Yoga, aka: Yogā; 34 Definition(s)

Introduction

Yoga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Āstika (orthodox philosophy)

Yoga means: to merge, join or unite; Yoga is a form of exercise based on the belief that the body and breath are intimately connected with the mind. Yoga is a means of balancing and harmonizing the body, mind and emotions and is a tool that allows us to withdraw from the chaos of the world and find a quiet space within. To achieve this, yoga uses movement, breath, posture, relaxation and meditation in order to establish a healthy, vibrant and balanced approach to living.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Indian Philosophy
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The term āstika refers to six mainstream schools of Hindu philosophy, accepting the Vedas as authorative. They are: Nyāyá (logic), Vaiśeṣika (atomism), Sāṃkhya (enumeration), Yoga (Patañjali’s school), Mimāṃsā (Vedic exegesis) and Vedanta (Upaniṣadic tradition). Together they also go by the name ṣaḍdarśana (‘six systems’).

Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Yoga (योग) refers to the time during which the sun and the moon together accomplish 13 degrees and 20 minutes of space. The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa

Yoga (योग, “union”) is a combination of planets placed in a specific relationship to each other.

  1. Rāja Yogas are givers of fame, status and authority,
  2. Dhana Yogas are formed by the association of wealth-giving planets,
  3. Sanyāsa Yogas are formed due to the placement of four or more Grahas, excluding the Sun, in a Keṅdra Bhāva from the Lagna.

There are some overarching Yogas in Jyotiṣa such as Amāvasyā Doṣa, Kāla Sarpa Yoga-Kāla Amṛta Yoga and Graha Mālika Yoga that can take precedence over planetary placements in the horoscope.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hindu Astrology

Yoga (योग).—1. An interval of time during which the combined motions of the Sun and Moon add up to 13° 20'; (lit., sum) 2. Conjunction in longitudes of two heavenly bodies. 3. Addition. Note: Yoga is a Sanskrit technical term used in ancient Indian sciences such as Astronomy, Mathematics and Geometry.

(Source): Wikibooks (hi): Sanskrit Technical Terms
Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotiṣa (ज्योतिष, jyotisha or jyotish) basically refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents one of the six additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas. Jyotiṣa concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

Dharmaśāstra (religious law)

Yoga (योग) is a Sanskrit technical term, used in law, referring to either “fraud” or “deceit”. The word is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.165)

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Yoga (योग) is explained as ‘fraud’ in Vyavahāramayūkha (p. 90); which adds that the king shall nullify every transaction in connection with which he detects some fraud. ‘Fraud’ is deceit; when a certain thing has been mortgaged fraudulently,—i.e., when it is found that it has been done in an improper manner,—then the king shall ‘nullify it’. (See the Manubhāṣya, verse 8.165)

(Source): Google Books: Manusmṛti with the Manubhāṣya
Dharmaśāstra book cover
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Dharmaśāstra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharma-shastra) is a category of Hindu literature containing important instructions regarding religious law, ethics, economics, jurisprudence and more. It is categorised as smṛti, an important and authorative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Purāṇa

1a) Yoga (योग).—Practices of:1 eight-fold: its characteristics.2 Bhaktiyoga:3 born of Kriya, Kriyāyoga:4 the course of: followed by Nārada and others in their worship of Nārāyaṇa:5 System of.6 Also three-fold jñāna, bhakti and karma of this bhakti is important.7 Spoiled by bad association, especially association of women;8 is an aiśvarya, and possible through kriya and gurupriya: of 24 truths: trayī is its limb;9 other limbs, yama, niyama,10 yajña, dāna, vedābhyāsa, and dhāraṇa; philosophy of;11 the strength of the Pitṛs, out of which soma grows; from jñāna;12 methods of: control of the senses and the mind by fasting; a means to fructify austerities, then knowledge sprouts;13 praise of;14 of Nakṣatra and Ṛṣi;15 as a result of svādhyāya or study and vice-versa;16 explanation of the nature of yoga by Keśidhvaja to Khāṇḍikya.17

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 2. 28; II. 1. 6; 2. 23; Matsya-purāṇa 1. 12.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. Ch. 28.
  • 3) Ib. III. Ch. 29.
  • 4) Ib. IV. 1. 51; Vāyu-purāṇa 71. 64.
  • 5) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 14. 45; 19. 10; VII. 3. 9; 11. 3.
  • 6) Ib. IX. 12. 4; X. 8. 45; Ch. 29 (whole) ; XI. 14. 20.
  • 7) Ib. XI. 20. 6-8.
  • 8) Ib. XI. 26. 3 and 24.
  • 9) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 34. 65; III. 3. 89; 9. 62 and 66; 10. 4 and 115; 19. 29 and 62; IV. 3. 55.
  • 10) Matsya-purāṇa 13. 5; 183. 44 and 50; 193. 38; 247. 9; 248. 17.
  • 11) Ib. 2. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 110.
  • 12) Ib. 71. 66; 101. 75, 211, 350.
  • 13) Ib. 77, 124-35.
  • 14) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 6. 40; Vāyu-purāṇa 18. 5-6.
  • 15) Ib. 99. 422.
  • 16) Viṣṇu-purāṇa VI. 6. 2.
  • 17) Ib. VI. 7. 26-92.

1b) A name of Śiva.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 97. 175.

2) Yogā (योगा).—A Śakti.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 32. 17.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
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The Purāṇas (पुराण, purana) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahāpurāṇas total over 400,000 ślokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Yoga (योग) is the tradition (ovallī) founded by Vṛddhanātha, who was one of the twelve princes born to Kuṃkumā, consort to Mīnanātha, who is the incarnation of Siddhanātha in the fourth yuga, belonging to the Pūrvāmnāya (‘eastern doctrine’) tradition of Kula Śaivism, according to the Ciñcinīmatasārasamuccaya. Siddhanātha incarnates as a Kaula master in each of the four yugas. Vṛddhanātha was one of the six princes having the authority to teach.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Śaivism

1) Yoga (योग).— The word yoga, the basic meaning of which is “yoking, uniting”, a1so derives from the same verb-root, √yuj, “to yoke, conjoin”. In the religious-spiritual sphere, its meaning obtains in the sense of meditation, concentration of the mind, and techniques pertaining to them. In the first two states of sālokya and sāmīpya, because there are present both more than one disposition (among bhakti, jñāna and vairāgya) as well as the duality between subjective disposition and its abject, yoga as the exercise of purposeful uniting of these is imperative.

In the third state of sārūpya, even though there is only dhyāna, the subject-object duality persists; hence, here too yoga is needed. What is most significant, though, is that yoga is extended iuto the realm of sāyūjya as well, where there is only non-duality.

2) Yoga (योग, “meditation”) or yogapada refers to the third division of the āgamas.—The four classes of devotees (bhakta) or the states of spiritual life somewhat correspond to the four divisions of the Āgamas and the four modes of sādhana, spiritual practice, they entail. Thus, sālokya corresponds to carya, ritual and moral conduct, sāmīpya to kriyā, architectural and iconographic making, sārūpya to yoga, meditation, and sāyūjya ta jñāna, theology and gnosis.

(Source): McGill: The architectural theory of the Mānasāra (shaivism)

Yoga (योग).—The Mālinīvijayottara itself specifies that yoga is the topic of its teachings. In its narrative framework, it is the seer’s query about the practice of yoga that presents Skanda with the opportunity to transmit śiva’s revelation to the eight sages. The section establishing the pedigree of the Mālinīvijayottara as a new revelation lineally descended from the Siddhayogeśvarīmata plainly states that the Mālinīvijayatantra, the immediate precursor of the Mālinīvijayottara, taught yoga.

(Source): academia.edu: The Yoga of the Mālinīvijayottaratantra
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

Arthaśāstra (politics and welfare)

Yoga (योग) refers to “suggestion of similar facts” and is the name of a yukti, or ‘technical division’, according to which the contents of the Arthaśāstra by Cāṇakya are grouped. Cāṇakya (4th-century BCE), aka Kauṭilya, was the chief minister of Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the famous Maurya Empire.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Arthaśāstra
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Arthaśāstra (अर्थशास्त्र, artha-shastra) literature concers itself with subjects such as statecraft, economics politics and military tactics. The term arthaśāstra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kauṭilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.

Pāñcarātra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Yoga (योग) refers to an aspect of nṛsiṃha (‘man-lion’), according to the Vihagendra-saṃhitā 4.17, which mentions seventy-four forms (inlcuding twenty forms of vyūha). He is also known as Yoganṛsiṃha or Yoganarasiṃha. Nṛsiṃha is a Tantric deity and refers to the furious (ugra) incarnation of Viṣṇu.

The 15th-century Vihagendra-saṃhīta is a canonical text of the Pāñcarātra corpus and, in twenty-four chapters, deals primarely with meditation on mantras and sacrificial oblations.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Pāñcarātra

Yoga (योग).—Thus Ahirbudhnya-saṃhitā describes yoga as the worship of the heart (hṛdayārādhana), the offering of an oblation (havi) of oneself to God or self-surrender to God, and yoga is defined as the linking up (saṃyoga) of the lower self (jīvātman) with the higher self (paramātman).

(Source): archive.org: A History of Indian Philosophy (pancaratra)

Yoga (योग) or Yogapāda refers to the fourth of four sections (pāda) of the the Pāñcarātra system of thought.—Yoga describes not only certain Yogic practices like Prāṇāyāma and dhyāna etc. used in pūjā ceremony but also the method of merging individual consciousness into the Supreme consciousness in the state of complete meditation (samādhi). The best description of all these four aspects of Pāñcarātra (eg., jñāna) is found in the Padma-saṃhitā, a simplified elaboration of the Jayākhya-saṃhitā.

(Source): archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 1
Pāñcarātra book cover
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Pāñcarātra (पाञ्चरात्र, pancaratra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Nārāyaṇa is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaiṣnavism, the Pāñcarātra literature includes various Āgamas and tantras incorporating many Vaiṣnava philosophies.

Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Yoga (योग) or Yogamūṣā refers to an “combining crucible” and is a type of mūṣā (crucible) used for smelting metals.—This kind of mūṣā was made of burnt chaff, powdered and burnt coals, earth from a place where white ants abound, and a biḍa which is a preparation of various alkalies, acids, salts etc. After constructing this crucible, it was smeared with biḍa on both inner and outer surfaces and then dried well. This mūṣā was used for the cultivation of mercury. It is said that it could render mercury very powerful. Also see the Rasaratnasamuccaya 10.12.

(Source): Indian Journal of History of Science, 31(4), 1996: Mūṣāvijñāna
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Rasaśāstra (रसशास्त्र, rasashastra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

Nāṭyaśāstra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Yoga (योग) or Saṃyoga refers to a set of three rules used in the playing of drums (puṣkara) [with reference to Mṛdaṅga, Paṇava and Dardura] according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 33.

The following are the three yogas:

  1. Guru-saṃyoga,
  2. Laghu-saṃyoga,
  3. Gurulaghu-saṃyoga,
(Source): Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Nāṭyaśāstra book cover
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Nāṭyaśāstra (नाट्यशास्त्र, natya-shastra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition of performing arts, (e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nāṭya) and poetic works (kāvya).

Yoga (school of philosophy)

Yoga is a Sanskrit word which means "union" and is interpreted as "union with the divine". One of the most detailed and thorough expositions on the subject is the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali, which defines yoga as "the stilling of the changing states of the mind" (Sanskrit: yogaḥ citta-vṛtti nirodhaḥ). Yoga is also interpreted as the yoke that connects beings to the machine of existence.

In other texts and contexts, such as the Bhagavad Gītā and the Hatha Yoga Pradipika, the word yoga has been used in conformity with yujir yoge (to yoke). Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini.

(Source): WikiPedia: Yoga
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Originally, Yoga is considered a branch of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

Nirukta (Sanskrit etymology)

Yoga (योग).—According to Pāṇini, a 6th-century BCE Sanskrit grammarian, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga (to yoke) or yuj samādhau (to concentrate). In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau (to concentrate) is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology.

In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa (c. 4th or 5th century CE), who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi (concentration).

(Source): WikiPedia: Nirukta (etymology)
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Nirukta (निरुक्त) or “etymology” refers to the linguistic analysis of the Sanskrit language. This branch studies the interpretation of common and ancient words and explains them in their proper context. Nirukta is one of the six additional sciences (vedāṅga) to be studied along with the Vedas.

Śāktism (Śākta philosophy)

Yoga (योग).—Lakṣmaṇadeśika briefly summarizes four definitions of yoga given by different schools (1cd–3ab). Accordingly, yoga is: (1) the identity of the individual Self (jīva) and the (supreme) Self (parama-ātman); (2) the knowledge of the identity of Śiva and the Self; (3) the knowledge of Śiva and Śakti; and (4) the knowledge of the eternal being (purāṇa-puruṣa). Rāghavabhaṭṭa identifies these views in his commentary as the teachings of the: (1) Vedāntins, (2) Śaivas, (3) followers of the Uttara-Āmnāya and (4) the dualist Vaiṣṇavas.

(Source): academia.edu: The Śāradātilakatantra on Yoga
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Śākta (शाक्त, shakta) or Śāktism (shaktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devī) is revered and worshipped. Śākta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

General definition (in Hinduism)

This word, derived from the root Yuj (“to join”), is in grammer samdhi, in logic avayavaśakti, or the power of the parts taken together and in its most widely known and present sense the union of the jīva or embodied spirit, with the Paramātmā, or Supreme Spirit, and the practices by which this union may be attained. There is a natural yoga, in which all beings are, for it is only by virtue of this identity in fact that they exist. Yoga is variously named according to the methods employed, but the two main divisions are those of the haṭhayoga (or ghaṭasthayoga) and samādhiyoga, of which rājayoga is one of the forms.

(Source): Hindu Online: Yoga

In Vedic Sanskrit, the more commonly used, literal meaning of the Sanskrit word yoga which is "to add", "to join", "to unite", or "to attach" from the root yuj, already had a much more figurative sense, where the yoking or harnessing of oxen or horses takes on broader meanings such as "employment, use, application, performance" (compare the figurative uses of "to harness" as in "to put something to some use"). All further developments of the sense of this word are post-Vedic. More prosaic moods such as "exertion", "endeavour", "zeal" and "diligence" are also found in Epic Sanskrit. There are very many compound words containing yog in Sanskrit. Yoga can take on meanings such as "connection", "contact", "method", "application", "addition" and "performance".

In Hindu philosophy, the word yoga is used to refer to one of the six orthodox (āstika) schools of Hindu philosophy. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are often labelled as Rāja yoga.

(Source): WikiPedia: Hinduism

Yoga: A practical methodology attributed to sage Patañjali who taught that the means to liberation was eighth-fold — aṣṭāṅga. Four of the limbs apply to physical and moral development and the other four deal with meditation.

(Source): Red Zambala: On the Salvific Activities of God

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

'yokes, bonds', is another name for the 4 cankers (āsava) .

(Source): Pali Kanon: Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

Abhidhamma

The Yokes or Yogas are another group of defilements. The "yokes" tie a person to the cycle of birth and death.

The four yoghas are:

  1. the yoke of sensuous desire, kamayogha
  2. the yoke of desire for rebirth, bhavayogha
  3. the yoke of wrong view, ditthiyogha
  4. the yoke of ignorance, avijjayogha
(Source): Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
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Abhidhamma (अभिधम्म) usually refers to the last section (piṭaka) of the Pali canon and includes schematic classifications of scholastic literature dealing with Theravāda Buddhism. Primary topics include psychology, philosophy, methodology and metaphysics which are rendered into exhaustive enumerations and commentaries.

Pali

yoga : (m.) connection; bond; endeavour; conjunction; attachment; effort; mixture.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Yoga, (Vedic yoga, see etym. under yuga & yuñjati. Usually m.; pl. nt. yogāni occurs at D. II, 274 in meaning “bonds”) lit. “yoking, or being yoked, ” i.e. connection, bond, means; fig. application, endeavour, device.—1. yoke, yoking (rare?) J. VI, 206 (meant here the yoke of the churning-sticks; cp. J. VI, 209).—2. con‹-› nection with (-°), application to; (natural) relation (i.e. body, living connection), association; also conjunction (of stars). mānusaka yoga the relation to the world of men (the human body), opp. dibba yoga: S. I, 35=60; Sn. 641; Dh. 417; expld at DhA. IV, 225 as “kāya. ” ‹-› association with: D. III, 176; application: Vism. 520 (+uppāda). yogato (Abl.) from being connected with, by association with PvA. 40 (bālya°), 98 (sammappadhāna°).—pubba° connection with a former body, one’s former action or life-history J. V, 476; VI, 480; Miln. 2. See pubbe1.—aḍḍhayoga a “half-connected” building, i.e. a half-roofed monastery Vin. I, 239; Vism. 34.—nakkhatta° a conjunction of planets, peculiar constellation (in astrology) J. I, 82, 253 (dhana-vassāpanaka suitable for a shower of wealth); III, 98; DhA. I, 174; DhsA. 232 (in simile).—3. (fig.) bond, tie; attachment (to the world and its lusts), or what yokes to rebirth (Cpd. 1712). There are 4 yogas, which are identical with the 4 oghas viz. kāma°, bhava°, diṭṭhi°, avijjā°, or the bonds of craving, existence, false views, and ignorance; enumd in detail at A. II, 10; D. III, 230, 276; J. I, 374; cp. Ps. I, 129 (catūhi yogehi yutto lokasannivāso catu-yoga-yojito); VbhA. 35. Mentioned or referred to at S. V, 59; Dhs. 1059 (ogha+, in defn of taṇhā), cp, Dhs. trsln 308; Nett 31 (with ogha), 114 (id.); as sabba- (or sabbe) yogā at Th. 2, 4; 76; S. I, 213; DhA. III, 233; severally at It. 95 (bhava-yoga-yutta āgāmī hoti, +kāma°); ogha+yoga: Pug. 21 (avijjā°); Vism. 211, 684; cp. also D. II, 274 (pāpima-yogāni the ties of the Evil one); It. 80 (yogā pamocenti bahujanaṃ).—4. application, endeavour, undertaking, effort DhA. III, 233, 234 (=samma-ppadhāna). yogaṃ karoti to make an effort, to strive after (Dat.) S. II, 131; A. II, 93 (āsavānaṃ khayāya y. karaṇīya); Miln. 35. yogaṃ āpajjati to show (earnest) endeavour, to be active S. III, 11 sq.; Vbh. 356 (attanā).—dhamma° one who is devoted to the Dhamma A. III, 355; yutta° (bent on, i.e. ) earnest in endeavour J. I, 65; yāca° given to making offerings: see yāca.—5. pondering (over), concentration, devotion M. I, 472; Dh. 209 (=yoniso manasikāra DhA. III, 275), 282 (same expln at DhA. III, 421); Miln. 3; Vbh. 324 (yoga-vihitesu kamm’& sipp’—āyatanesu; VbhA. 410 expls: y. vuccati paññā;— perhaps better to above 4?).—6. (magic) power, influence, device, scheme J. VI, 212 (yoga-yogena practice of spells etc. =tāya tāya yuttiyā C.); PvA. 117 (combd with manta, ascribed to devas).—7. means, instrument, remedy J. I, 380 (vamana° an emetic); VI, 74 (ekaṃ yogaṃ datvā; but we better read bhesajjaṃ tassa datvā for vatvā, and ekaṃ yogaṃ vatvā for datvā; taking yoga in meaning of “charm, incantation”); Miln. 109 (yena yogena sattānaṃ guṇa-vaḍḍhi ... tena hitaṃ upadahati).

—âtiga one who has conquered the yoke, i.e. bond of the body or rebirth It. 61 (muni), 81 (id.). —âtigāmin= °âtiga; A. II, 12 (same as sabba-yoga-visaṃyutta). —âvacara “one at home in endeavour, ” or in spiritual (esp. jhāna-) exercises; one who practises “yoga”; an earnest student. The term is peculiar to the Abhidhamma literature.—J. I, 303, 394, 400; III, 241 (saṃsārasāgaraṃ taranto y.); Ps. II, 26; KvuA 32; Miln. 33 sq. 43, 366, 378 sq.; Vism. 245 (as hunter) 246 (as begging bhikkhu), 375 (iddhi-study), 587, 637, 666, 708; DhA. II, 12 (padhānaṃ padahanto y.); III, 241 (°bhikkhu); DhsA. 187 (ādhikammika), 246 (°kulayutta); VbhA. 115, 220, 228 (as bhikkhu on alms-round), 229 (as hunter), 258, 331; KhA 74; SnA 20, 374. —kkhema (already Vedic yoga-kṣema exertion & rest, acquisition & possession) rest from work or exertion, or fig. in scholastic interpretation “peace from bondage, ” i.e. perfect peace or “uttermost safety” (K. S. II. 132); a freq. epithet of nibbāna (same in BSk. : yogakṣema, e.g. Divy 98, 123, 303, 498) M. I, 117 (°kāma), 349, 357, (anuttara); S. I, 173 (°adhivāhana); II, 195 (anuttara), 226; III, 112 (°kāma, neg.); IV, 125; V, 130 sq.; A. I, 50 (anuttara); II, 40, 52 (a°), 87, 247; III, 21, 294 sq. 353; D. III, 123, 125, 164 (°kāma); Vin. II, 205=It. 11 (°ato dhaṃsati, whereas Vin °ā padhaṃsati); It. 9, 27 (abhabbo °ssa adhigamāya); Th. 2, 6; Sn. 79 (°adhivāhana), 425; Dh. 23 (anuttara, cp. DhA. I, 231); Ps. I, 39; II, 81; Vbh. 247 (kulāni y-kh-kāmāni, which VbhA. 341 expls: catūhi yogehi khemaṃ nibbhayaṃ icchanti); ThA. 13.—kkhemin finding one’s rest, peace, or salvation; emancipated, free, an Arahant S. III, 13 (accanta°); IV, 85; A. II, 12; IV, 310 (patta°); V, 326 (accanta°); DhA. III, 233, 234 (=sabba-yoga-visaṃyutta); neg. not finding one’s salvation A. II, 52 (in verse)=Ps. II, 80; It. 50.—ññu knowing the (right) means Miln. 169 sq. —bahula strong in exertion A. III, 432. —yutta (Mārassa) one who is tied in the bonds (of Māra) A. II, 52 (so read for °gutta; the verse also at Ps. II, 80, 81, and It. 50). —vibhāga dividing (division) of the relation (in grammar: to yoga 2) SnA 266. (Page 558)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Yoga (योग) refers to “application / contemplation of mind” and is one of the causes leading to the influx (āsrana) of karmas extending pleasant feelings (sātāvedanīya).

Yoga is a Sanskrit technical term defined in the Tattvārthasūtra (ancient authorative Jain scripture) from the 2nd century, which contains aphorisms dealing with philosophy and the nature of reality.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Yoga (योग).—The operation of the body, the organ of speech and the mind is called yoga (activity). What is meant by activity (yoga)? Vibrations caused in the space-points of the soul induced by mind, body and speech is called yoga /activity. How many types of yoga are there?

There are three types of yoga differentiated according to the nature of the cause namely;

  1. manoyoga (mind activities),
  2. vacanayoga (speech activities),
  3. kāyayoga (body activities).

What is the cause of the vibrations in the space-points of the soul? The vibrations in the space-points of the soul are caused by the actions /movements of the organs of the mind, speech and body.

2) Yoga (योग).—What is meant by application/ contemplation of mind (yoga)? To observe the above activities i.e. (compassions for both general and devout), charity and self-control with attachment, with full application of mind and completely is yoga. Also yoga is said to be as performing flawless activities, meditation and samādhi with auspicious objectives.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 6: Influx of karmas

Yoga (योग).—What is the meaning of yoga (activities) in Jainism? Activities of mind, body and speech resulting in the vibrations of the space-points of the soul are called yoga.

(Source): Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

yōga (योग).—m (S) Junction, union, meeting, unitedness, mingledness; close connection, association, or combination in general. 2 Concatenation, conjunction, or consecutive disposition (of the affairs of the universe) as established by the Deity, and as swaying or regulating human concernments. Ex. tilā nahāṇa yāvēṃ āṇi ticā dādalā marāvā asā yōga hōtā. In this sense kālayōga, daivayōga, prārabdhayōga &c. 3 Spiritual or abstract devotion; union with Brahma through abstract meditation or contemplation: also the practice or exercise of this sort of worship; for which several attitudes or postures are prescribed. 4 A way, means, or expedient in general, although understood esp. as a way or means of attaining unto the fruition of Brahma. In this sense bhaktiyōga, karmayōga, jñānayōga &c. 5 The twenty-seventh part of a circle measured on the plane of the Ecliptic; and used in calculating the longitudes of the sun and moon. These 27 Yogas are named viṣkambha, prīti, āyu- ṣmān, saubhāgya, śōbhana, atigaṇḍa, sukarmā, dhṛti, śūla, gañja, vṛddhi, dhruva, vyāghāta, harṣaṇa, vajra, siddhi, vyatīpāta, varyāṇa, parīgha, śiva, siddhi, sādhya, śubha, śulka, brahmā, aindra, vaidhṛti. Astrologers also enumerate twenty-eight yōga differently named from the foregoing, and corresponding with the twenty-eight Nakshatras, but varying according to the day of the week. 6 Application or address; applying or addressing (of things to a use, of efforts to an object, of means in general to an end). 7 Propriety, fitness, suitableness, congruity. 8 In arithmetic. Sum or amount.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

yōga (योग).—m Union. Concatenation. A means. Propriety. A term in Astronomy.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Relevant definitions

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Rajayoga
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Yogamaya
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Ashtangayoga
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Yogakshema
Yogakṣema (योगक्षेम).—1) security of possession, keeping safe of property. 2) the charge for se...
Daivayoga
Daivayoga (दैवयोग).—a lucky coincidence, fortuitous combination, fortune, chance. (daivayogena,...
Shadangayoga
Ṣaḍaṅgayoga (षडङ्गयोग) refers to the “Siddhānta’s system of the six ancillaries of yoga” and is...
Yogacara
Yogācāra (योगाचार).—1) the practice or observance of Yoga. 2) a follower of that Buddhist schoo...
Yogashastra
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