Vaishakha, Vaiśākha: 23 definitions


Vaishakha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Vaiśākha can be transliterated into English as Vaisakha or Vaishakha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Vaishakh.

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In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Purana glossary
Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) or “Vaiśākha Pūrnimā” is the name of a festival that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Vaiśākha Pūrnimā proceeds as folows: Honouring of five or seven Brāhmaṇas with sesame mixed with honey, and worship of Dharmarāja are prescribed on this day.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—A month. This month comes after the month of Caitra and before the month of Jyeṣṭha. It is stated in Mahābhārata, Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 106, that by observing the fast of taking food only once, daily in this month, one could acquire prominence among kinsmen and people of one’s own caste.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—(Tṛtīya) a Yugādi for śrāddha.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 17. 4; 56. 3.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Natya Shastra

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—A type of standing-posture (sthāna);—Instructions: the two feet three Tālas and a half apart and the thighs without motion; [besides this] the two feet to be obliquely placed pointing sideways. Skanda (Kārtikeya) is its presiding deity.

(Uses): This Sthāna should be assumed in riding horses, and in exercise, exit [from any place], mimicking large birds, practice of shooting arrows and in the Recakas [of the feet].

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) refers to “one of the six kinds of standing postures for Men” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Standing postures are determined separately for male and female. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa six kinds of standing postures are discussed for men. In vaiśākha type of standing posture the gap between two feet should be two and half tālas, thighs should be inclining and feet are placed. This posture is used to show the carriage drawn by horses. In The student’s Sanskrit English Dictionary of V.S Apte, the vaiśākha posture is mentioned as a kind of attitude, mostly carried in shooting.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) is the name of an ancient city, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 67. Accordingly as a prince said to Hemaprabhā: “... he [Naravāhanadatta] set out in a chariot drawn by swift horses, which the brothers had brought, and he reached with them that city of Vaiśākha. When he entered that splendid city, the ladies, bewildered and excited, beheld him with eyes the lashes of which were turned up”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Vaiśākha, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Ayurveda glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) is the second month of the “spring season” (vasanta) in the traditional Indian calendar, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The physician (bhiṣaj) should pay attention to the seasonal (ṛtu) factor in the use of medicinal drugs. Accordingly, “the bulbous roots in winter season (viz., Vaiśākha), other roots in cold season and flowers during spring season are supposed to contain better properties. The new leaves or shoots in summer and the drugs, which grow in mud, like Lotus etc., should be used in autumn season”.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Vaiśākha (वैशाख), corresponding to “April-May”, refers to one of the months (māsa) in the Vedic calendar.—There are twelve months in a Vedic lunar calendar, and approximately every three years, there is a thirteenth month. Each month has a predominating deity and approximately corresponds with the solar christian months. [...] In accordance with the month of the year, one would utter the Vedic month, for example, vaiśākha-māsi.

The presiding deity of Vaiśākha is Madhusūdana.

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Jyotisha glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) refers to the lunar month corresponding to April-May (when the full moon is in the lunar mansion of Vaiśākha), according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 5), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If there should be both lunar and solar eclipses in one month, princes will suffer both from dissensions among their own army and from wars. [...] If the eclipses should fall in the lunar month of Vaiśākha cotton, gingelly and beans will be injured; the Ikṣvākus, the Yaudheyas, the Śakas and the Kaliṅgas will suffer; but there will be prosperity over the land”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Indian Buddhist Iconography

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) (presided over by Vāyu) is the second of twelve months, as commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—Accordingly, there are altogether twelve months [viz., Vaiśākha] having twelve deities as given in the kālacakra-maṇḍala.—“here they are all accompanied with their Śaktis, mostly four-armed and have their distinctive vehicles”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Jainism glossary
Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) is the name of a certain position, as mentioned in chapter 1.4 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.


“[...] Quickly [Bharata] went to mount Himavat, and the chief of kings struck it arrogantly three times with the front of his chariot. Then the King, standing in the vaiśākha position, discharged an arrow marked with his name at the Prince of mount Hima. After the arrow had traveled like a bird for seventy-two yojanas in the sky, it fell in front of the Prince of Himavat”.

Note: In the vaiśākha-position one foot is advanced. It is the position of the ‘world-figure,’ which is erroneously represented in pictures as having both feet level with toes turned out.—(cf. Yogaśāstra 4. 103, p. 320).

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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Marathi glossary
Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

vaiśākha (वैशाख).—m (S) The second month of the year, reckoning from caitra, viz. April-May.

--- OR ---

vaiśākhā (वैशाखा).—a (S) Relating to the month vaiśākha.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

vaiśākha (वैशाख).—m The second month of the year.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Sanskrit glossary
Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—

1) Name of the second lunar month (corresponding to April-May).

2) A churning-stick; द्रुततर- करदक्षाः क्षिप्तवैशाखशैले (drutatara- karadakṣāḥ kṣiptavaiśākhaśaile) ... कलशिमुदधिगुर्वी वल्लवा लोडयन्ति (kalaśimudadhigurvī vallavā loḍayanti) Śiśupālavadha 11. 8; कालेन वैशाखधरं विधाय प्रभाकरं बिम्बममन्थि सिन्धुः (kālena vaiśākhadharaṃ vidhāya prabhākaraṃ bimbamamanthi sindhuḥ) Rām. ch. 6.39.

-kham A kind of attitude in shooting; see विशाख (viśākha).

-khī The full-moon day in the month of Vaiśākha.

Derivable forms: vaiśākhaḥ (वैशाखः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—m.

(-khaḥ) 1. The month in which the moon is full near the southern scale, (April-May,) the first month in the Hindu calendar. 2. A churning-stick. n.

(-khaṃ) A particular attitude in shooting, standing with the feet a span apart. f. (-khī) The day of full-moon in the month of Vaisak'ha. E. viśākhā the constellation in which the moon is full in this month, aṇ aff.; or viśākhā said to mean here, pervading, revolving, aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).— i.e. viśākhā + a, I. m. 1. The name of a month, April

— May, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 260. 2. A churningstick. Ii. f. khī, The day of full moon in the month Vaiśākha. Iii. n. An attitude in shooting, standing with the feet a span apart.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख).—[masculine] a cert. month in summer, [feminine] ī the full-moon day in it.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Vaiśākha (वैशाख):—m. ([from] vi-śākhā) one of the 12 months constituting the Hindū lunar year (answering to April-May and in some places, with Caitra, reckoned as beginning the year), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa; Lāṭyāyana; Mahābhārata] etc.

2) a churning-stick, [Śiśupāla-vadha xi, 8]

3) the seventh year in the 12 years' cycle of Jupiter, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā]

4) Vaiśākhā (वैशाखा):—[from vaiśākha] f. Name of a lioness, [Catalogue(s)]

5) Vaiśākha (वैशाख):—n. a [particular] attitude in shooting, [Harivaṃśa]

6) Name of a town (also -pura), [Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) mf(ī)n. relating to the month Vaiśākha, [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख):—(khaḥ) m. Name of a month (April-May); a churning stick. n. Attitude in shooting. f. (khī). Day of the full moon in the above month.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Vaisāha.

[Sanskrit to German]

Vaishakha in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Vaiśākha (वैशाख) [Also spelled vaishakh]:—(nm) the second month of the Hindu calendar; ~[khī] a major Indian festival observed on the full moon-day in the month of [vaiśākha, ~khanaṃdana]; an ass, a donkey.

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Kannada-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Vaishakha in Kannada glossary
Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Vaiśākha (ವೈಶಾಖ):—

1) [noun] the second month in the Hindu lunar year.

2) [noun] the summer season.

3) [noun] a churning stick, used to churn curds.

4) [noun] a posture of standing of an archer, with feet separated from each other by one foot, in a battlefield.

5) [noun] (dance.) a standing posture with both the feet kept three and half a span apart, with the thighs three and a half span above the ground.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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