta-yuga, one month of tapasya in dvapara-yuga and one day of tapasya in kali-yuga.

Source: Eastern Book Linkers: Harivaṃśa Purāṇa

Tapasya (तपस्य) refrers to one of the ten sons of Tāmasa Manu (of the fourth manvantara), according to the Harivaṃśa-purāṇa 1.7.20-29:—“In the Tāmasa-manvantara there were the gods called Satya. Tāmasa Manu had ten very strong sons, known as Dyuti, Tapasya, Sutapa, Tapomūla, Tapodhana, Taparati, Kalmāṣa, Tanvī, Dhanvī and Paraṃtapa. All of them were owned by vāyu”.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śrīmad Devī Bhāgavatam

Tapasyā (तपस्या).—According to the Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa 6.3.45-54 (on the deva defeat and on Vṛtra’s tapasyā), “Tapasyā is not an ordinary thing; Lakṣmī (prosperity) is obtained thereby; excellent kingdoms, increase of vigour, and victories in battles are obtained. Therefore worship Hiraṇyagarbha and get excellent boons from him; then kill this vicious Indra, guilty of the sin Brahmahattyā. Worship the auspicious Creator calmly and carefully. The four-faced Brahmā then will be pleased and grant you your desired boon”.

The Devī-bhāgavata-purāṇa or Śrīmad-devī-bhāgavatam (mentioning Sūcimukha), is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, a type of Sanskrit literature containing cultural information on ancient India, religious/spiritual prescriptions and a range of topics concerning the various arts and sciences. The whole text is composed of 18,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 6th century.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Prabhupada Books: Sri Caitanya Caritamrta

Tapasya (तपस्य).—According to the Śrī Caitanya Caritāmṛta 1.1.150:—Refraining from sensual enjoyment, one should voluntarily accept all sorts of difficulties for spiritual realization. This is called tapasya. An enjoyer of the senses can never realize God, godliness or the science of theistic knowledge. Thus when Brahmā, initiated by Śrī Kṛṣṇa by the sound vibration tapa, engaged himself in acts of austerity, by the pleasure of Viṣṇu he was able to visualize the transcendental world, Śrī Vaikuṇṭha, through transcendental realization.

Source: Prabhupada Books: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam Lectures

Tapasya (तपस्य, “austerities”).—According to the commentary on the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 5.5.1:—Without tapasya, we cannot get out of this conditioned state. That is not possible. Those who are thinking that "Let us do whatever nonsense I can do, and at the same time I become free from this material condition..." No. That is not possible. One has to undergo tapasya. Just like if you are diseased you have to undergo some tapasya. Nobody should think himself that he is very prestigious person, falsely. Nobody is prestigious. Everyone should be humble. So these three, four things we should learn, and that is tapasya.

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Tapasya (तपस्य, “austerities”).—According to the commentary on the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 6.4.5:—Ppersons who have undergone severe austerity (tapasya) are endowed with great mystic power, as evinced by the Pracetās, who created fire and wind from their mouths. Although devotees undergo severe tapasya, however, they are vimanyavaḥ, sādhavaḥ, which means that they are never angry. They are always decorated with good qualities.

If one undergoes tapasya but does not become a Vaiṣṇava, however, one does not develop good qualities. For example, Hiraṇyakaśipu and Rāvaṇa also performed great austerities, but they did so to demonstrate their demoniac tendencies. Vaiṣṇavas must meet many opponents while preaching the glories of the Lord, but Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu recommends that they not become angry while preaching.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Tapasyā (तपस्या) refers to “austerity”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Tapasya (तपस्य) refers to:—Voluntary acceptance of austerity for the purpose of detaching oneself from the sense objects. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: archive.org: Sri Vijnana Bhairava Tantra

Tapasya (तपस्य, “austerity”).—Yogis impose austerity on themselves because they are fully aware that it is through the fire of austerity, or tapasya, alone that the purity of inner experience can be developed. This vidya is described in the ancient texts such as Satpatha Brahman and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. It is a tapasya by which one can reach the heavenly abode whilst still in this physical body. It was taught by Yama, the lord of death, to a young lad known as Nachiketas who had implored him to describe what happened after death.

Source: DSpace at Pondicherry: Siddha Cult in Tamilnadu

Tapasya (तपस्य).—While defining the Siddhas, Śri Ramaṇa Mahariṣi (1879-1950 C.E.) says that, “The effort of humanity from time immemorial has been to discover the eternal Joy (Chit and Āṉanda, Knowledge and Bliss) and this has been termed Tapasya. The result of such an effort is not the attainment of something new but only fitting the vehicle so as to be overtaken by the ever-present Grace and be in It, and then to find that there is nothing but It.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya

Tapasyā (तपस्या).—According to the commentary on the Manusmṛti verse 1.113-116:—The recluse is one whose chief work consists in the performing of austerity (i.e., the vānaprastha: the Hermit); and the duty of these is called tapasyā.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Manblunder: Brahma Sutras

Tapasya (तपस्य, “penance”).—According to the commentary on the Brahma-sūtra 1.3.26.—Ramakrishna Paramahamsa also said, “Our thoughts, our actions and everything should be conditioned by that One idea (contemplating Brahman). That is tapasya (penance) and he is tapasvin”.

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Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Tapasya (तपस्य).—According to the Suśruta-saṃhitā sūtrasthāna chapter 5.—The two months known as Tapas and Tapasya (Magha and Phalguna) constitute the season of winter.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

1) Tapasya is part of a stage of life, called brahmacharya - a monk or nun like celibate lifestyle. At the mind and spirit level, meditative tapas involves focusing upon the Supreme Brahman - the central principles of reality and universe. Monks and gurus in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism practice tapasya to obtain moksha, or spiritual liberation. Brahmacharya and tapasya is so interrelated that some modern literature incorrectly consider it as synonymous. In Hinduism, brahmacharya is one of the four stages of life; while tapasya is an on-going learning process during all four stages of life.

2) Tapasya, is also the name of the father of Manyu in the Rigveda. The tapo-raaja ("king over austerities") is a name of the Moon.

Source: Yoga Magazine: 1981

The word tapasya is often translated as “austerity”, but etymologically, tapas means a process of purification by which you make yourself more seasoned, more mature. The body of man is very weak, and his mind is weaker. When you have a weak mind and body, how can you complete your pilgrimage of life? When your motor car is not working properly, then it has to be sent to a mechanic. In exactly the same way, the body and mind have to be overhauled, and that process is known as tapas.

Tapasya is threefold. The highest form is sattvic tapas, which is intended to purify the mind and body for self-realization. Sattvic tapas has a spiritual purpose, and if you want to follow it, then you have to practise meditation. In meditation, when your mind is giving you a lot of trouble, then you must practise pranayama. The breath and mind are interconnected, therefore, pranayama is a very powerful method of controlling the mind.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

tapasyā (तपस्या).—f S Devout austerity.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

tapasyā (तपस्या).—m An ascetic. tapasyā f Devout austerity.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Tapasya (तपस्य).—a. Produced by heat.

-syaḥ 1 The month of Phālguna; Bhāg.12.11.4.

2) An epithet of Arjuna.

-syā Religious austerity, penance; (also m. and n.); अथास्य बुद्धिरभवत्तपस्ये भवतर्षभ (athāsya buddhirabhavattapasye bhavatarṣabha) Mb.13.1.13.

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Tāpasya (तापस्य).—Asceticism; तापस्ये मे मनस्तात वर्तते कुरुनन्दन (tāpasye me manastāta vartate kurunandana) Mb.15.3.56.

Derivable forms: tāpasyam (तापस्यम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tapasya (तपस्य).—m.

(-syaḥ) 1. The month Phalguna, (February-March) 2. A name of Arjuna. f.

(-syā) 1. Devout austerity, religious penance. n.

(-syaṃ) The flower of the Kunda, (Jasminum pubescens.) E. tapas the cold season, yat aff. tapaśi sādhu yat .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tapasya (तपस्य).—a denominat. derived from tapas by ya, [Parasmaipada.] To mortify one’s flesh, [Bhagavadgītā, (ed. Schlegel.)] 9, 27; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 49.

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Tapasya (तपस्य).—[tapas + ya], I. m. The name of a month, February

— March, [Suśruta] 1, 19, 8. Ii. n. Religious penance, Mahābhārata 13, 445.

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Tāpasya (तापस्य).—i. e. tāpasa + ya, n. The condition of an ascetic, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 1, 114; Chr. 45, 10.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tapasya (तपस्य).—[adjective] produced by heat; [masculine] a cert. cool month, a man’s name; [feminine] ā & [neuter] penance, austerity.

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Tāpasya (तापस्य).—[neuter] the state or condition of an ascetic.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Tapasya (तपस्य):—[from tap] 1. tapasya [Nominal verb] syati ([Pāṇini 3-1, 15]) to undergo religious austerities, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv, 6, 8, 10] (tap), [Mahābhārata i, iii, xiii] ([Ātmanepada] cf. 2. tapasya), [Rāmāyaṇa etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] 2. tapasya mf(ā)n. ([from] tapas) produced by heat, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra xxv]

3) [v.s. ...] belonging to austerity, [Baudhāyana-dharma-śāstra ii, 5, 1]

4) [v.s. ...] m. ([Pāṇini 4-4, 128]) the second month of the season intervening between winter and spring (= phālguna), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā i; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa iv; Caraka viii, 6; Suśruta i]

5) [v.s. ...] Arjuna (= phālguna), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Manu Tāmasa, [Harivaṃśa 428]

7) [v.s. ...] n. the flower of Jasminum multiflorum or pubescens, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] devout austerity (?, sye taken as 1. sg. [Ātmanepada] of 1. tapasya by, [Nīlakaṇṭha]), [Mahābhārata xiii, 10, 13]

9) Tapasyā (तपस्या):—[from tapasya > tap] f. ([from] 1. tapasya) idem, [Harṣacarita]

10) Tāpasya (तापस्य):—[from tāpasāyani > tāpa] n. ascetism, [Manu-smṛti i, 114; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Tapasya (तपस्य):—(syaḥ) 1. m. The month Phālguna (Feb. March); Arjuna. f. Austerity, penance. n. A jasmin.

[Sanskrit to German]

Tapasya in German

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Tapasya in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Tapasyā (तपस्या):—(nf) penance, self-mortification; asceticism.

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