Shruti, Sruti, Śruti, Śrutī: 41 definitions


Shruti means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śruti and Śrutī can be transliterated into English as Sruti or Shruti, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śruti (श्रुति).—An ancient King in India. (Mahābhārata, Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 238).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to the “Vedas”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.3.30 (“The Celebration of Pārvatī’s Return”).—Accordingly, as Brahmā narrated to Nārada: “[...] In the meantime the lord of mountains returned from the Gaṅgā. He saw the mendicant in the human form in his court-yard. [...] Then the lord of mountains saw the four-faced deity, the creator of worlds, red in colour and reciting the Vedic hymns (śruti-sūkta). Then the lord of mountains saw the form of the sun, the eye of the universe, much to his enthusiastic amazement. Then, O dear one, he saw him in the wonderful form of Śiva accompanied by Pārvatī. He was smiling and shining beautifully. [...]”.

Source: Kashmiri Overseas Association: The Nīlamata Purāṇa

Sruti (Primary Scriptures); Sruti scriptures include the four Vedas (Rig, Yajur, Sãma and Atharva) and the Bhagavad Gîtã, and constitute the highest religious authority in Hindu religion.

Hindu religious literature, the most ancient writings in the world, is of two types: primary scriptures (Sruti) and secondary scriptures (Smriti).

The Srutis are:

Vedas (Rig, Sãma, Yajur & Atharva); Include religion, philosophy, art, medicine, science, technology, language, music, etc.

Bhagavad Gîtã; A spiritual discourse between Lord Krishna and warrior Arjuna; summary of the Upanishads.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śruti (श्रुति).—The Vedas: interpreted in two ways in the Dvāpara;1 the same, Ṛg, Yajus, and Sāma in every manvantara though in different redactions; here are four stotras— Dravyastotram, Guṇastotram, Karmastotram, and Abhijanastotram; above all these is Brahmastotram; mantras were originally five fold;2 having learnt the Śrauta from their predecessors the seven sages repeated the same.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 31. 6, 72; 32, 35; IV. 6. 64; Matsya-purāṇa 52. 12; 144. 7; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 95; 39. 11; 41. 90; 55. 7; 61. 75; 76. 3; 100. 33; 101. 9, 22, 57.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 145. 58-63.
  • 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 3. 8; 32. 44; 59. 31.

1b) A son of Uttama Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 40.

1c) A daughter of Anasūyā and mother of Śankhapadā, wife of Kardama, Pulaha Prajāpati.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 28. 18, 27; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 11. 22.

1d) Awaken the Lord sleeping after a pralaya, as bards the emperor from his bed. Śrutigītā on the greatness and glory of Lord.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 87. 1, 12-41; XI. 5. 5.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śruti (श्रुति) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Śruti) various roles suitable to them.

Source: Google Books: Dhanapāla and His Times (arts and learning)

1) Śruti (श्रुति, “quarter tones”) is a fundamental fact of scale. Each note (svara) can be elaborated with half and quarter tones (śrutis). Śruti produces svara (notes). Svara produces grāma. From grāma, mūrchanā is produced and mūrchanā produces rāga. (cf. Tilaka-mañjarī by Dhanapāla)

There are twenty-two quarter tones in each octave, namely,

  1. tīvrā,
  2. kumudvatī,
  3. mandā,
  4. chandovatī,
  5. dayāvatī,
  6. rañjanī,
  7. ratikā,
  8. raudrī,
  9. krodhā,
  10. vajrikā,
  11. prasāriṇī,
  12. prītiḥ,
  13. mārjanī,
  14. kṣiti,
  15. raktā,
  16. sandīpanī,
  17. ālāpinī,
  18. madantī,
  19. rohiṇī,
  20. ramyā,
  21. ugra,
  22. kṣobhiṇī.

Śruti is a part of svara (note). Every svara is constructed upon two or mure śrutis. For example,

  1. ṣaḍja-svara is produced from first to four śrutis
  2. ṛṣabha-svara from fifth to seventh śrutis,
  3. gāndhārā-svara from eight and ninth śrutiś,
  4. madhyama-svara from tenth to thirteenth śruti,
  5. pañcama-svara from fourteenth to seventeenth śrutis,
  6. dhaivata-svara from eighteenth to twentieth śruti.
  7. niṣāda-svara from twenty-first and twenty-second śrutis.

2) Śruti (श्रुति).—The tuning vīṇā is called śruti. The vīṇā is said to stand in pañcama-śruti or madhyama-śruti. The śrutis are all equal in size.

Source: The Ragas Of Karnatic Music

Śruti (श्रुति).—According to Kallinātha the śrutis are so called because they are audible. He says that in his view śrutis are of one kind because they form a natural phenomenon (the manifestation of which is described by him in his own way).

Some think that śrutis are of two kinds according to śuddha and vikṛta-śrutis. Viśvāvasu is of this opinion. Others hold that they are of 3 kinds because they occur in the 3 octaves or according to the 3 guṇas; or of 4 kinds according to vāta, pitta, etc. (Tumburu is quoted to support this.) Vena and other Ṛṣis believe that śrutis are of 9 kinds, viz., dviśruti, triśruti and catuśśruti, which occur in svaras. Kohaḷa is quoted as saying that some think that there are 22 śrutis, according to others there 66 and others think that they are innumerable.

In Govinda’s Saṅgīta-śāstra-saṅkṣepa (1800 CE) a different account of śrutis is given. His names for the śrutis and corresponding svaras can be tabulated as follows:

  1. Tīvrā (pratiśuddha-ri),
  2. Kumudvatī (śuddha-ri),
  3. Mandā (praticatuśśruti-ri and pratiśuddha-ga),
  4. Chandovatī (catuśśruti-ri and śuddha-ga),
  5. Dayāvatī (prati-ṣaṭśruti-ri and pratisādhāraṇa-ga),
  6. Rañjanī (ṣaṭśruti-ri and sādhāraṇa-ga),
  7. Raktikā (pratyantara-ga),
  8. Raudrī (antara-ga),
  9. Krodhā (pratiśuddha-ma),
  10. Vajrikā (śuddha-ma),
  11. Prasāriṇī (pratyantara-ma),
  12. Prīti (prati-ka),
  13. Mārjanī (),
  14. Kṣiti (pratiśuddha-dha),
  15. Raktā (śuddha-dha),
  16. Saṃdīpinī (praticatuśśruti-dha and pratiśuddha-ni),
  17. Ālāpinī (catuśśruti-dha and śuddha-ni),
  18. Madantī (prati-ṣaṭśruti-dha and prati-kaiśikī-ni),
  19. Rohiṇī (ṣaṭśruti-dha and kaiśikī-ni),
  20. Ramyā (prati-kākalī-ni),
  21. Ugrā (kākalī-ni),
  22. Kṣobhiṇī (sa),
Source: WikiPedia: Natyashastra

Shruti means the smallest interval of pitch that the human ear can detect and a singer or musical instrument can produce. The svara (notes) differs from the sruti concept in Indian music. A sruti is the smallest gradation of pitch available, while a svara is the selected pitches from which the musician constructs the scales, melodies and ragas.

The shruti table below shows the mathematical ratios considered to correspond to the system described by Bharata and Dattilam. The names of the 22 shrutis were provided by Śārṅgadeva.

  1. chandovatī (261.6256 Hz),
  2. dayāvatī (275.6220 Hz),
  3. rañjanī (279.0673 Hz),
  4. raktikā (290.6951 Hz),
  5. raudrī (294.3288 Hz),
  6. krodhā (310.0747 Hz),
  7. vajrikā (313.9507 Hz),
  8. prasāriṇī (327.0319 Hz),
  9. prīti (331.1198 Hz),
  10. mārjanī (348.8341 Hz),
  11. kṣhiti (353.1945 Hz),
  12. raktā (367.9109 Hz),
  13. sandīpanī (372.5098 Hz),
  14. ālāpinī (392.4383 Hz),
  15. madantī (413.4330 Hz),
  16. rohiṇī (418.6009 Hz),
  17. ramyā (436.0426 Hz),
  18. ugrā (441.4931 Hz),
  19. kṣobhinī (465.1121 Hz),
  20. tīvrā (470.9260 Hz),
  21. kumudvatī (490.5479 Hz),
  22. mandā (496.6798 Hz),
  23. chandovatī (523.2511 Hz),
Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)

Source: Shodhganga: Vaiyākaraṇabhūṣaṇasāra: a critical study

Śruti (श्रुति).—A direct Vedic statement.

Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar

1) Śruti (श्रुति).—lit. hearing; श्रुतौ च रूपग्रहणम् (śrutau ca rūpagrahaṇam) M. Bh. on P. I. 2.64; perception, as a proof contrasted with inference; cf. ननु च श्रुतिकृतोपि भेदोस्ति (nanu ca śrutikṛtopi bhedosti) M. Bh. on P. VII. 1.72 Vart. 1; cf. also M. Bh. on P. VIII. 2.25; cf also तस्मादुच्चश्रुतीनि (tasmāduccaśrutīni) R. T. 61;

2) Śruti.—Authoritative word; the word is sometimes used in connection with the utterances of the Sutrakaras viz. the Sutra.

context information

Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms

Śruti (श्रुति).—Sacred texts ascribed to divine revelation, such as the Vedas; (lit., hearing). Note: Śruti is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Ancient Science of Life: The Translational Framework of Ayurveda as a Knowledge System

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to the “science” process of translational research in the context of Āyurveda.—Translational research involves the application of knowledge gained through basic research to studies that could support the development of new products. [...] The process of this translation is also explained through a three step process in the tradition—śruti (science), yukti (rationale) and anubhava (experience). The way to discover applications that will enhance the quality of human life is to derive yukti from the Śruti or Śāstra. When yukti is obtained by churning the śāstra, then applications that enhance the quality of the human experience can be discovered. Āyurveda is reinvented continuously through this process of translation according to the need of the place and time. This can be called as the creation of the yugānurūpasandarbha or the context for the contemporary application of śāstra. Thus, Āyurveda represents endless opportunities for translational research.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “(1) That which is heard (2) Reve-lation, as distinguished from Smṛti (3) Infallible knowledge that descends in disciplic succession. It is the body of literature that was directly manifest by the Supreme Lord, in other words, the original four Vedas (also known as nigama) and the Upaniṣads”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to:—See Smṛti. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).

Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to:—Literally, ‘that which is heard;’ Vedic literature, such as the four Vedas and the Upaniṣads, that has been directly heard by or revealed to saints and sages. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).

Source: The Annals of the Research Project Center for the Comparative Study of Logic: A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “scriptures” and represents one of the three kinds of valid means of knowledge (pramāṇa), according to Koki Ishimoto in his paper, A Study of Rāmānuja’s Theology : Three Aspects of viśiṣṭatva of Brahman.—Rāmānuja accepts three kinds of valid means of knowledge (pramāṇa): perception (pratyakṣa), inference (anumāna), and scriptures (śruti). According to him, they have as their objects entities which have their differentiators. If Brahman were devoid of the differentiators, it could not be known at all. Accordingly, it follows that Brahman is qualified by its differentiators.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Vedanta (school of philosophy)

Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (vedanta)

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “Vedic revelation”.—Śaṅkara, being a foremost proponent of Advaita Vedānta, considers the non-dual Brahman as the ultimate ‘object’ of knowledge, and its realization as the final end of Vedic revelation (śruti). While he accepts that different forms of devotion or meditation (upāsanā) can legitimately be relied upon in the preliminary stages of one’s sādhana, ultimately it is only the Brahman-knowledge arising from the thorough study of śruti that leads to genuine liberation (mokṣa).

Source: Shodhganga: Siva Gita A Critical Study

Śruti (श्रुति) or Śrutigītā refers to one of the sixty-four Gītās commonly referred to in Hindu scriptures.—Gītā is the name given to certain sacred writings in verse (often in the form of a dialogue) which are devoted to the exposition of particular religious and theosophical doctrines. Most of these Gītās [i.e., Śruti-gītā] originate from the Mahābhārata or the various Purāṇas.

context information

Vedanta (वेदान्त, vedānta) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. There are a number of sub-schools of Vedanta, however all of them expound on the basic teaching of the ultimate reality (brahman) and liberation (moksha) of the individual soul (atman).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Religious Inclusivism in the Writings of an Early Modern Sanskrit Intellectual (Shaivism)

Śruti (श्रुति) or Śrutigirā refers to the “words of the scriptures”.—Not only does Appaya believe that Advaita is the underlying teaching of Śrīkaṇṭha’s commentary; he also takes it to be the final word of all Śaivāgamas and actually of all Hindu scriptures, as he himself solemnly declares at the beginning of the Śivārkamaṇidīpikā: “The culminating point (niṣṭhā) of the words of the foremost scriptures [i.e., śruti-śikhara-girā], āgamas as well as all [other] compositions, from the multitude of Purāṇas to smṛti texts such as the Mahābhārata and so forth, is in non-duality alone (advaita eva); the Brahmasūtras too appear to the discerning ones to have their rest in [non-duality] alone [and] nothing but that [non-duality] was accepted by ancient ācāryaratnas led by Śaṅkara”

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “listening”, according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 13.29-36, while describing the appearance and worship of Rudra]—“The Buddha, the great Yogi, sits on a lotus, [head] bent, listening (śruti), and wearing mendicant's rags. [He possesses] beautiful lotus eyes, has a lotus-shaped mark, and is fixed with a jewel. [He is] established in the world, positioned in samādhi, his hands [making the] wish-granting and protection [mudrās]. Deva holds a rudrākṣa and a lotus. Thus, [the Mantrin] should worship and meditate upon Buddha, [who] grants the fruits of mokṣa to women”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “one’s hearing”, according to the Manthānabhairavatantra, a vast sprawling work that belongs to a corpus of Tantric texts concerned with the worship of the goddess Kubjikā.—Accordingly, “May they, whom I have recollected and are satisfied, accept the vessel of the bali. [...] O god! the bali has been offered to (them to chastise) those who despise the heroes, Siddhas and yogis on the surface of the earth here in the gathering of the practice of the Rule. May they destroy the hearing [i.e., śruti], memory, mind, sight, fat, flesh, bones and life of the wicked in the great gathering of the Rule!”.

Shaktism book cover
context information

Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Śruti (श्रुति) represents the number 4 (four) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 4—śruti] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism

Śhruti is a term that describes the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism and is one of the three main sources of dharma. These sacred works span much of the history of Hinduism, beginning with some of the earliest known Hindu texts and ending in the early modern period with the later Upanishads.

Pre-eminent in śruti literature are the four Vedas:

  • Rig-Veda (hymns recited by the hotar)
  • Yajur-Veda (hymns recited by the adhvaryu)
  • Sama-Veda (hymns recited by the udgatr)
  • Atharva-Veda (a collection of ancient spells and charms, brahma)

The liturgical core of each of the Vedas are supplemented by commentaries on each text which all belong to the śruti canon: Brahmanas, Aranyakas and Upanishads. The literature of the shakhas, or schools, further amplified the material associated with each of the four core traditions

Source: Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God

Śruti — lit. ‘What is heard’ – refers to the Vedas. There are very few specific injunctions imbedded in the Vedas, most are of a general moral nature such as ahimsa paramo dharma — non-injury is the highest religious practice, satyam vāda — speak the truth etc.

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Sruti (स्रुति) refers to the “oozing (of the seed)”, according to Vāgīśvarakīrti’s Tattvaratnāvaloka verse 17.—Accordingly, “Cleansed by the oozing (sruti-dhauta) of the seed (i.e. semen) from the thunderbolt (i.e.the officiant’s penis) growing as a sprout born from a purified lotus (i.e. the consecrated vulva of the consort), the crop that is the fourth [state of consciousness] comes to full bloom; [although] the Fourth [Initiation] is manifest, it is hidden even from the wise”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “tradition”, according to the Arthavargitasūtra.—Accordingly, as the Buddha replied to Mākandika: “It is not by view (dṛṣṭi), tradition (śruti), knowledge (jñāna); Or morality (śīla) that it is attained. It is not by absence of view, tradition, etc., Nor by absence of morality that it is attained. It is by abandoning all this chatter, By also rejecting the ‘me’ and the ‘mine’ (ātmātmīya), By not grasping any real nature (dharmalakṣaṇa), That the Path can be attained. [...]”.

Source: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā

Śruti (श्रुति) refers to “learning”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly as The Lord said: “O Śāriputra, in the buddha-field of the Tathāgata Ekaratnavyūha, there is a Bodhisattva, the great being Gaganagañja who is resplendent by the splendor of merit (puṇya-tejas), [...] who is adorned with recollection (smṛti) because of his learning (śruti), is adorned with truth (satya) because of his introspection (nidhyapti), who is adorned with the understanding of meaning (arthagati) because of understanding (gati), who is adorned with promises because of intention (āśaya), [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryThe bibles of Brahmans, which are absolute truths originated from holy gods. They dictated the philosophical and religious thoughts in ancient India.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śruti.—(SII 1), a Vedic text. (IE 7-1-2), ‘four’. Note: śruti is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śruti (श्रुति).—f S Hearing: also the sense or the organ of hearing. 2 The Vedas severally or collectively. 3 Rumor. 4 In music. A quarter-tone or an interval. Twenty-two are enumerated, personified as nymphs. 5 The hypotenuse of the right-angled triangle. 6 Familiarly; figuratively of Sig. II. Authority, warrant, genuine grounds or good foundation; as tyānēṃ sāṅgitalī sahī āṇi tumhī mānalī sahī parantu hyā gōṣṭīsa kāṃhīṃ śruti āhē?

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śruti (श्रुति).—f Hearing. The organ of hearing. The Vedas severally. Rumour.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śruti (श्रुति).—f. [śru-ktin]

1) Hearing; चन्द्रस्य ग्रहणमिति श्रुतेः (candrasya grahaṇamiti śruteḥ) Mu.1.7; R.1.27.

2) The ear; श्रुतिसुखभ्रमरस्वनगीतयः (śrutisukhabhramarasvanagītayaḥ) R.9.35; Śiśupālavadha 1.1; Ve.3.23.

3) Report, rumour, news, oral intelligence.

4) A sound in general; सा तु वेदश्रुतिं श्रुत्वा दृष्ट्वा वै तमसो निधिम् (sā tu vedaśrutiṃ śrutvā dṛṣṭvā vai tamaso nidhim) Rām.7.2.17; स वेत्ति गन्धांश्च रसान् श्रुतीश्च (sa vetti gandhāṃśca rasān śrutīśca) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.187.19.

5) The Veda (known by revelation, opp. smṛti; see under veda); श्रुतिस्तु वेदो विज्ञेयो धर्मशास्रं तु वै स्मृतिः (śrutistu vedo vijñeyo dharmaśāsraṃ tu vai smṛtiḥ) Manusmṛti 2.1,14.

6) A Vedic or sacred text; इति श्रुतेः (iti śruteḥ) or इति श्रुतिः (iti śrutiḥ) 'so says a sacred text'.

7) Vedic or sacred knowledge, holy learning; यत्रैषा सात्वती श्रुतिः (yatraiṣā sātvatī śrutiḥ) Bhāgavata 1.4.7;11.3.46.

8) (In music) A division of the octavo, a quarter tone or interval; रणद्भिरा- घट्टनया नभस्वतः पृथग्विभिन्नश्रुतिमण्डलैः स्वरैः (raṇadbhirā- ghaṭṭanayā nabhasvataḥ pṛthagvibhinnaśrutimaṇḍalaiḥ svaraiḥ) Śiśupālavadha 1.1;11.1; (see Malli. ad loc.).

9) The constellation Śravaṇa.

10) The diagonal of a tetragon, the hypotenuse of a triangle; cf. कर्ण (karṇa).

11) Direct or expressed signification (opp. lakṣaṇā); श्रुतिलक्षणाविशये च श्रुतिर्न्याय्या न लक्षणा (śrutilakṣaṇāviśaye ca śrutirnyāyyā na lakṣaṇā) ŚB. on MS.6.2.2.

12) Speech (vāk); विविक्तवर्णाभरणा सुखश्रुतिः (viviktavarṇābharaṇā sukhaśrutiḥ) Kirātārjunīya 14.3.

13) Name, fame (kīrti); हैरण्यौ भवतो बाहू श्रुतिर्भवति पार्थिवी (hairaṇyau bhavato bāhū śrutirbhavati pārthivī) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 3.35.9.

14) A word, saw, saying; Rām.2.72.25.

15) An explanation of ब्रह्म (brahma) from the उपनिषद् (upaniṣad)s; विविधाश्चौपनिषदीरात्मसंसिद्धये श्रुतीः (vividhāścaupaniṣadīrātmasaṃsiddhaye śrutīḥ) Manusmṛti 6.29 (com. śrutīrupaniṣatpaṭhitabrahmapratipādakavākyāni).

16) Advantage, gain (phalaśruti); उपोष्य संशितो भूत्वा हित्वा वेदकृताः श्रुतीः (upoṣya saṃśito bhūtvā hitvā vedakṛtāḥ śrutīḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12. 265.7.

17) Name, title; बिभ्रत्यनन्यविषयां लोकपाल इति श्रुतिम् (bibhratyananyaviṣayāṃ lokapāla iti śrutim) Kāv.2.331.

18) Learning.

19) Scholarship.

Derivable forms: śrutiḥ (श्रुतिः).

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Śrutī (श्रुती).—= श्रुति (śruti) above.

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Sruti (स्रुति).—f.

1) Flowing, oozing, distilling, trickling out; कीटक्षतिस्रुतिभिरस्रमिवोद्वमन्तः (kīṭakṣatisrutibhirasramivodvamantaḥ) Mu.6.13; पदं तुषारस्रुतिधौतरक्तम् (padaṃ tuṣārasrutidhautaraktam) Kumārasambhava 1.6; R.16.44; Kirātārjunīya 5.44;16.2; क्षीरस्रुतिसुरभयः (kṣīrasrutisurabhayaḥ) (vātāḥ) Meghadūta 19 'exudation or flow of the sap'.

2) Exudation, resin.

3) A stream.

4) Ved. A path, road.

Derivable forms: srutiḥ (स्रुतिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruti (श्रुति).—f.

(-tiḥ) 1. The Vedas, severally or collectively, scripture, holy writ. 2. An ear. 3. Hearing. 4. Intelligence, news, rumour, report. 5. (In music,) A division of the octave, a quarter tone or interval, of which twenty-two are enumerated; four constituting a major tone, three a minor, and two a semitone: the Shrutis are personified as nymphs. 6. A sound in general. 7. The constellation Shravana. E. śru to hear, ktin aff.

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Sruti (स्रुति).—f.

(-tiḥ) 1. Oozing. 2. A stream. 3. Exudation, resin.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruti (श्रुति).—[śru + ti], f. 1. Hearing, [Indralokāgamana] 2, 5. 2. An ear, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 56. 3. Report, [Johnson's Selections from the Mahābhārata.] 53, 127. 4. The Vedas, the revealed law, [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 31, M. M.; [Pañcatantra] 167, 1. 5. A holy text, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 15; 11; 33; [Vedāntasāra, (in my Chrestomathy.)] in Chr. 203, 5.

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Śrutī (श्रुती).—[Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 55, 34, for śruti, on account of the metre.

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Sruti (स्रुति).—[sru + ti], f. 1. Oozing, distilling; [Kirātārjunīya] 5, 44. 2. Exudation, resin, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 106. 3. Stream, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 111.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruti (श्रुति).—[feminine] hearing, ear, sound, noise, report, hearsay, news, tidings, (sacred) utterance or prescription, revelation, sacred text, holy writ, the Veda; appellation, title.

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Sruti (स्रुति).—[feminine] flow, stream, gush; way, road.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śruti (श्रुति):—[from śru] 1. śruti f. hearing, listening (śrutim abhinīya, ‘feigning to hear’; śrutiṃ vaco nugāṃ-√kṛ, ‘to listen to a speech’), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] the ear, organ or power of hearing, [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Kathāsaritsāgara]

3) [v.s. ...] the diagonal of a tetragon or hypothenuse of a triangle, [Golādhyāya]

4) [v.s. ...] that which is heard or perceived with the ear, sound, noise etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Prātiśākhya; Kathāsaritsāgara; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

5) [v.s. ...] an aggregate of sounds (whether forming a word or any part of a word), [Taittirīya-prātiśākhya]

6) [v.s. ...] rumour, report, news, intelligence, hearsay (śrutau-√sthā, ‘to be known by hearsay’), [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.

7) [v.s. ...] a saying, saw, word, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

8) [v.s. ...] that which has been heard or communicated from the beginning, sacred knowledge orally transmitted by the Brāhmans from generation to generation, the Veda (id est. sacred eternal sounds or words as eternally heard by certain holy sages called Ṛṣis, and so differing from smṛti or what is only remembered and handed down in writing by human authors See, [Manu-smṛti ii, 10]; it is properly only applied to the Mantra and Brāhmaṇa portion of the Vedas, although afterwards extended to the Upaniṣads and other Vedic works including the Darśanas; iti śruteḥ, ‘because it is so taught in the Veda, according to a śruti or Vedic text’; [plural] ‘sacred texts, the Vedas’, also ‘rites prescribed by the Vedas’), [Aitareya-brāhmaṇa; ???; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc., [Indian Wisdom, by Sir M. Monier-Williams 144]

9) [v.s. ...] (in music) a particular division of the octave, a quarter tone or interval (twenty-two of these are enumerated, four constituting a major tone, three a minor, and two a semitone; they are said to be personified as nymphs), [Yājñavalkya; Śiśupāla-vadha; Pañcarātra]

10) [v.s. ...] a name, title, [Kāvyādarśa ii, 331]

11) [v.s. ...] learning, scholarship, [Śakuntalā; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] ([probably] [wrong reading] for śruta)

12) [v.s. ...] = buddhi, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Atri and wife of Kardama, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

14) [from śru] 2. śruti f. (cf. sruti) course, path (?), [Ṛg-veda ii, 2, 7; x, 111, 3]

15) [v.s. ...] the constellation, Śravaṇā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) Sruti (स्रुति):—[from sru] f. a stream, flow or effusion of ([compound]), [Kāvya literature; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

17) [v.s. ...] fall of (snow etc.), [Raghuvaṃśa; Kumāra-sambhava]

18) [v.s. ...] a course, road, path, [Ṛg-veda; Brāhmaṇa; Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

19) [v.s. ...] a line drawn round the Vedi, [Śāṅkhāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śruti (श्रुति):—(tiḥ) 2. f. The Vedas, scripture; hearing; the ear; news; a quarter tone.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śruti (श्रुति) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Sui.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shruti in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śruti (श्रुति) [Also spelled sruti]:—(nf) the Vedas; ear; ~[kaṭu] disagreeable to the ear; harsh (sound, words, etc.); —[madhura] agreeable, sweet, melodious; ~[sammata] ordained by the Vedas.

2) Sruti in Hindi refers in English to:—(nf) the Vedas; ear; ~[katu] disagreeable to the ear; harsh (sound, words, etc.); —[madhura] agreeable, sweet, melodious; ~[sammata] ordained by the Vedas..—sruti (श्रुति) is alternatively transliterated as Śruti.

context information


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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śruti (ಶ್ರುತಿ):—

1) [noun] the act of hearing, listening.

2) [noun] anything that is heard; a word, saying.

3) [noun] the organ of hearing; the ear.

4) [noun] an audible sound.

5) [noun] news; information; intelligence; tidings.

6) [noun] any of the vedas.

7) [noun] (fig.) a boring, monotonous tone.

8) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number four.

9) [noun] (mus.) a tone used as a standard of pitch for tuning instruments; the base pitch.

10) [noun] a musical instrument used to produce this tone.

11) [noun] (mus.) any of the twenty two quarter tones.

12) [noun] ಶ್ರುತಿಯೆತ್ತು [shrutiyettu] śrutiyettu to begin to talk; 2. to start crying; ಶ್ರುತಿಬದಲಿಸು [shrutibadalisu] śruti badalisu to talk or act differently because of a change of attitude; to sing in a different tune; ಶ್ರುತಿಮಾಡು [shrutimadu] śruti māḍu to adjust (a musical instrument) to some standard of pitch; put in tune; to tune; ಶ್ರುತಿಸೇರಿಸು [shrutiserisu] śruti sērisu to tune a musical instrument to the standard pitch; 2. to express exactly the same view, thought, opinion, as of another or others.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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