Samyama, Saṃyama, Saṃyāma: 25 definitions
Samyama means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Samyama is one of the saṃyutta-hastāni (Twenty-seven combined Hands).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Saṃyama (संयम):—Son of Dhūmrākṣa (son of Hemacandra). He had two sons named Devaja and Kṛśāśva. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.2.34)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Saṃyama (संयम).—A son of the Rākṣasa called Śataśṛṅga. He was killed by Sudeva, chief of the army of Ambarīṣa. (Mahābhārata, Southern Text, Śānti Parva, Chapter 98).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Saṃyama (संयम).—The son of Dhūmrākṣasa and father of Kṛśāśva and Devaja.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 2. 34.
1b) A Yāma deva.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 13. 92.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Saṃyama (संयम) refers to the “self-restraint”. It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Saṃyama (संयम) refers to “self-control”. In fact, Patañjali, the author of the Yogasūtras defines Saṃyama as dhāraṇā, dhyāna and samādhi, together functioning with reference to the same object. They retain the mind at a particular object, cognition is directed to one object only and appearance of the object is only in its own form. The Pāñcarātrāgama offers its own treatment which has a significant contribution. Dhāraṇā is retaining the mind in God, dhyāna is joining the mind in God and meditating upon Him and samādhi is mere appearance of the nature of the object, (God). According to Viṣṇupurāṇa. (VI.7.86), dhāraṇā is stability of the citta In God, dhyāna is continuity of that cognition without any desire for other things (ibid. VI.7.91) and samādhi is a stage in Yogic practise in which God’s own nature is grasped without any imagined appendage (ibid. VI.7.92).
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
Saṃyama (संयम) refers to “restraint”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 3.—Accordingly, “[...] [If] one wanders in the cremation-ground at night, with a skull in one’s hand and a Khaṭvāṅga, covered in ashes, that is called the cremation-ground observance. If one dances, sings, laughs and talks madly, with the body smeared in ashes and wearing rags, this is called the Gaṇavrata. One performs the Clod-of-Earth Observance by being engaged in recitation, feeding on alms, sleeping on the earth, with senses controlled, engaged in meditation and restraint (dhyāna-saṃyama-yukta). [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Samyama (from Sanskrit संयम saṃ-yama—holding together, tying up, binding). Combined simultaneous practice of Dhāraṇā (concentration), Dhyāna (meditation) & Samādhi (union). A tool to receive deeper knowledge of qualities of the object. It is a term summarizing the "catch-all" process of psychological absorption in the object of meditation.
Samyama, as Patanjali's Yoga Sutras states, engenders prajñā. Adi Yoga or Mahasandhi discusses the 'mūla prajñā' of "listening/studying, investigation/contemplation, realization/meditation" which are a transposition of the triune of Samyama. These are activated subconsciously in non-structured form (thus producing fragmented spontaneous Samyama-like effects) by any thinking activity or contemplative absorption (particularly the Catuskoti and Koan) and deep levels of trance. Any kind of intuitive thinking at its various stages of expression is strongly related to Samyama-like phenomena as well.
Samyama is practiced consistently by Yogin of certain schools (Raja Yoga, Adi Yoga e.g.). Described in Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, it comprises the three upper limbs of Raja Yoga. Following Patanjali's Yoga Sutras, a yogin who is victorious in samyama vanquishes all 'cognitive obscurations' (Sanskrit: klesha). The Sutras describe various 'powers' or 'perfections' (Sanskrit: siddhi) a yogin may attain through the conduit of Samyama.Source: Ashtanga Yoga: Yoga Sutrani Patanjali
saṃyama = deep contemplation; meditation
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A king of Benares, mentioned in the Mahahamsa Jataka. Khema was his chief consort. He is identified with Sariputta. J.v.354, 382.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Saṃyama (संयम) refers to “restraining (the senses)”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, as Gaganagañja said to Ratnapāṇi: “Son of good family, the thirty-two dharmas are included in sixty-four dharmas. What are those sixty-four? To wit, (1) shame is included in introspection and restraining the senses (indriya-saṃyama); (2) modesty is included in protecting external objects and honoring the wise and penetrated one; (3) gentle words is included in striving for the dharma and being interested in the dharma; (4) being pleasant to stay with is included in beautiful appearance and mind; [...]’”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Saṃyama (संयम, “control”) refers to one of the ten-fold dharma (i.e., Yatidharma) capable of leading across saṃsāra, according to chapter 3.3 [sumatinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.
Accordingly, as Sumatinātha said:—“The sources of pride—youth, power, beauty, etc.—have become subdued from penance, like evil spirits of a sorceror reduced to servitude from the power to summon them. Yatidharma, handed down orally by the Blessed Ones, is the best boat without impediments for crossing the ocean of saṃsāra. [...] Control (saṃyama) is said to take the form of avoidance of injury to living creatures. [...] So the ten-fold dharma, like a spotless wishing-jewel, capable of leading across saṃsāra, is attained in the world by merit”.
Note: The seventeen Saṃyamas are:—(1-9). Abstaining from causing injury to 9 forms of life life in earth, water, fire, wind, and vegetables, and beings with two, three, four, and five sense-organs. (10). Non-possession of much gold, money, clothing, vessels, books, etc. (11). Careful examination of places, equipment, etc., (to see if free from life). (12). Employment of any kind of activity (yoga) for observing restraint. (13). Carefulness in regard to sanitation. (14). Cleaning utensils, etc. (15-17). Restraint of mind, speech, and body.—(cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 17, p. 33b. ‘The Study of Jainism’ p.61 gives a slightly different list).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 9: Influx of karmas
Saṃyama (संयम, “self-restraint”).—One of the seven sub categories of ascetics (nirgrantha-muni);—What type of ‘self-restraint’ (saṃyama) is practiced by husk (pulāka), the tainted (bakuśa) and the kuśīla (‘imperfect or with unwholesome disposition’) ascetics? These kinds of saints dwell in the first two types of conduct i.e. equanimity (sāmāyika) and re-initiating (chedopasthān).
What type of self-restraint is practiced by kaṣāya-kuśīla ascetics? These kinds of ascetics dwell in the first four types of conduct namely: equanimity (sāmāyika), re-initiating (chedopasthānīya), purity of non injury (parihāraviśśuddhi) and subtle passion (sūkṣma-sāmparāya).
What type of self-restraint is practiced by unbound (nirgrantha) and the successful (snātaka) ascetics? They practice perfect (yathākhyāt) conduct and self control only.Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections
Saṃyama (संयम) refers to “self-control”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “Having become indifferent [to worldly life], certainly the benefit of this life is obtained by those whose actions are virtuous by whom the body is rendered useless for the sake of [their] self [com.—It is accomplished (pravartitam) in asceticism, self-control, etc, (tapaḥsaṃyamādiṣu)]. Having taken hold of this body in this life, suffering is endured by you. Hence, that [body] is certainly a completely worthless abode”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
saṃyama : (m.) restraint; self-control; abstinence.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
saṃyama (संयम).—m S saṃyamana n S Binding, restraining, confining. 2 Forbearance, self-denial or control; regulation (as of the passions and affections). 3 A religious vow or obligation.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Restraint, check, control; श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति (śrotrādīnīndriyāṇyanye saṃyamāgniṣu juhvati) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 4.26,27; so संयमधनः (saṃyamadhanaḥ) &c.
2) Concentration of mind, a term applied to the last three stages of Yoga; संयमाश्चानृशंस्य च परस्वादानवर्जनम् (saṃyamāścānṛśaṃsya ca parasvādānavarjanam) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14. 18.16; धारणाध्यानसमाधित्रयमन्तरङ्गं संयमपदवाच्यम् (dhāraṇādhyānasamādhitrayamantaraṅgaṃ saṃyamapadavācyam) Sarva. S.; Kumārasambhava 2.59.
3) A religious vow.
4) Religious devotion, practice of penance; अस्मान् साधु विचिन्त्य संयमधनान् (asmān sādhu vicintya saṃyamadhanān) Ś.4. 17.
5) Humanity, feeling of compassion.
6) Any religious act on the day preceding a vow or course of penance.
7) Destruction of the world; यच्चेदं प्रभवः स्थानं भूतानां संयमो यमः (yaccedaṃ prabhavaḥ sthānaṃ bhūtānāṃ saṃyamo yamaḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.238.2; पुरा स्वयंभूरपि संयमा- म्भस्युदीर्णवातोर्मिरवैः कराले (purā svayaṃbhūrapi saṃyamā- mbhasyudīrṇavātormiravaiḥ karāle) Bhāgavata 6.9.24.
8) Closing (of the eyes).
9) Effort, exertion.
Derivable forms: saṃyamaḥ (संयमः).
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Saṃyāma (संयाम).—See संयम (saṃyama).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-maḥ) 1. Restraint, forbearance. 2. Humanity, avoiding the infliction of pain on others. E. sam before yam to restrain, aff. ap.
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(-maḥ) 1. Forbearance, check, control, restraint. 2. Humanity, abstaining from giving pain to others. E. sam before yam to restrain, aff. ghañ .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃyama (संयम).—i. e. sam-yam + a, m. 1. Restraining, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 88. 2. Restraint, forbearance. 3. Abstaining, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 60. 4. Avoiding the infliction of pain on others, compassionateness, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 177.
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Saṃyāma (संयाम).—i. e. sam-yam + a, m. 1. Restraint. 2. Self-control, forbearance. 3. Abstaining from giving pain to others.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Saṃyama (संयम).—[masculine] restraint, check, control, [especially] selfcontrol; suppression, destruction, tying up or together, fettering; closing (of the eyes).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Saṃyama (संयम):—[=saṃ-yama] [from saṃ-yam] m. holding together, restraint, control, ([especially]) control of the senses, self-control, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] tying up (the hair), [Sāhitya-darpaṇa]
3) [v.s. ...] binding, fettering, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]
4) [v.s. ...] closing (of the eyes), [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] concentration of mind (comprising the performance of Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna, and Samādhi, or the last three stages in Yoga), [Yoga-sūtra; Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
6) [v.s. ...] effort, exertion (ā, ‘with great difficulty’), [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] suppression id est. destruction (of the world), [Purāṇa]
8) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Dhūmrākṣa (and father of Kṛśāśva), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
9) Saṃyāma (संयाम):—[=saṃ-yāma] [from saṃ-yam] m. = saṃ-yama, [Pāṇini 3-3, 63]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Saṃyama (संयम):—[saṃ-yama] (maḥ) 1. m. Restraint; humanity, kindness.
2) Saṃyāma (संयाम):—[saṃ-yāma] (maḥ) 1. m. Forbearance; humanity.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Saṃyama (संयम) [Also spelled sayam]:—(nm) (self) restraint, control, check; moderation, temperance; sobriety; [mī] who exercises control over self, moderate, temperate, abstemious; sober.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] a controlling or being controlled; control.
2) [noun] the act fact of controlling one’s passion.
3) [noun] concentration of one’s attention on an object at a time.
4) [noun] patience; endurance.
5) [noun] effort; endeavour.
6) [noun] the deluge that is believed to destroy the entire universe.
7) [noun] the qualitiy of being humane, human.
8) [noun] a solemn promise or pledge, esp. one made to a god, dedicating oneself to an act, service or way of life a vow.
9) [noun] a restraining as virtue.
10) [noun] one of the six daily religious observations to be followed by jaina householders.
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1) [noun] the act of stopping; a thwarting another’s movement, progress, etc.; stoppage.
2) [noun] a controlling or being controlled.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Samyamadhana, Samyamagni, Samyamaka, Samyamakanda, Samyamambhas, Samyamana, Samyamanahetu, Samyamani, Samyamanika, Samyamaparshva, Samyamapunyatirtha, Samyamasamyama, Samyamaskandha, Samyamat, Samyamavant, Samyamavat, Samyamayukta, Shamyamatra.
Full-text (+40): Samyamavat, Atmasamyama, Devaja, Asamyama, Pranasamyama, Upasamyama, Kurmanadi, Samyamin, Vaksamyama, Dhumraksha, Seyya, Samyamadhana, Samyamapunyatirtha, Samyamaka, Samyamagni, Samyamambhas, Amalaka, Yakrit, Indriyasamyama, Krishashva.
Search found 34 books and stories containing Samyama, Saṃyama, Saṃyāma, Sam-yama, Saṃ-yama, Saṃ-yāma, Samyāma; (plurals include: Samyamas, Saṃyamas, Saṃyāmas, yamas, yāmas, Samyāmas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Yoga-sutras (Ancient and Modern Interpretations) (by Makarand Gopal Newalkar)
Sūtra 3.4 [Saṃyama—direct realization] < [Book III - Vibhūti-pāda]
Sūtra 3.26-28 < [Book III - Vibhūti-pāda]
Sūtra 3.16-18 < [Book III - Vibhūti-pāda]
Sūtras 4-7 < [Part III - Powers]
Sūtras 30-36 < [Part III - Powers]
Sūtras 17-29 < [Part III - Powers]
Tattvartha Sutra (with commentary) (by Vijay K. Jain)
Verse 9.47 - Differences among the five kinds of saints < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 9.6 - The ten virtues (dharma) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Verse 9.19 - The six kinds of external austerities (bāhya-tapas) < [Chapter 9 - Stoppage and Shedding of Karmas]
Jivanandana of Anandaraya Makhin (Study) (by G. D. Jayalakshmi)
Jainism and Patanjali Yoga (Comparative Study) (by Deepak bagadia)
Part 4.11 - Supernatural powers < [Chapter 2 - Yoga philosophy and practices]
Part 4.10 - Samyama and its effects (parinama) < [Chapter 2 - Yoga philosophy and practices]
Part 7 - Patanjali’s Ashtanga Yoga compared to Jainism < [Chapter 4 - A Comparative Study]
Abhinaya-darpana (English) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)