Dharani, Dharaṇī, Dhāraṇī, Dharanī, Dharaṇi: 22 definitions

Introduction

Dharani means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Dhāraṇī (धारणी) is a Sanskrit word referring to “rows” of good seats, to be build upon the stage (raṅgaśīrṣa) within the playhouse (nāṭyamaṇḍapa), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra 2.75-80.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Dharaṇī (धरणी).—Earth as the wife of Dhruva and the mother of celestials;1 visits Meru and complains to gods of her tribulations from the asuras.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 6. 12.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 1. 12-28; 29. 30.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śilpa-śāstra

Dhāraṇī (धारणी) is a synonym for adhiṣṭhāna (‘platform’), according to the Kāśyapaśilpa 6.1-2. The word adhiṣṭhāna is Sanskrit technical term referring to the “base” or “platform” on which a structure is built.

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Dharaṇi (धरणि) or Dharaṇī refers to “earth” as defined in the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia).  The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Dharaṇi], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

There following synonyms for earth (dharaṇi) are mentioned:

  1. Dharitrī,
  2. Bhūtadhātrī,
  3. Dharā,
  4. Bhū,
  5. Kṣiti,
  6. Rasā,
  7. Mahi or Mahī,
  8. Iḍā,
  9. Kṣmā,
  10. Avanī or Avani,
  11. Medinī,
  12. Jyā,
  13. Udadhivastrā,
  14. Gau,
  15. Kṣamā,
  16. Kṣauṇi or Kṣauṇī,
  17. Urvī,
  18. Kurapi,
  19. Vasumati,
  20. Irā,
  21. Kāśyapī,
  22. Ratnagarbhā,
  23. Ādimā,
  24. Bhūmi or Bhūmī,
  25. Ilā,
  26. Vasundharā,
  27. Varā,
  28. Dhātrī,
  29. Vasundhā,
  30. Acalā,
  31. Urvarā,
  32. Viśvambharā,
  33. Ādyā,
  34. Jagatī,
  35. Pṛthvī,
  36. Gotrā,
  37. Pṛthivī,
  38. Pṛthu,
  39. Sarvasahā,
  40. Anantā,
  41. Bhūtamātā,
  42. Niścalā,
  43. Vījaprasu,
  44. Śyāmā,
  45. Kroḍakāntā.
Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

Dhāraṇī (धारणी) refers to a set of five hundred qualities acquired by the Bodhisattvas accompanying the Buddha at Rājagṛha on the Gṛdhrakūṭaparvata, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter X. In the Tsin language, dhāraṇī means ‘capable of holding’ (dhāraṇa) or ‘capable of preventing’ (vidhāraṇa). Dhāraṇa refers to “joining all sorts of good Dharmas (kuśaladharma)”: dharāṇī ‘holds’ them so that they are not dispersed or lost. Vidhāraṇa refers to “detesting the roots of evil (akuśalamūla)”: dhāraṇī prevents them from arising. It prevents the committing of evil by those who would want to commit it.

There are many types, eg.,

  1. śrutadhara-dhāraṇī (never forgetting the words and the teachings),
  2. vibhajyajñāna-dhāraṇī (knowing in detail the qualities of beings),
  3. ghoṣapraveṣa-dhāraṇī (neither rejoiced nor irritated by sounds).

In all, there are five hundred dhāraṇīs.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A lake in Kuveras city. D.iii.201.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)

Dharaṇī (धरणी) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Dharaṇī] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Dharaṇī is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Śaṃkarī accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Ūrdhvakeśa. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the gadā or gaya and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being the  tāla-tree.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

Dhāraṇī (धारणी) refers to the “four retentions” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 52):

  1. ātma-dhāraṇī (the rentention of oneself),
  2. grantha-dhāraṇī (the rentention of a book),
  3. dharma-dhāraṇī (the rentention of the dharma),
  4. mantra-dhāraṇī (the rentention of a spell).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., dhāraṇī). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Source: Buddhist Door: GlossaryA mystic form of praying, mantra or spells of Tantric order, ofter in Sanskrit, usually transliterated and not translated. It is believed that Dharani is able to lay hold of the good so that it cannot be lost, and those of evil so that it cannot arise.Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

A dharani is a type of ritual speech similar to a mantra. The terms dharani and satheesh may even be seen as synonyms, although they are normally used in distinct contexts.

The Japanese Buddhist philosopher Kukai drew a distinction between dharani and mantra and used it as the basis of his theory of language. Mantra is restricted to esoteric Buddhist practice whereas dharani is found in both esoteric and exoteric ritual. Dharanis for instance are found in the Pali Canon. Kukai coined the term shingon (lit. "true word") as a Japanese translation of mantra.

According to Red Pine, mantra and dharani were originally interchangeable, but at some point dharani came to be used for meaningful, intelligible phrases, and mantra for syllabic formulae which are not meant to be understood.[2] Jan Nattier writes that, whereas mantra has ancient Hindu usage back to the Vedas, dharani does not predate Buddhism.

Source: DLMBS: Buddhānusmṛti

Dhāraṇī (धारणी, “mystical incantation”).—The verbal meaning of the word dhāraṇī is that which holds. It is a magical formula in the form of a mantra in Sanskrit. The mystic mantra has a potential to hold the Buddha's teachings in the heart of him who recites. It is recited in order to attain mindfulness (smṛti), power (bala) and wisdom (prajñā). Its recitation brings in good luck such as a long life, victory, protection from snakes and removes evils such as disease. Pañcarakṣā, that is, the “collection of the five dhāraṇīs” is popular in Nepal.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography

Dhāraṇī (धारणी) (or Tārā) is the name of the Yakṣiṇī accompanying Aranātha: the eighteenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—The eighteenth Jina Aranātha carries with him the mystic symbol of either the Nandyāvarta (a kind of Svastika) or a fish. His ministerial staff consists of the Yakṣa named Yakṣendra and Yakṣiṇī named Dhāraṇī Devī. The sacred tree peculiar to him is Cūta or mango tree. Govinda Rāja had the honour of holding his fly-whisk.

The Śvetāmbara texts described Dhāraṇī Yakṣiṇī as seated on a lotus and possessing four hands with a citrus, two lotuses, and a rosary. Tārā, the Yakṣiṇī of the Digambara is to appear, according to them, as riding on a swan and holding a snake, Vajra, deer and Varada-mudrā. In this case, like more cases, the Yakṣiṇī Dhāraṇī bears the Yakṣa symbol of a citrus together with other symbols, which explain her mixed origin. The name Tārā renders her connection with the Brahmanie Tārā almost obvious. The snake symbol in her hand is primarily common to the deity of either sects.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Dharaṇī.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘one’. Note: dharaṇī is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Dhāraṇī.—(IA 9; BL), a magic litany usually of the Bud- dhists; an occult Indian charm, especially Buddhistic; a short formula intended to represent a particular Tantra text, the recitation of the dhāraṇī being regarded as equally meritorious as that of the Tantra itself (Univ. Cey. Rev., January-April, 1960, p. 62, note 42). Note: dhāraṇī is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous (D) next»] — Dharani in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

dharaṇī : (f.) the earth.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

dharaṇī (धरणी).—f (dharaṇēṃ) Style, fashion, manner, tenor preserved, character maintained (of speech, conduct, composition &c.)

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dharaṇī (धरणी).—f (S) The earth or the ground. Ex. dē māya dha0 ṭhāva O mother Earth, receive me into thy bosom. 2 The terraqueous globe. dha0 vara paḍaṇēṃ To be about to die. (Dying persons are removed from their cot to the ground.)

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dharaṇī (धरणी).—f (dharaṇēṃ) A party (of constables &c.) despatched to apprehend; a posse comitatus.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

dharaṇī (धरणी).—f Style, fashion. The earth. dharaṇī- vara paḍaṇēṃ To be about to die.

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dharaṇī (धरणी).—f n A party (of constables &c., des- patched to apprehend). The setting in restraint at the door of a debtor.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Dharaṇi (धरणि) or Dharaṇī (धरणी).—f. [dhṛ-ani vā ṅīp]

1) The earth; लुठति धरणिशयने बहु विलपति तव नाम (luṭhati dharaṇiśayane bahu vilapati tava nāma) Gīt.5.

2) Ground, soil.

3) A beam for a roof.

4) A vein.

Derivable forms: dharaṇiḥ (धरणिः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Dharaṇī (धरणी).—(1) according to Tibetan on Mahāvyutpatti 5578 = phyam, defined by Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary) support (of rafters), the resting point of a beam; by [Tibetan-English Dictionary], ‘the resting beam of a staircase or ladder. Also: prop, bracket, mortice’: dharaṇīyo (v.l. °ya), n. pl., Mahāvastu iii.228.5 (prose), as parts of a city gate; (2) a small weight (compare Sanskrit dharaṇa, a considerably larger weight): in eka-suvarṇa-dharaṇī Lalitavistara 63.19 (prose, no v.l.), according to Tibetan = phye ma zho gcig, one grain (a very small weight, which is clearly intended in the context of Lalitavistara; Jäschke (Tibetan-English Dictionary) defines zho as dram, a small weight = (1/10) ounce) of dust. There is no word for gold in Tibetan; it may be noted that suvarṇa is also used in Sanskrit as name of a rather small weight (a karṣa) of gold, but according to [Boehtlingk and Roth], [Boehtlingk], not of other substances; did suvarṇa-dharaṇī mean a gold-grain in some such sense as a small weight commonly used in weighing gold? (3) name of a rākṣasī: Mahā-Māyūrī 243.12.

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Dhāraṇī (धारणी).—(recorded nowhere except in [Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit]), magic formula: often consisting of meaningless combinations of syllables (which this Dict. does not record), as e.g. Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 105.6—8; 106.8, 11, 15 ff.; 108.11 ff.; in Tibetan regularly gzuṅs, lit. hold, support, or (Mahāvyutpatti 4239) gzuṅs sṅags (= man- tra, incantation); names of 12 Bodhisattva-dhāraṇī, Mahāvyutpatti 746—758; names of 10 dhāraṇī-maṇḍala Gaṇḍavyūha 305.18 ff. (not listed in Dict.); a list of dhāraṇī-names (not listed here) (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 12.20 ff.; four kinds, ātma-, grantha-, dharma-, mantra-dh° Dharmasaṃgraha 52; another list of four, Bodhisattvabhūmi 272.13 ff., all defined, dharma-dh° (by which a Bodhisattva is able to remember a book on merely hearing it, without study), artha-dh° (same, except ‘its meaning’ is remembered), mantra-dh° (by which he acquires charms to allay all plagues, īti), bodhisattvakṣāntilābhāya dh°; °ṇī-prati- labdha, having obtained (being in possession of) a dh° Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 263.4; 270.8; Daśabhūmikasūtra 46.12; sarvabodhisattvadhāraṇīprati- bhānapratilabdhaiḥ Lalitavistara 2.6; °ṇī-pratilambha, acquisition of dh°, Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 327.5; koṭīnayutaśatasahasraparivartāyā dhā- raṇyāḥ pratilambho 8, acquisition of the dh. which makes (very many) revolutions (an amulet-wheel?); °ṇī-mantra- padāni Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 396.3, talismanic charm-words, or words of dhāraṇīs and mantras; mantra-dhāraṇī-padāni 397.2—3; dhāraṇī-padāni 397.6 ff.; °ṇī-mudrā Mahāvyutpatti 4297; sarva- dharma-dhāraṇy-asaṃpramoṣitaḥ Lalitavistara 275.6; others, Mahāvyutpatti 782; 4239; Divyāvadāna 616.14; Kāraṇḍavvūha 84.9; Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 30.5; 103.1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dharaṇi (धरणि).—f.

(-ṇiḥ) The earth. E. dhṛ to be contained, (animals, &c.) Unadi affix aṇi; also dharaṇī as above.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Dharaṇi (धरणि).—see the last (Ii.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Dharaṇī (धरणी):—[from dharaṇa > dhara] a f. See sub voce

2) Dharaṇi (धरणि):—[from dhara] f. (cf. the next) the earth (personified as the wife of Dhruva), [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa etc.]

3) Dharaṇī (धरणी):—[from dhara] b f. (cf. ṇa and ṇi) the earth, the soil or ground, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature; Purāṇa]

4) [v.s. ...] a vein or tubular vessel of the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] = -kanda, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a beam or rafter for a roof, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a Dictionary (cf. ṇi-kośa).

8) Dhāraṇi (धारणि):—[from dhāra] m. [patronymic] ([from] dhāraṇa?) [gana] taulvalyā-ādi.

9) Dhāraṇī (धारणी):—[from dhāra] f. any tubular vessel of the body, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] the earth, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

11) [v.s. ...] a [particular] bulbous plant, [ib.]

12) [v.s. ...] a mystical verse or charm used as a kind of prayer to assuage pain etc., [Monier-Williams’ Buddhism 154; 351 etc.] (4 kinds of Dh° according to, [Dharmasaṃgraha lii])

13) [v.s. ...] row or line ([wrong reading] for dhoraṇī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Sva-dhā, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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