Jara, Jāra, Jarā: 22 definitions



Jara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: PMC: Ayurvedic management of postlumbar myelomeningocele surgery

Ācaryas of Ayurveda opine that Jarā (senility) is a natural disease (Svābhāvika vyādhi). Premature senility can be well-prevented by regular intake of Rasāyana or Vayassthāpana (longevity promoter) drugs. It is suggested to introduce Rasāyana drugs during young and middle phases of life. Ayurvedic classics document the decade wise decline in individuals and emphasized further that the decline of intelligence and memory starts at the end of 40th year of the life.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Jarā (जरा) is a Sanskrit technical term that refers to the “ageing process”, as per rasaśāstra literature (Medicinal Alchemy)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Jara (जर).—A forester. It was this forester who shot an arrow at Śrī Kṛṣṇa and killed him mistaking him for an animal. (See under Śrī Kṛṣṇa).

2) Jarā (जरा).—A harpy (Rākṣasī). Though she was a harpy she loved human beings. It is believed that if the picture of Jarā and her children is placed in the house and venerated, there will be no haunting of any other kinds of demons.

2) The figure of Jarā was sculptured on the wall of the Palace of Bṛhadratha, the King of Magadha, and was being worshipped. Because the King worshipped her, she had been looking forward to an opportunity to reward the King. Bṛhadratha had married two daughters of the King of Kāśī. They were twin sisters. For a long time they remained childless. The King was very sorry, and went to the forest with his wives. He saw the hermit Kakṣīvān or Caṇḍakauśika, the son of Gautama and requested that a son should be born to him. The hermit was sitting in meditation under a mango tree and a mango fell on his lap. The hermit took it and by prayer and meditation he invoked divine power into it and gave it to the King. The King divided it into two and gave it to his wives. The queens became pregnant and the three returned joyously.

2) In due course both delivered. But each of them gave birth to only half of a child. The horrified queens took the uncouth figures outside the palace and left them there. Jarā was watching this. She ran to the spot and placed the two portions together. Instantly it became a child of proper form. Hearing the cry of the child the mothers came out. Jarā appeared there and placed the child before the King Bṛhadratha. As desired by Jarā the child was named Jarāsandha because he was joined together by Jarā. This child grew up and became the notorious King Jarāsandha of Magadha. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, 3 Chapters from 17).

2) It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Droṇa Parva, Chapter 182, Stanza 12 that when Arjuna fought with Jarāsandha this harpy had been staying in the weapon of Jarāsandha and was killed in that fight.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Jara (जर).—A Deva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 95.

1b) A son of Vasudeva.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 187. Matsya-purāṇa 46. 22.

1c) A son of Mṛtyu.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 10. 41.

1d) A Gandharva in Kailāsa.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 41. 21.

1e) A hunter who aimed a shaft at Kṛṣṇa in ignorance. He was awarded heaven.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 30. 33-38; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 37. 68-73.

2) Jarā (जरा).—A Rākṣasi who picked up the two parts of Bṛhadratha's son and gave them life—the future Jarāsandha (s.v.).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 8; X. 50. 21; 71. 3; 72. 42.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Jāra (जार, ‘lover’) has no sinister sense in the early texts1 generally, where the word applies to any lover. But it seems must be regarded as an illegitimate lover; this sense also appears in the Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad, and Indra is styled the lover of Ahalyā, wife of Gautama.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A hunter who killed Vasudeva. J.iv.88f.

Source: Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines

'old age, decay', is one of the 3 divine messengers (s. deva-dūta). For its conditioning by birth, s. paticcasamuppāda (11).

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Jarā (जरा) is the name of a Ḍākinī who, together with the Vīra (hero) named Jaracinta forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Vākcakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the vākcakra refers to one of the three divisions of the nirmāṇa-puṭa (emanation layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs [viz., Jarā] and Vīras are reddish madder in color; they each have one face and four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Jarā (जरा, “old age”) refers to one of the thirteen “conditions” (saṃskāra) that are “unassociated with mind” (citta-viprayukta) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 30). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., jarā). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

jara : (m.) fever. (adj.), old; decayed; decrepit. || jarā (f.) decay; old age. jāra (m.) a paramour.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Jara, (adj.) (°-) (See jarati) old, decayed (in disparaging sense), wretched, miserable; —ûdapānaṃ a spoilt well J. IV, 387; —gava=°goṇa Pv. I, 81; —goṇa (cp. Sk. jaradgava) a decrepit, old bull J. II, 135; —sakka “the old S.J. IV, 389; —sālā a tumble-down shed PvA. 78. (Page 279)

— or —

Jarā, (f.) & (older) jaras (nt.) (of the latter only the Instr. jarasā in use: Sn. 804, 1123 (=jarāya Nd2 249).—Sk. jarā & jaraḥ to *gerā: see jarati; cp. Gr. gh_ras, gέras, grau_s old age, etc. See also jīraṇa(tā)) decay, decrepitude, old age Vin. I, 10, 34; A. I, 51, 138 (as Death’s messenger); V, 144 sq. (bhabbo jaraṃ pahātuṃ); Sn. 311 (cp. D. III, 75); J. I, 59; Th. 2, 252 sq.; Vism. 502 (def. as twofold & discussed in its valuation as dukkha). Defined as “yā tesaṃ sattānaṃ tamhi tamhi sattanikāye jarā jīraṇatā khaṇḍiccaṃ pāliccaṃ valittacatā āyuno saṃhāni indriyānaṃ paripāko” D. II, 305=M. I, 49= S. II, 2=Nd2 252=Dhs. 644, cp. Dhs. trsl. p. 195.—Frequently combined with maraṇa (maccu, etc.) “decay & death” (see under jāti as to formulas): °maraṇa, D. II, 31 sq.; M. I, 49; Sn. 575; °maccu Sn. 581, 1092, 1094. ajarāmara not subject to decay & death (cp. ajajjara) Th. II, 512; Pv. II, 611; Vv 6311; J. III, 515.

— or —

Jāra, (Vedic jāra) a paramour, adulterer J. I, 293; II, 309. f. °t adulteress Vin. II, 259, 268; III, 83. (Page 283)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

jara (जर).—m (Corr. from jvara S) A fever.

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jara (जर).—m f ( P Gold.) Brocade.

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jara (जर).—conj If. It assumes frequently one or other of the following adjuncts, kā, kāṃ, karitāṃ, kāya; as jarakā tō ālā tara mī dēīna.

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jarā (जरा).—f (S) Old age, and the relaxation and debility concomitant.

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jarā (जरा).—ad ( A) Somewhat, rather, in a small degree. An adverb qualifying verbs and attributives. 2 A little; in a small quantity. Ex. jarā tūpa pī mhaṇajē ātāṃ supārī utarēla.

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jāra (जार).—m (S) A paramour, gallant, leman, amoroso.

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jāra (जार).—m n (jarāyu S) The secundines or afterbirth. 2 m f Blobber, the blubber-like substance thrown up by the sea. 3 The spume in the mouth of infants or animals at birth. See phrase under tōṇḍacā jāra vāḷaṇēṃ

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

jara (जर).—m A fever. m f Brocade. conj If. jara uṭhaṇēṃ To have one's fever pass off under eruptions (at the month &c.). jara bāndhaṇēṃ To stop a fever by incanta- tions, by tying amulets &c. jara bharaṇēṃ- hōṇēṃ Be incompetent, inadequate, un- able &c.

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jarā (जरा).—f Old age.

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jarā (जरा).—ad Some- what; a little.

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jāra (जार).—m A paramour. m f Blubber-like substance thrown up by the sea. The spume in the mouth of infants or animals at birth.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Jara (जर).—a. [jṝ-ap]

1) Becoming old or worn out, old, aged.

2) Wearing out,

3) Causing old age, producing decay, consuming.

-raḥ 1 Wearing out, wasting.

2) Destruction.

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Jarā (जरा).—[jṝ-aṅ guṇaḥ] (The word jaras is optionally substituted for jarā before vowel terminations after acc. dual.)

1) Old age; कैकेयीशङ्कयेवाह पलितच्छद्मना जरा (kaikeyīśaṅkayevāha palitacchadmanā jarā) R.12. 2; तस्य धर्मरतेरासीद् वृद्धत्वं जरया (tasya dharmaraterāsīd vṛddhatvaṃ jarayā) (jarasā) विना (vinā) 1.23.

2) Decrepitude, infirmity, general debility consequent on old age.

3) Praise.

4) Digestion.

5) Name of a female demon; see जरासन्ध (jarāsandha) below.

6) Invoking, greeting.

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Jāra (जार).—[jīryatyanena jṝ karaṇe ghañ; jarayatīti jāraḥ Nir.]

1) A paramour, gallant, lover; रथकारः स्वकां भार्यां सजारां शिरसावहत् (rathakāraḥ svakāṃ bhāryāṃ sajārāṃ śirasāvahat) Pt.4.54.

2) A confidential friend.

-rī Name of Durgā.

Derivable forms: jāraḥ (जारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Jara (जर).—[, m., old age, instead of jarā, f., according to text Lalitavistara 175.4 (verse) tatha ojaharo ahu vyādhi jaro; so all mss. according to Lefm.; but citation Śikṣāsamuccaya 206.2 has jage for jaro, and is supported by Tibetan ḥgro baḥi (in translation(s) of Lalitavistara); jage is surely right; jaro is carried over from 174.16—175.2 where jarā occurs repeatedly. Tibetan on Lalitavistara also supports Śikṣāsamuccaya ayu instead of Lalitavistara text ahu, reading ḥdi.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jarā (जरा).—f.

(-rā) 1. Decrepitude, the general relaxation and debility consequent upon old age, or old age itself. 2. A tree, (Mimusops kauki, Rox.) 3. A female demon or Rakshasi. E. jṝ to grow old, affixes aṅ and ṭāp.

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Jāra (जार).—m.

(-raḥ) A paramour, a gallant. f. (-rī) A drug, a medicament. E. jṝ to grow infirm, karaṇe ghañ affix of agency, fem. ṅīṣ; weakening the affection of wives to their husbands, or diminishing the force of disease. jīryati anena .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jāra (जार).—i. e. jṛ10 + a, m. 1. A lover, Chr. 295, 11 = [Rigveda.] i. 92, 11. 2. A paramour, an adulterer, [Yājñavalkya, (ed. Stenzler.)] 2, 301.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Jara (जर).—[masculine] wearing out, wasting; [feminine] jarā the same; decay, old age.

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Jarā (जरा).—1. [feminine] v. jara.

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Jarā (जरा).—2. [feminine] crackling, roaring; calling, greeting.

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Jāra (जार).—1. [adjective] becoming old.

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Jāra (जार).—2. [masculine] paramour, lover, friend.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Jara (जर):—mfn. (√1. jṝ), ‘becoming old’ See a-jara, ahar-jaram

2) cf. go-jara

3) m. the act of wearing out, wasting, [Ṛg-veda i, 164, 11; 11, 34, 10]

4) Jarā (जरा):—[from jara] a f. ([Pāṇini iii,3, 104]) the act of becoming old, old age, [Ṛg-veda i, 140, 8; v, 41, 17; Atharva-veda] etc. (personified as a daughter of Death, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa i, 7, 31])

5) [v.s. ...] digestion, [Caraka iii, l and 3; vi; Suśruta vi, 46, 10]

6) [v.s. ...] decrepitude, [Horace H. Wilson]

7) [v.s. ...] a kind of date-tree, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a Rākṣasī (cf. rā-saṃdha), [Mahābhārata ii, vii; Harivaṃśa 1810; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 22, 8]

9) [v.s. ...] cf. vi-jara.

10) [from jara] 1. jarā f. old age See s.v. jara.

11) [from jaraṇi-prā] 2. jarā f. invocation, praise (stuti, [Nirukta, by Yāska x, 8]), [Ṛg-veda i, 38, 13; x, 32, 5.]

12) Jāra (जार):—1. jāra mfn. (√jṝ) becoming old, [Ṛg-veda x, 106, 7]

13) m. (= jarayitṛ, ‘a consumer’ [Nirukta, by Yāska v, x; Pāṇini 3-3, 20], [vArttika] 4) a paramour, lover, [Ṛg-veda] (Agni is called ‘paramour of the dawn’; also ‘of the waters’, [i, 46, 4]; ‘of his parents’, [x, 11, 6]; etc.), [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i; Lāṭyāyana i, 4, 4]

14) a confidential friend, [Ṛg-veda x, 7, 5, and 42, 2]

15) a paramour of a married woman, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv; Lāṭyāyana i; Yājñavalkya] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Rājataraṅgiṇī vi, 321; Hitopadeśa])

16) 2. jāra m. ([from] jara) [patronymic] of Vṛśa, [Ṛgveda-anukramaṇikā]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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