Jyeshtha, Jyeṣṭha, Jyeṣṭhā: 21 definitions
Jyeshtha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Jyeṣṭha and Jyeṣṭhā can be transliterated into English as Jyestha or Jyeshtha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Jyeṣṭha (अनुराधा):—Name for a particular section of the ecliptic. It is also known as Jyeṣṭhanakṣatra. Nakṣatra means “Lunar mansion” and corresponds to a specific region of the sky through which the moon passes each day. Jyeṣṭha means “the eldest, most excellent” and is associated with the deity known as Indra (Chief of the gods). The presiding Lord of this lunar house is Budha (Mercury).
Indian zodiac: |16°40'| – |30° Vṛścika|
Vṛścika (वृश्चिक, “scorpion”) corresponds with Scorpio.
Western zodiac: |12°40'| – |26° Sagittarius|
Sagittarius corresponds with Dhanuṣa (धनुष, “bow”).
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ, “large”) refers to one of the three sizes of playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa) used, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.8-11. This size is stated to be meant for Gods (the other sizes being meant for kings or humans). The measurement of the jyeṣṭha type playhouse is stated to count 108 hastas (also translated as ‘cubit’; one hasta equals 24 aṅgulas). They can also be measured using the same amount of daṇḍas (one daṇḍa equals 4 hastas).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Skanda-purana
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ, “elder one”) refers to one of the fifty-six vināyakas located at Kāśī (Vārāṇasī), and forms part of a sacred pilgrimage (yātrā), described in the Kāśīkhaṇḍa (Skanda-purāṇa 4.2.57). He is also known as Jyeṣṭhavināyaka, Jyeṣṭhagaṇeśa and Jyeṣṭhavighneśa. These fifty-six vināyakas are positioned at the eight cardinal points in seven concentric circles (8x7). They center around a deity named Ḍhuṇḍhirāja (or Ḍhuṇḍhi-vināyaka) positioned near the Viśvanātha temple, which lies at the heart of Kāśī, near the Gaṅges. This arrangement symbolises the interconnecting relationship of the macrocosmos, the mesocosmos and the microcosmos.
Jyeṣṭha is positioned in the North-Western corner of the fifth circle of the kāśī-maṇḍala. According to Rana Singh (source), his shrine is located at “Kashipura, Jyestheshvara, J 62 / 144”. Worshippers of Jyeṣṭha will benefit from his quality, which is defined as “the boon-giver for male baby and wealth”. His coordinates are: Lat. 25.19040, Lon. 83.00642 (or, 25°11'25.4"N, 83°00'23.1"E) (Google maps)
Kāśī (Vārāṇasī) is a holy city in India and represents the personified form of the universe deluded by the Māyā of Viṣṇu. It is described as a fascinating city which is beyond the range of vision of Giriśa (Śiva) having both the power to destroy great delusion, as well as creating it.
Jyeṣṭha, and the other vināyakas, are described in the Skandapurāṇa (the largest of the eighteen mahāpurāṇas). This book narrates the details and legends surrounding numerous holy pilgrimages (tīrtha-māhātmya) throughout India. It is composed of over 81,000 metrical verses with the core text dating from the before the 4th-century CE.Source: Wisdom Library: The Matsya-purāṇa
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) is the name of a mind-born ‘divine mother’ (mātṛ), created for the purpose of drinking the blood of the Andhaka demons, according to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.8. The Andhaka demons spawned out of every drop of blood spilled from the original Andhakāsura (Andhaka-demon). According to the Matsya-purāṇa 179.35, “Most terrible they (eg., Jyeṣṭhā) all drank the blood of those Andhakas and become exceedingly satiated.”
The Matsyapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 20,000 metrical verses, dating from the 1st-millennium BCE. The narrator is Matsya, one of the ten major avatars of Viṣṇu.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा).—A deity of inauspicious things. In Kamba Rāmāyaṇa, Yuddha Kāṇḍa, it is observed that Jyeṣṭhā was a goddess obtained by churning the Sea of Milk. As soon as she came up from the sea of Milk, the Trimūrtis (Viṣṇu, Brahmā and Śiva) found her and sent her away ordering her to sit in inauspicious places. The Goddess Jyeṣṭhā came out of the Milk-Sea before the goddess Lakṣmī. So this deity is considered the elder sister of Lakṣmī. As she is the elder she is also called Mūdhevī (Mūdevī). The mode of worshipping this goddess is given in Bodhāyana Sūtra. Tondiraṭipotiālvār, who was a Vaiṣṇava Ālvār, who lived in 7th century A.D. said that it was useless to worship this Goddess. Ancient images of this Goddess have been found. But worship of Jyeṣṭhā was completely discontinued after the 10th century.
In Śaiva Purāṇas it is mentioned that this Goddess is one of the eight portions of Parāśakti. It was believed that the powers of this Goddess regulated human lives in various ways.
2) Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा).—A star. It is mentioned in Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 64, Stanza 24 that if Brāhmaṇas are given greens on the day of this star it will bring good to the giver.
3) Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—A hermit who was well-versed in the Sāma-Veda. This ancient hermit once received valuable advice from the Sātvatas called Barhiṣads. (Mahābhārata Śānti Parva, Chapter 348, Stanza 46).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1) Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—One of the 20 Amitābha gaṇas.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 17.
2b) An evil spirit.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 6. 28; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 19. 73.
2c) A mind-born mother.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 179. 20.
2d) Prajāpatis born of Brahmā's ears.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 58.
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) refers to one of the three daughters of Manu Vaivasvata: the son of Saṃjñā and Bhāskara (sun-god), according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, [...] It is stated that Aditi got from Kaśyapa, Bhāskara, the Sun-god. The Sun-god had four wives [viz., Saṃjñā]. Saṃjñā gave birth to Manu from the sun-god in whose race were born the kings. [...] The daughters were Ilā, Jyeṣṭhā and Variṣṭhā.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) refers to the eighteenth of twenty-seven constellations (ṛkṣa), according to the Mānasāra. Ṛkṣa is the third of the āyādiṣaḍvarga, or “six principles” that constitute the “horoscope” of an architectural or iconographic object. Their application is intended to “verify” the measurements of the architectural and iconographic object against the dictates of astrology that lay out the conditions of auspiciousness.
The particular nakṣatra, also known as ṛkṣa (eg., jyeṣṭha) of all architectural and iconographic objects (settlement, building, image) must be calculated and ascertained. This process is based on the principle of the remainder. An arithmetical formula to be used in each case is stipulated, which engages one of the basic dimensions of the object (breadth, length, or perimeter/circumference). In the context of village planning and measurement, the text sates that among the stars (ṛkṣa), the ones that are pūrṇa (odd), are auspicious and the ones that are karṇa (even), inauspicious.
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (shaktism)
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) or Jyeṣṭhatantra refers to one of the twenty-three Vāmatantras, belonging to the Śāktāgama (or Śāktatantra) division of the Āgama tradition. The Śāktāgamas represent the wisdom imparted by Devī to Īśvara and convey the idea that the worship of Śakti is the means to attain liberation. According to the Pratiṣṭhālakṣaṇasamuccaya of Vairocana, the Śāktatantras are divided into to four parts, the Jyeṣṭha-tantra belonging to the Vāma class.Source: Kamakoti Mandali: The Yoginis of Narasimha Vyuha
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) is the name of a Mātṛkā-Śakti created by Mahārudra in order to control the plague of demons created by Andhakāsura.—Accordingly, Andhaka-Asura tried to kidnap Umā (Devī Pārvatī), and was fiercely attacked by Mahārudra who shot arrows at him from his mahāpināka. when the arrows pierced the body of Andhakāsura, drops of blood fell to earth and from those drops, thousands of Andhakas arose. To control this plague of demons, Mahārudra created Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Jyeṣṭhā] and ordered them to drink the blood of the demons and drain them dry.Source: Kamakoti Mandali: Nrisimha matrika-mandala
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) refers to one of the various Mātṛkā-Śaktis created by Rudra in order to destroy the clones that spawned from Andhaka’s body.—Accordingly, [...] Andhakāsura attempted to abduct Girājanandinī (Pārvatī) and thus ensued a fierce battle between Andhakāsura and the great Rudra, the Lord of Umā. Like raktabīja, every drop of blood that fell from the body of Andhaka created another Asura like him and in no time, the entire world was filled with Andhakas. To destroy the growing number of Andhakas, Rudra created innumerable Mātṛkā-Śaktis [viz., Jyeṣṭhā]. These Śaktis of immense power at once began to drink every drop of blood that flowed from the body of Andhaka, but they could still not effectively contain the emergence of more and more demons.
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ) is the first month of the “summer season” (nidagha) in the traditional Indian calendar, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The physician (bhiṣaj) should pay attention to the seasonal (ṛtu) factor in the use of medicinal drugs. Accordingly, “the bulbous roots in winter season (viz., Jyeṣṭha), other roots in cold season and flowers during spring season are supposed to contain better properties. The new leaves or shoots in summer and the drugs, which grow in mud, like Lotus etc., should be used in autumn season”.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा, ‘eldest’) is the name of the constellation σ, α, and τ Scorpionis, of which the central star, α, is the brilliant reddish Antares (or Cor Scorpionis).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) refers to one of the twenty-seven constellations (nakṣatra) according to according to Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Jyeṣṭhā is the Sanskrit equivalent of Chinese Sin, Tibetan Snron and modern Scorpionis.
Jyeṣṭhā is classified in the fourth group: “The moon revolves around the earth in 28 days. If the moon enters one of the nine following constellations (eg., Jyeṣṭhā), then at that moment the earth trembles as if it would collapse and this trembling extends as far as Devendra. Then peace (yogakṣema) is plentiful, rain favors the growth of the five grains, the emperor is kind (śiva), the great ministers are virtuous and everyone is peaceful”.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा) refers to the eighteenth of the 28 nakṣatras (“constellations”) of the zodiac, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—The nakṣatras are described collectively in the dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala of the Niṣpannayogāvalī. In this maṇḍala the nakṣatras are given one face and two arms, which are clasped against the chest in the añjalimudrā:—“the deities [viz., Jyeṣṭhā] are decked in bejewelled jackets and they all show the añjali-mudrā”.—In colour, however, they differ. [viz., Jyeṣṭhā is given the colour yellow].
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
jyēṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—m (S) The third month of the Hindu year, May-June,
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jyēṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—a (S) Elder. 2 S Best, most excellent, preeminent.
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jyēṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा).—f (S) The eighteenth of the lunar mansions.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—a. (Superl. of praśasya or vṛddha)
1) Eldest, most senior.
2) Most excellent, best.
3) Pre-eminent, first, chief, highest.
-ṣṭhaḥ 1 An elder brother; R.12.19,35.
2) An epithet of the Supreme Being.
4) N. a lunar month (= jyaiṣṭha q. v.).
-ṣṭhā 1 An eldest sister.
2) Name of the eighteenth lunar mansion (consisting of the three stars).
3) The middle finger.
4) A small house-lizard.
5) An epithet of the Ganges.
6) The goddess of misfortune, elder sister of Lakṣmī; ज्येष्ठा च माया कलहश्च दम्भः (jyeṣṭhā ca māyā kalahaśca dambhaḥ) Bhāg.1.17.32.
-ṣṭhī A small houselizard.
-ṣṭham 1 The most excellent, the first or head.
2) Tin.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣṭhaḥ-ṣṭhā-ṣṭhī-ṣṭhaṃ) 1. Best, most excellent, pre-eminent. 2. Very old, oldest. 3. most senior Elder, elder born. f.
(-ṣṭhā) 1. One of the aste risms, considered as lunar mansions; the eighteenth, comprising three stars, of which one is a Scorpionis, figured by a ring or earring. 2. The middle finger. 3. Misfortune, personified as a goddess. 4. The Ganges, (-ṣṭhā or ṣṭhī) A small house lizard. m.
(-ṣṭhaḥ) The month Jyeshtha or Jeyte, (May-June.) n.
(-ṣṭhaṃ) Age, oldness. E. jyā to decay, to grow infirm or old, affix iṣṭhan, fem. affixes ṭāp and ṅīṣ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—i. e. jyā + iṣṭha, I. superl. of praśasya and vṛddha (cf. jyāyaṃs), f. ṭhā, 1. Most excellent, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 123. 2. Eldest, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 9, 126; [Daśakumāracarita] in
Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—([superlative]) principal, best, eldest, highest, greatest, worst; superior to ([ablative]). [masculine] chief, senior, eldest brother, [Name] of a man. [feminine] jyeṣṭā the eldest wife. [neuter] the chief, best (of things); [adverb] most, much.
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Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ).—([superlative]) principal, best, eldest, highest, greatest, worst; superior to ([ablative]). [masculine] chief, senior, eldest brother, [Name] of a man. [feminine] jyeṣṭā the eldest wife. [neuter] the chief, best (of things); [adverb] most, much.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ):—[from jyā] a mfn. ([Pāṇini 5-3, 61]) most excellent, pre-eminent, first, chief. best, greatest, (m.) the chief, [Ṛg-veda] etc. (ifc. e.g. vacana-, ‘best in speech’ [Kāśikā-vṛtti] [Pāṇini 6-2, 25])
2) [v.s. ...] more excellent than ([ablative]), [Mahābhārata xiii, 7205]
3) [v.s. ...] (in [mathematics] with pada or mūla) greatest (root [square root] extracted from the quantity operated upon)
4) [v.s. ...] ([Pāṇini 5-3, 62]; ṣṭha) eldest, (m.) the eldest brother, [Ṛg-veda iv, 33, 5; x, 11, 2; Atharva-veda] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] m. ([scilicet] ghaṭa) the ascending bucket (in a machine for raising water), [Kuvalayānanda 46]
6) [v.s. ...] for jyaiṣṭha, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of a man, [Mahābhārata xii, 13593]
8) [v.s. ...] n. what is most excellent, [Ṛg-veda x, 120, 1; Atharva-veda] (also oxyt.)
9) [v.s. ...] tin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] Name of a Liṅga, [Liṅga-purāṇa i, 1, 3]
11) [v.s. ...] with puṣkara See ṣṭha-p
12) Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा):—[from jyeṣṭha > jyā] a f. ([gana] ajādi) the 16th (or [according to] to modern reckoning 18th) lunar mansion (sacred to Indra), [Atharva-veda xix, 7, 3] ([paroxytone]), [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa iii, 1, 2; Pāraskara-gṛhya-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc. (also [plural])
13) [v.s. ...] f. the eldest wife, [Manu-smṛti ix, 122 & 124]
14) [v.s. ...] a preferred wife, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
15) [v.s. ...] the 8th year in the Jupiter cycle of 12 years, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā viii, 10]
16) [v.s. ...] the middle finger, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] a kind of stringed instrument
18) [v.s. ...] misfortune (personified as the elder sister of Lakṣmī, [Padma-purāṇa v]; cf. ṣṭha-lakṣmī), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa i, 17, 32]
19) [v.s. ...] Name of a Śakti, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi i, 8, 404]
20) [v.s. ...] Gaṅgā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) Jyeṣṭha (ज्येष्ठ):—[from jyā] b f(ā, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.], ī). a small house-lizard (also jyaiṣṭhī, [Horace H. Wilson]), [Tithyāditya]
22) Jyeṣṭhā (ज्येष्ठा):—[from jyā] b f. of ṣṭha q.v.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+59): Jyeshtha-adhikaranika, Jyeshtha-devara, Jyeshtha-kayastha, Jyeshtha-pita, Jyeshthabala, Jyeshthabandhu, Jyeshthabharya, Jyeshthabharyya, Jyeshthabhavika, Jyeshthabrahmana, Jyeshthadama, Jyeshthadevi, Jyeshthaganesha, Jyeshthagaura, Jyeshthaghni, Jyeshthagrihya, Jyeshthajaghanya, Jyeshthakalasha, Jyeshthakanishtha, Jyeshthakanishthamahalakshmipuja.
Ends with (+7): Agnijyeshtha, Ajyeshtha, Anujyeshtha, Anvagjyeshtha, Balajyeshtha, Bhurijyeshtha, Brahmajyeshtha, Indrajyeshtha, Janmajyeshtha, Kalajyeshtha, Kamajyeshtha, Kashyapasunujyeshtha, Kavijyeshtha, Lingajyeshtha, Lokajyeshtha, Mantrajyeshtha, Manujyeshtha, Pragjyotishajyeshtha, Rasajyeshtha, Samudrajyeshtha.
Full-text (+250): Jyeshthavarna, Jyeshthamuliya, Jyeshthata, Snanayatra, Jyeshthasaman, Vadapunava, Jyeshthatva, Jyeshthalalita, Jeshtha, Jyeshthavritti, Surajyeshtha, Jyaishthya, Varnajyeshtha, Vatasavitri, Kavijyeshtha, Jyeshthambu, Jyeshthashrama, Jyeshthamsha, Alakshmi, Jyeshthamula.
Search found 47 books and stories containing Jyeshtha, Jyeṣṭha, Jyeṣṭhā, Jyestha, Jyēṣṭha, Jyēṣṭhā; (plurals include: Jyeshthas, Jyeṣṭhas, Jyeṣṭhās, Jyesthas, Jyēṣṭhas, Jyēṣṭhās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Temples in Sembiyan Mahadevi < [Chapter VIII - Temples of Uttama Chola’s Time]
Ashta Parivara Devatas < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Erumbur (Urumur) < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Chapter X - Names of the twelve Adityas < [Book II]
The Skanda Purana (by G. V. Tagare)
Chapter 63 - The Story of Jyeṣṭheśa < [Section 2 - Uttarārdha]
Chapter 32 - The Rite of Jyeṣṭha Pañcaka < [Section 2 - Puruṣottama-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Chapter 29 - The Lord Grants Boons to Indradyumna < [Section 2 - Puruṣottama-kṣetra-māhātmya]
Paraskara-grihya-sutra (by Hermann Oldenberg)
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)