Shruti, Sruti, Śruti, Śrutī: 25 definitions
Shruti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Śruti and Śrutī can be transliterated into English as Sruti or Shruti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Śruti (श्रुति).—An ancient King in India. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 238).Source: Kashmiri Overseas Association: The Nīlamata Purāṇa
Sruti (Primary Scriptures); Sruti scriptures include the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sãma and Atharva) and the Bhagavad Gîtã, and constitute the highest religious authority in Hindu religion.
Hindu religious literature, the most ancient writings in the world, is of two types: primary scriptures (Sruti) and secondary scriptures (Smriti).
The Srutis are:
Vedas (Rig, Sãma, Yajur & Atharva); Include religion, philosophy, art, medicine, science, technology, language, music, etc.
Bhagavad Gîtã; A spiritual discourse between Lord Krishna and warrior Arjuna; summary of the Upanishads.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Śruti (श्रुति).—The Vedas: interpreted in two ways in the Dvāpara;1 the same, Ṛg, Yajus, and Sāma in every manvantara though in different redactions; here are four stotras— Dravyastotram, Guṇastotram, Karmastotram, and Abhijanastotram; above all these is Brahmastotram; mantras were originally five fold;2 having learnt the Śrauta from their predecessors the seven sages repeated the same.3
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 31. 6, 72; 32, 35; IV. 6. 64; Matsya-purāṇa 52. 12; 144. 7; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 95; 39. 11; 41. 90; 55. 7; 61. 75; 76. 3; 100. 33; 101. 9, 22, 57.
- 2) Matsya-purāṇa 145. 58-63.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 8; 32. 44; 59. 31.
1b) A son of Uttama Manu.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 40.
1c) A daughter of Anasūyā and mother of Śankhapadā, wife of Kardama, Pulaha Prajāpati.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 18, 27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 22.
1d) Awaken the Lord sleeping after a pralaya, as bards the emperor from his bed. Śrutigītā on the greatness and glory of Lord.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 87. 1, 12-41; XI. 5. 5.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śruti (श्रुति) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Śruti) various roles suitable to them.Source: Google Books: Dhanapāla and His Times (arts and learning)
1) Śruti (श्रुति, “quarter tones”) is a fundamental fact of scale. Each note (svara) can be elaborated with half and quarter tones (śrutis). Śruti produces svara (notes). Svara produces grāma. From grāma, mūrchanā is produced and mūrchanā produces rāga. (cf. Tilaka-mañjarī by Dhanapāla)
There are twenty-two quarter tones in each octave, namely,
Śruti is a part of svara (note). Every svara is constructed upon two or mure śrutis. For example,
- ṣaḍja-svara is produced from first to four śrutis,
- ṛṣabha-svara from fifth to seventh śrutis,
- gāndhārā-svara from eight and ninth śrutiś,
- madhyama-svara from tenth to thirteenth śruti,
- pañcama-svara from fourteenth to seventeenth śrutis,
- dhaivata-svara from eighteenth to twentieth śruti.
- niṣāda-svara from twenty-first and twenty-second śrutis.
2) Śruti (श्रुति).—The tuning vīṇā is called śruti. The vīṇā is said to stand in pañcama-śruti or madhyama-śruti. The śrutis are all equal in size.Source: archive.org: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music
Śruti (श्रुति).—According to Kallinātha the śrutis are so called because they are audible. He says that in his view śrutis are of one kind because they form a natural phenomenon (the manifestation of which is described by him in his own way).
Some think that śrutis are of two kinds according to śuddha and vikṛta-śrutis. Viśvāvasu is of this opinion. Others hold that they are of 3 kinds because they occur in the 3 octaves or according to the 3 guṇas; or of 4 kinds according to vāta, pitta, etc. (Tumburu is quoted to support this.) Vena and other Ṛṣis believe that śrutis are of 9 kinds, viz., dviśruti, triśruti and catuśśruti, which occur in svaras. Kohaḷa is quoted as saying that some think that there are 22 śrutis, according to others there 66 and others think that they are innumerable.
In Govinda’s Saṅgīta-śāstra-saṅkṣepa (1800 CE) a different account of śrutis is given. His names for the śrutis and corresponding svaras can be tabulated as follows:
- Tīvrā (pratiśuddha-ri),
- Kumudvatī (śuddha-ri),
- Mandā (praticatuśśruti-ri and pratiśuddha-ga),
- Chandovatī (catuśśruti-ri and śuddha-ga),
- Dayāvatī (prati-ṣaṭśruti-ri and pratisādhāraṇa-ga),
- Rañjanī (ṣaṭśruti-ri and sādhāraṇa-ga),
- Raktikā (pratyantara-ga),
- Raudrī (antara-ga),
- Krodhā (pratiśuddha-ma),
- Vajrikā (śuddha-ma),
- Prasāriṇī (pratyantara-ma),
- Prīti (prati-ka),
- Mārjanī (pā),
- Kṣiti (pratiśuddha-dha),
- Raktā (śuddha-dha),
- Saṃdīpinī (praticatuśśruti-dha and pratiśuddha-ni),
- Ālāpinī (catuśśruti-dha and śuddha-ni),
- Madantī (prati-ṣaṭśruti-dha and prati-kaiśikī-ni),
- Rohiṇī (ṣaṭśruti-dha and kaiśikī-ni),
- Ramyā (prati-kākalī-ni),
- Ugrā (kākalī-ni),
- Kṣobhiṇī (sa),
Shruti means the smallest interval of pitch that the human ear can detect and a singer or musical instrument can produce. The svara (notes) differs from the sruti concept in Indian music. A sruti is the smallest gradation of pitch available, while a svara is the selected pitches from which the musician constructs the scales, melodies and ragas.
The shruti table below shows the mathematical ratios considered to correspond to the system described by Bharata and Dattilam. The names of the 22 shrutis were provided by Śārṅgadeva.
- chandovatī (261.6256 Hz),
- dayāvatī (275.6220 Hz),
- rañjanī (279.0673 Hz),
- raktikā (290.6951 Hz),
- raudrī (294.3288 Hz),
- krodhā (310.0747 Hz),
- vajrikā (313.9507 Hz),
- prasāriṇī (327.0319 Hz),
- prīti (331.1198 Hz),
- mārjanī (348.8341 Hz),
- kṣhiti (353.1945 Hz),
- raktā (367.9109 Hz),
- sandīpanī (372.5098 Hz),
- ālāpinī (392.4383 Hz),
- madantī (413.4330 Hz),
- rohiṇī (418.6009 Hz),
- ramyā (436.0426 Hz),
- ugrā (441.4931 Hz),
- kṣobhinī (465.1121 Hz),
- tīvrā (470.9260 Hz),
- kumudvatī (490.5479 Hz),
- mandā (496.6798 Hz),
- chandovatī (523.2511 Hz),
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study
Śruti (श्रुति).—A direct Vedic statement.Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
1) Śruti (श्रुति).—lit. hearing; sound.cf. श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् (śrutau ca rūpagrahaṇam) M. Bh. on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; cf. ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति (nanu ca śrutikṛtopi bhedosti) M. Bh. on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; cf. also M. Bh. on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि (tasmāduccaśrutīni) R. T. 61;
2) Śruti.—Authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Śruti (श्रुति).—Sacred texts ascribed to divine revelation, such as the Vedas; (lit., hearing). Note: Śruti is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Ancient Science of Life: The Translational Framework of Ayurveda as a Knowledge System
Śruti (श्रुति) refers to the “science” process of translational research in the context of Āyurveda.—Translational research involves the application of knowledge gained through basic research to studies that could support the development of new products. [...] The process of this translation is also explained through a three step process in the tradition—śruti (science), yukti (rationale) and anubhava (experience). The way to discover applications that will enhance the quality of human life is to derive yukti from the Śruti or Śāstra. When yukti is obtained by churning the śāstra, then applications that enhance the quality of the human experience can be discovered. Āyurveda is reinvented continuously through this process of translation according to the need of the place and time. This can be called as the creation of the yugānurūpasandarbha or the context for the contemporary application of śāstra. Thus, Āyurveda represents endless opportunities for translational research.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “(1) That which is heard (2) Reve-lation, as distinguished from Smṛti (3) Infallible knowledge that descends in disciplic succession. It is the body of literature that was directly manifest by the Supreme Lord, in other words, the original four Vedas (also known as nigama) and the Upaniṣads”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Śruti (श्रुति) refers to:—See Smṛti. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Vedanta (school of philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (vedanta)
Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “Vedic revelation”.—Śaṅkara, being a foremost proponent of Advaita Vedānta, considers the non-dual Brahman as the ultimate ‘object’ of knowledge, and its realization as the final end of Vedic revelation (śruti). While he accepts that different forms of devotion or meditation (upāsanā) can legitimately be relied upon in the preliminary stages of one’s sādhana, ultimately it is only the Brahman-knowledge arising from the thorough study of śruti that leads to genuine liberation (mokṣa).
Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Śhruti is a term that describes the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism and is one of the three main sources of dharma. These sacred works span much of the history of Hinduism, beginning with some of the earliest known Hindu texts and ending in the early modern period with the later Upanishads.
Pre-eminent in śruti literature are the four Vedas:
- Rig-Veda (hymns recited by the hotar)
- Yajur-Veda (hymns recited by the adhvaryu)
- Sama-Veda (hymns recited by the udgatr)
- Atharva-Veda (a collection of ancient spells and charms, brahma)
The liturgical core of each of the Vedas are supplemented by commentaries on each text which all belong to the śruti canon: Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. The literature of the shakhas, or schools, further amplified the material associated with each of the four core traditionsSource: Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God
Śruti — lit. ‘What is heard’ – refers to the Vedas. There are very few specific injunctions imbedded in the Vedas, most are of a general moral nature such as ahimsa paramo dharma — non-injury is the highest religious practice, satyam vāda — speak the truth etc.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryThe bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient India.
India history and geogprahySource: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Śruti.—(SII 1), a Vedic text. (IE 7-1-2), ‘four’. Note: śruti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
śruti (श्रुति).—f S Hearing: also the sense or the organ of hearing. 2 The Vedas severally or collectively. 3 Rumor. 4 In music. A quarter-tone or an interval. Twenty-two are enumerated, personified as nymphs. 5 The hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle. 6 Familiarly; figuratively of Sig. II. Authority, warrant, genuine grounds or good foundation; as tyānēṃ sāṅgitalī sahī āṇi tumhī mānalī sahī parantu hyā gōṣṭīsa kāṃhīṃ śruti āhē?Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
śruti (श्रुति).—f Hearing. The organ of hearing. The Vedas severally. Rumour.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śruti (श्रुति).—f. [śru-ktin]
1) Hearing; चन्द्रस्य ग्रहणमिति श्रुतेः (candrasya grahaṇamiti śruteḥ) Mu.1.7; R.1.27.
2) The ear; श्रुतिसुखभ्रमरस्वनगीतयः (śrutisukhabhramarasvanagītayaḥ) R.9.35; Śi.1.1; Ve.3.23.
3) Report, rumour, news, oral intelligence.
4) A sound in general; सा तु वेदश्रुतिं श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा वै तमसो निधिम् (sā tu vedaśrutiṃ śrutvā dṛṣṭvā vai tamaso nidhim) Rām.7.2.17; स वेत्ति गन्धांश्च रसान् श्रुतीश्च (sa vetti gandhāṃśca rasān śrutīśca) Mb.12.187.19.
5) The Veda (known by revelation, opp. smṛti; see under veda); श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्रं तु वै स्मृतिः (śrutistu vedo vijñeyo dharmaśāsraṃ tu vai smṛtiḥ) Ms.2.1,14.
6) A Vedic or sacred text; इति श्रुतेः (iti śruteḥ) or इति श्रुतिः (iti śrutiḥ) 'so says a sacred text'.
7) Vedic or sacred knowledge, holy learning; यत्रैषा सात्वती श्रुतिः (yatraiṣā sātvatī śrutiḥ) Bhāg.1.4.7;11.3.46.
8) (In music) A division of the octavo, a quarter tone or interval; रणद्भिरा- घट्टनया नभस्वतः पृथग्विभिन्नश्रुतिमण्डलैः स्वरैः (raṇadbhirā- ghaṭṭanayā nabhasvataḥ pṛthagvibhinnaśrutimaṇḍalaiḥ svaraiḥ) Śi.1.1;11.1; (see Malli. ad loc.).
9) The constellation Śravaṇa.
10) The diagonal of a tetragon, the hypotenuse of a triangle; cf. कर्ण (karṇa).
11) Direct or expressed signification (opp. lakṣaṇā); श्रुतिलक्षणाविशये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा (śrutilakṣaṇāviśaye ca śrutirnyāyyā na lakṣaṇā) ŚB. on MS.6.2.2.
12) Speech (vāk); विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः (viviktavarṇābharaṇā sukhaśrutiḥ) Ki.14.3.
13) Name, fame (kīrti); हैरण्यौ भवतो बाहू श्रुतिर्भवति पार्थिवी (hairaṇyau bhavato bāhū śrutirbhavati pārthivī) Mb.3.35.9.
14) A word, saw, saying; Rām.2.72.25.
15) An explanation of ब्रह्म (brahma) from the उपनिषद् (upaniṣad)s; विविधाश्चौपनिषदीरात्मसंसिद्धये श्रुतीः (vividhāścaupaniṣadīrātmasaṃsiddhaye śrutīḥ) Ms.6.29 (com. śrutīrupaniṣatpaṭhitabrahmapratipādakavākyāni).
16) Advantage, gain (phalaśruti); उपोष्य संशितो भूत्वा हित्वा वेदकृताः श्रुतीः (upoṣya saṃśito bhūtvā hitvā vedakṛtāḥ śrutīḥ) Mb.12. 265.7.
17) Name, title; बिभ्रत्यनन्यविषयां लोकपाल इति श्रुतिम् (bibhratyananyaviṣayāṃ lokapāla iti śrutim) Kāv.2.331.
Derivable forms: śrutiḥ (श्रुतिः).
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Śrutī (श्रुती).—= श्रुति (śruti) above.
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1) Flowing, oozing, distilling, trickling out; कीटक्षतिस्रुतिभिरस्रमिवोद्वमन्तः (kīṭakṣatisrutibhirasramivodvamantaḥ) Mu.6.13; पदं तुषारस्रुतिधौतरक्तम् (padaṃ tuṣārasrutidhautaraktam) Ku.1.6; R.16.44; Ki.5.44;16.2; क्षीरस्रुतिसुरभयः (kṣīrasrutisurabhayaḥ) (vātāḥ) Me.19 'exudation or flow of the sap'.
2) Exudation, resin.
3) A stream.
4) Ved. A path, road.
Derivable forms: srutiḥ (स्रुतिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-tiḥ) 1. The Vedas, severally or collectively, scripture, holy writ. 2. An ear. 3. Hearing. 4. Intelligence, news, rumour, report. 5. (In music,) A division of the octave, a quarter tone or interval, of which twenty-two are enumerated; four constituting a major tone, three a minor, and two a semitone: the Shrutis are personified as nymphs. 6. A sound in general. 7. The constellation Shravana. E. śru to hear, ktin aff.
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(-tiḥ) 1. Oozing. 2. A stream. 3. Exudation, resin.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śruti (श्रुति).—[feminine] hearing, ear, sound, noise, report, hearsay, news, tidings, (sacred) utterance or prescription, revelation, sacred text, holy writ, the Veda; appellation, title.
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Sruti (स्रुति).—[feminine] flow, stream, gush; way, road.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+74): Shrutibhaskara, Shrutibheda, Shruticandrika, Shrutichodana, Shruticodana, Shrutidhara, Shrutidushaka, Shrutidvaidha, Shrutigita, Shrutigocara, Shrutiharin, Shrutijativisharada, Shrutijivika, Shrutikalpadruma, Shrutikalpalata, Shrutikantha, Shrutikata, Shrutikathita, Shrutikatu, Shrutikevala.
Ends with (+54): Agamashruti, Alapinishruti, Aparokshanushruti, Aprithakshruti, Aptashruti, Arunishruti, Ashruti, Atharvanishruti, Avakshruti, Bhallavishruti, Brihadaranyakashruti, Cakshuhshruti, Chakshuhshruti, Chandovatishruti, Chhandovatishruti, Dayavatishruti, Drikshruti, Duhshruti, Dvishruti, Ekashruti.
Full-text (+259): Smriti, Grama, Svara, Vajrika, Bhradini, Shrutivacana, Shrutimandala, Shruticodana, Vishruti, Shrutismriti, Shrutimula, Drikshruti, Shrutijativisharada, Mantrashruti, Shrutyanuprasa, Shrutijivika, Lokashruti, Tivra, Cakshuhshruti, Acara.
Search found 81 books and stories containing Shruti, Sruti, Śruti, Śrutī; (plurals include: Shrutis, Srutis, Śrutis, Śrutīs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Notes on Grāmas, Mūrcchanās and Tānas < [Notes]
Chapter 32 - Yugas and classes of people: lineage of sages < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 31 - Narration of the four Yugas: castes and stages of life < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Vivekachudamani (by Shankara)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)
Part 2 - The Ancient Indian Theory and Practice of Music < [Introduction, Part 2]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.2.159 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Verse 2.2.168 < [Chapter 2 - Jñāna: Knowledge]
Verse 2.1.33 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
Prashna Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary (by S. Sitarama Sastri)
Verse 4.5 < [Prashna IV - Mental states and Bliss]
Verse 6.2 < [Prashna VI - The Purusha of sixteen Kalas (parts)]
Verse 1.4 < [Prashna I - The spiritual paths of the Moon and the Sun]
Brahma Sutras (Shankara Bhashya) (by Swami Vireshwarananda)