Rasa, aka: Rasā, Rasha; 35 Definition(s)


Rasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

1a) Rasa (रस) or Rasavarga is another name for Pānīyādi: the fourteenth chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Rasa-varga].

1b) Rasa also refers to a property of medicinal drugs, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “the Rasa, Vīrya and Vipāka of the drugs should be noted (studied) carefully. [...] Rasa is indicated as Madhura, Amla, Lavaṇa, Kaṭu, Tikta and Kaṣāya”.

2) Rasā (रसा) refers to “earth” and is mentioned in a list of 53 synonyms for dharaṇi (“earth”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Rasā], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Rasa (रस) is a Sanskrit technical term, translating to the “taste” of a plant (eg. bitter). It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

[Since a matter is designated after the name of the preponderant natural element, which enters into its composition], taste is said to be a water-origined principle. All material elements are inseparably connected with one another, and there is a sort of interdependence among them, each one contributing to the continuance of the other and jointly entering, to a more or less extent, into the composition of all material substances.

This water-origined flavour (Rasa), which becoming modified through its contact with the rest of the material elements, admits of being divided into six different kinds, such as

  1. sweet (Madhura),
  2. acid (Amla),
  3. saline (Havana),
  4. pungent (Katuka),
  5. bitter (Tikta),
  6. and astringent (Kashāya).

These, in their turn, being combined with one another, give rise to sixty-three different kinds.

According to certain authorities, there are only two kinds of tastes, owing to the two-fold (hot and cold) nature of the temperament of the world. Of these the tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are cold in their properties, while the pungent, acid and saline ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues.

The watery (Saumya) tastes are cold. The fiery (Āgneya) ones are hot.

Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I

Rasa (a concept corresponding to taste) is the only perceivable parameter for drug identification in Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic pharmacological principles such as guṇa (quality), vīrya (potency) and vipāka (effect of biotransformation) are inferred based on the identified Rasa of a drug. All these principles together predict the probable spectrum of drug action in Ayurveda.

Source: PMC: Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste) of Leonotis nepetifolia

Taste, called rasa in Sanskrit, is the key to understanding ayurvedic nutrition. It is why certain foods influence some people’s digestion in a positive way while not for others.

In terms of importance, taste is second only to water — the element without which taste would not exist. (If the tongue is dry, it cannot taste.) Rasa is the immediate taste on the tongue, the one we remember, and the immediate experience of how that particular taste influences the body. Taste is made from the same five elements that comprise the doshas — ether, air, fire, water and earth — and a rasa may be sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter or astringent. Its corresponding short-term effect will have a direct influence on vata, pitta and kapha.

Source: Gaiam life: The Six Tastes of Ayurveda

Rasa, roughly corresponds to “taste” in English. Ayurvedic pharmacology has the concept that helps exploring and verifying pharmacological behavior of a substance based on its rasa. Rasa is quite larger a concept than taste, where taste is only the first tool to enter into a larger concept. Rasa is defined as a “knowledge perceived through Rasanā Indriya (roughly gustatory sensation) located at Jihvā (tongue).” Caraka says Rasa is experienced the moment a substance comes into contact with the tongue.

Rasa indirectly indicates the pharamacological behavior of the substance but directly reflects the mahābhautika state of the substance. There are six primary Rasas viz.

  1. madhura (sweet),
  2. amla (sour),
  3. lavaṇa (salty),
  4. kaṭu (hot),
  5. tikta (bitter)
  6. and kaṣaya (astringent).

The concept of Rasa in Ayurveda includes not only the sensory knowledge through taste buds but also the trigeminal senses. Each Rasa indicates a distinct mahābhautika status of the substance.

Source: PMC: The scientific basis of rasa (taste)

The term ‘Rasa’ stands for all circulating fluids in the body including the fluid portion of blood (Cakrapāṇi on Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/36). ‘Rasa’ isalso the minutest and essential fraction of properly digested food. Heart is the site for this ‘Rasa’ (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 14/3). This ‘Rasa’ circulates in the body along with ‘Rakta’ (Ātaṅkadarpaṇa on Mādhava-nidāna 33/4). Ten great blood vessels connected to heart carry the ‘Rasātmaka Ojas’, onwhich the whole life process is dependent (Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā Śārirasthāna 3/18).

From the above references it is clear that three major substances circulate in the cardiovascular compartment—the first one is ‘Rasa’—the liquid nutrient portion of blood (Plasma); the second substance is ‘Rakta’, the oxygen-carrying red material (RBCs); and the third one is ‘Ojas’—the white substance that is responsible for immunity (WBCs).

The manner, in which ‘Rasa’ moves all over the body, is exactly similar to the manner in which sound, fire and water move (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 4/16).

Source: Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Rasā (रसा):—One of the sixty-eight Rasauṣadhi, very powerful drugs known to be useful in alchemical processes related to mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).

Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra

Rasa (रस):—The origin myth of mercury (rasa) as recorded in the Rasendracūḍāmaṇi, the Rasaratnasamucchaya and the Ānandakandam is a variant on the puranic myth of the birth of the boy-god Skanda. Here, when the god Śiva has been interrupted in the midst of an interminable bout of sexual intercourse with the Goddess, he ejaculates into the mouth of the fire god Agni, who has taken the form of a pigeon. As Agni flies across the heavens, drops of Śiva’s semen fall from his beak onto the ground, where they bore down through the earth’s surface to create five wells (kūpa), each some nine hundred miles in depth. It is in these wells, the myth concludes, that Śiva’s semen is found today in the form of merucry. Anxious of the powers that mercury could afford to humans, the lesser gods of the Hindu pantheon plead with Śiva to vitiate it with various impurities, for which reason it is now found in a variety of colors, ranging from the white mercury of the eastern well to the red (and purest) mercury of the northern well. These sources generally locate this northern well in Darada-deśa (‘Cinnabar Land’)

Source: Google Books: Alchemical Traditions
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Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Pandit Raj Jagannatha says that rasa is the name given to bhāva when it is immediately apprehended by the consciousness without veils.

Source: Google Books: Aparājitapṛcchā, a Critical Study
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Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

1) Rasa (रस) refers to the “sentiment” of a dramatic play. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.17-18, when Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda he took rasa (sentiment) from the Atharvaveda.

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.15, the eight sentiments (rasa) recognized in drama are as follows:

  1. śṛṅgāra (Erotic),
  2. hāsya (Comic),
  3. karuṇa (Pathetic),
  4. raudra (Furious),
  5. vīra (Heroic),
  6. bhayānaka (Terrible),
  7. bībhatsa (Odious),
  8. adbhuta (Marvellous)

According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31, “No poetic meaning proceeds from speech without any kind of sentiment (rasa). Now the Sentiment is produced (rasaniṣpatti) from a combination (saṃyoga) of Determinants (vibhāva), Consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāribhāva).”

2) Rasa (रस, “taste”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by slightly narrowing down the eyes and expanding the nostrils and in the same breath, the wise one is to represent the agreeable taste (rasa) and the smell (gandha)”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Rasa (रस, “sentiment”).—The term rasa or the sentiment primarily denotes taste or favour, however in literature; it has the connotation of emotional experience of beauty. Bharata, the author of the NŚ,is said to be the first exponent of the theory of rasa. His famous rasa-sūtra runs as follows—“rasa is the outcome of the combinations of vibhāva, anubhāva and vyabhicāribhāva”.

In the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita of Maṅkhaka, various kinds of poetic sentiments are found to be depicted. Maṅkhaka himself states that his poem is full of rasas. In his poem, Maṅkhaka delineates all the sentiments, some in broad details and some in short; however, his claim is quite justified as all the rasas get attention from the poet.

Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)

Rasa (रस) refers to the “soul of poetry” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).—Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya has enumerated the number of rasas. According to him there are nine rasas

  1. śṛṅgāra,
  2. hāsya,
  3. karuṇa,
  4. raudra,
  5. vira,
  6. bhayānaka,
  7. bībhatsa,
  8. adbhuta,
  9. śānta.

Nine sthāyibhāvas (permanent moods) favourable to different rasas:—Cirañjīva has enumerated nine sthāyibhāvas conducive to nine rasas admitted by him before. These are—rati, hāsa, śoka, krodha, utsāha, bhaya, jugupsā, vismaya and nirveda related to nine rasas.

Nine colours related to the nine rasas:—The śṛṅgāra is dark-blue coloured; the hāsya is crystal coloured; the karuṇa is pigion coloured; the colours of raudra, vīra, bhayānaka, bībhatsa, adbhuta, śānta are red, yellow, soily, blue, white and dark respectively.

Nine deities related to the nine rasas:—According to Cirañjīva the deities of nine rasas are Viṣṇu, Māruta, Varuṇa, Rudra, Śakra (Indra), Kṛtānta (Yama), Mahākāla (an aweful form of Śiva), Vidhātā (creator) and Brahmā respectively.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (natyashastra)

1) Rasa (sentiment) or Navarasa is defined in the the first book of the Pañcamarapu (‘five-fold traditional usage’) which deals with niruttam (dance, one of the sixty–four arts) and represents an important piece of Tamil literature.—

The nine rasas (sentiments) are:—

  1. uvakai (joy),
  2. nakai (laughter),
  3. alukai (pathetic),
  4. vekuli (anger),
  5. perumitam (sense of pride),
  6. accam (fear),
  7. ilivaral (fatigue),
  8. maruṭkai (surprise),
  9. naṭunilai (peace).

These nine rasas are exhibited through three characters namely, the sāttvika, rājasa and tāmasa. The sixteen types of tāṇḍava that were danced by Śiva and Kālī in a place called Ālankāṭu are said to have expressed the characters and navarasas of akam in their dance and this aspect is known as akamarga.

2) Rasa (रस) refers to “sentiment” or “aesthetic sense” as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Rasa means sentiment or flavour or aesthetic sense that is in the performer. In Indian aesthetics, rasa is the tasting of the flavour of a work of art. Bharata explains the eight rasas in the chapter 6 of Nāṭyaśāstra, titled Rasādhyāya or the “chapter on sentiments”.

The eight rasas are:

  1. śṛṅgāra (the erotic),
  2. hāsya (the comic),
  3. karuṇa (the pathetic),
  4. raudra (the furious),
  5. vīra (the heroic),
  6. bhayānaka (the fearful),
  7. bībhatsa (the disgusting),
  8. adbhuta (the wondrous).

The ninth rasa is called śānta (the peaceful). Thus the rasas together are called navarasas (the nine sentiments). Abhinavagupta mentions the śānta rasa as the major and basic rasa.

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1a) Rasa (रस).—A Tuṣita god.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 19.

1b) The guṇa of waters becomes absorbed in jyotis or tejas and consequently waters reach the verge of destruction.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 42. 102. 9.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)

Rasa (रस, “taste”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.

Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Vaisheshika book cover
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Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Rasa (रस) or Rasatattva is an unequalled tattva which can be compared to the rising of the moon, whose radiance is the expanding līlā of para-brahma Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Bhakti-rasa is the function of kṛṣṇa-bhakti when it becomes absolutely pure. It is made up of four different ingredients: (1) vibhāva, (2) anubhāva, (3) sāttvika, and (4) vyabhicārī or sañcārī.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Jaiva-dharma
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Nyaya (school of philosophy)

Rasa (रस, “taste”) or Rasaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Rasa (taste) is the second quality. It is a special quality. According to Praśastapāda rasa (taste) is perceived by tongue. Viśvanātha also defines rasa (taste) as that which is apprehended by the tongue. The taste of atoms of water is eternal but all other taste is non-eternal. Similar definition is forwarded by Annaṃbhaṭṭa also. In his view also quality is known as rasa (taste) which is perceived by tongue. The word guṇa is added in this definition to avoid the over-pervasion to rasatva. Tastehood or the generality of taste is perceived by tongue, so there is over-pervasion. However, with the addition of the word guṇa this over-pervasion can be avoided, tastehood being different from quality. Śivāditya makes this definition more clearly by stating that the quality of rasa possesses the generic character rasatva and is perceptible by tongue.

Taste (rasa) is of six kinds, viz., sweet, sour, salty, pungent, astringent and bitter. The substratums of rasa are earth and water. All the six varieties of rasa subsist in earth but water has only the sweet variety. Viśvanātha states that rasa is both eternal and non-enteral. The rasa of the atom of water is eternal, while others are non-eternal.

Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
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Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Rasa (रस, “flavor”):—The theory of rasa as the essence of literature has led to endless debate among scholars. Rasa means “sap”, “juice”, “essence”, “taste”, “delight”, “charm” and “sentiment”. All of these meanings are wrapped up in rasa as the defining trait of artistic literature. Only those who are gifted with a sense of good taste (the rasika) are able to appreciate the work of peots.

Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: A Guide to Sanskrit Metrics and Figures of Speech

Every living entity, beginning from Brahmā, the first-born living being within the material world, down to the insignificant ant, desires to relish some sort of taste derived from sense perceptions. These sensual pleasures are technically called rasas. Such rasas are of different varieties.

In the revealed scriptures the following twelve varieties of rasas are enumerated:

  1. raudra (anger),
  2. adbhuta (wonder),
  3. śṛṅgāra (conjugal love),
  4. hāsya (comedy),
  5. vīra (chivalry),
  6. dayā (mercy),
  7. dāsya (servitorship),
  8. sakhya (fraternity),
  9. bhayānaka (horror),
  10. bībhatsa (shock),
  11. śānta (neutrality),
  12. vātsalya (parenthood).
Source: Srimad Bhagavatam: The Book

A term for mercury, the prime alchemical reagent, was rasa.

Source: Oxford Bibliographies: Hinduism

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)


Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama

Function or achievement.

Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas

lit: 'taste'; Property of matter (rupa).

Source: Pali Kanon: Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Rasa (रस, “taste”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “Why condemn tastes (rasa)? One must reason [and say]: Just by coveting exquisite tastes I will suffer all the sufferings; they will pour molten copper into my mouth, I will swallow balls of burning iron. If I do not consider the nature of foods, feelings of gluttony will be established in me and I will fall into the level of the impure insects”.

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
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Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

1) Rasa (रस, “taste”) or rasāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., rasa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Rasa also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

Rasa also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).

Rasa also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).

2) Rasa (रस, “taste”) or Ṣaḍrasa refers to the “six kinds of tastes” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36):

  1. madhura (Sweet),
  2. amla, (sour),
  3. lavaṇa, (salty),
  4. kaṭu (acidic),
  5. tikta, (bitter),
  6. kaṣāya (astringent).
Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Rasa (रस, “taste”) refers to the object of rasana (tasting), which represents one of the “five sense-organs” (pañcendriya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.19. Cognition which results by tasting the object of knowledge is called taste (rasa). How many types of taste are there? There are five types of taste namely spicy, bitter, poisonous, sour and sweet. What is the form of taste sense organ? It is in form of a spade / axe (khurpā).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living

Rasa (रस, “healing power”) or Rasadhiriddhi refers to “the extraordinary power by which an ascetic can change any type of un-palatable food into palatable food” and represents one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (eg., Rasa).

Rasa-ṛddhi (occult power to change food) is of six types namely:

  1. change food in the palm (payastravā-riddhi),
  2. change dry to buttered food (ghrastravā-riddhi),
  3. creating sweets (miṣṭāstravā-riddhi),
  4. creating food with nectar (amṛtastravā-riddhi),
  5. removing poison from a poisonous bite (āsyaviṣa-riddhi),
  6. poisonous (dṛṣṭiviṣa-riddhi).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds

Rasa (रस, “taste”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.23.—“The forms of matter (pudgala) are characterized by touch (sparśa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha) and colour (varṇa)”. What is the meaning of taste (rasa)? What is tasted or just tasting alone is taste. How many types of taste are there? There are five types of taste namely bitter (kasailā), sour (kadavā), acidic (khaṭṭā), sweet (mīthā) and astringent (caraparā).

Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 5: The category of the non-living

Rasa (रस) refers to “taste karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is the taste (rasa) body-making karma? The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma. 

How many types of taste (rasa) body-making karmas are there? These are of five types, namely:

  1. bitter (tikta),
  2. pungent (kaṭuka),
  3. astringent (kaṣāya),
  4. sour (amla),
  5. sweet (madhura).
Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

rasa : (m.) taste; juice; flavour; quick-silver.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

1) Rasa, 2 (-°) is a dial. form of °dasa ten, and occurs in Classic Pāli only in the numerals for 13 (terasa), 15 (paṇṇa-rasa, pannarasa), 17 (sattarasa) & 18 (aṭṭhārasa, late). The Prk. has gone further: see Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 245. (Page 567)

2) Rasa, 1 (Vedic rasa; with Lat. ros “dew, ” Lith. rasā id. , and Av Ranhā N. of a river, to Idg. *eres to flow, as in Sk. arṣati, Gr. a)/yorros (to r(έw); also Sk. ṛṣabha: see usabha1.—Dhtp 325 defines as “assādane” 629 as “assāda-snehanesu”; Dhtm 451 as “assāde. ” — The decl. is usually as regular a-stem, but a secondary Instr. fr. an s-stem is to be found in rasasā by taste A. II, 63; J. III, 328) that which is connected with the sense of taste. The defn given at Vism. 447 is as follows: “jivhā-paṭihanana-lakkhaṇo raso, jivhā-viññāṇassa visaya-bhāvo raso, tass’eva gocara-paccupaṭṭhāno, mūla-raso khandha-raso ti ādinā nayena anekavidho, ” i.e. rasa is physiologically & psychologically peculiar to the tongue (sense-object & sense-perception), and also consists as a manifold object in extractions from roots, trunk etc. (see next).—The conventional encyclopædic defn of rasa at Nd1 240; Nd2 540, Dhs. 629 gives taste according to: (a) the 6—fold objective source as mūla-rasa, khandha°, taca°, patta°, puppha°, phala°, or taste (i.e. juice, liquid) of root, trunk, bark, leaf, flower & fruit; and — (b) the 12—fold subjective (physiological) sense-perception as ambila, madhura, tittika, kaṭuka loṇika, khārika, lambila (Miln. 56: ambila), kasāva; sādu, asādu, sīta, uṇha, or sour, sweet, bitter, pungent, salt, alkaline, sour, astringent; pleasant, unpleasant, cold & hot. Miln. 56 has the foll. : ambila, lavaṇa, tittaka, kaṭuka, kasāya, madhura.—1. juice (as applied in the Veda to the Soma juice), e.g. in the foll. combns: ucchu° of sugar cane, extract of sugar, cane syrup Vin. I, 246; VvA. 180; patta° & puppha° of leaf & flower Vin. I, 246; madhura° of honey PvA. 119.—2. taste as (objective) quality, the sense-object of taste (cp. above defns). In the list of the āyatanas, or senses with their complementary sense-objects (sentient and sensed) rasa occupies the 4th place, following upon gandha. It is stated that one tastes (or “senses”) taste with the tongue (no reference to palate): jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā (or viññeyya). See also āyatana 3 and rūpa.—M. III, 55 (jivhā-viññeyya r.), 267; D. III, 244, 250; Sn. 387; Dhs. 609; PvA. 50 (vaṇṇagandha-rasa-sampanna bhojana: see below 5).—3. sense of taste, as quality & personal accomplishment. Thus in the list of senses marking superiority (the 10 ādhipateyyas or ṭhāṇas), similar to rasa as special distinction of the Mahāpurisa (see cpd. ras-agga) S. IV, 275 =Pv. II, 958; A. IV, 242.—4. object or act of enjoyment, sensual stimulus, material enjoyment, pleasure (usually in pl.) Sn. 65 (rasesu gedha, see materialistic exegesis at Nd2 540), 854 (rase na anugijjhati; perhaps better rasesu, as SnA); A. III, 237 (puriso agga°-parititto: perhaps to No. 2).—5. flavour and its substance (or substratum), e.g. soup VvA. 243 (kakkaṭaka° crabsoup), cp. S. V, 149, where 8 soup flavours are given (ambila, tittaka, kaṭuka, madhura, khārika, akhārika, loṇika, aloṇika); Pv. II, 115 (aneka-rasa-vyañjana “with exceptionally flavoured sauce”); J. V, 459, 465. gorasa “flavour of cow, i.e. produce of cow: see under go. Also metaphorically: “flavour, relish, pleasure”: Sn. 257 (pariveka°, dhamma-pīṭi°, cp. SnA 299 “assād’aṭṭhena” i.e. tastiness); PvA. 287 (vimutti° relish of salvation). So also as attha°, dhamma°, vimutti° Ps. II, 89.—6. (in grammar & style) essential property, elegance, brightness; in dramatic art “sentiment” (flavour) (see Childers s. v. naṭya-rasa) Miln. 340 (with opamma and lakkhaṇa: perhaps to No. 7); PvA. 122 (°rasa as ending in Np. Aṅgīrasa, expld as jutiyā adhivacanaṃ, “ i.e. brightness, excellency).—7. at t. t. in philosophy “essential property” (Expos. 84), combd with lakkhaṇa etc. (cp. Cpd. 13, 213), either kicca° function or sampatti° property DhsA. 63, 249; Vism. 8, 448; Miln. 148.—8. fine substance, semi-solid semiliquid substance, extract, delicacy, fineness, dust. Thus in paṭhavī° “essence of earth, ” humus S. I, 134 (trsln “taste of earth, ” rather abstract); or rasapaṭhavī earth as dust or in great fineness, “primitive earth” (before taking solid shape) D. III, 86 sq. (trsl. “savoury earth, ” not quite clear), opp. to bhūmipappaṭaka; Vism. 418; pabbata-rasa mountain extract, rock-substance J. III, 55; suvaṇṇa° gold dust J. I, 93. ‹-› 9. (adj.—°) tasting Vv 1611 (Amatarasā f. =nibbānarasāvinī VvA. 85).

—agga finest quality (of taste), only in further compn with °aggita (ras-agga-s-aggita) most delicate sense trsln Dial.) D. III, 167, and °aggin (ras-agga-s-aggin, cp. MVastu II. 306: rasa-ras’âgrin) of the best quality (of taste, cp. above 2), said of the Mahāpurisa D. II, 18= III, 144 (cp. trsln Dial. II. 15 “his taste is supremely acute”). The phrase & its wording are still a little doubtful. Childers gives etym. of rasaggas-aggin as rasa-ggas-aggin, ggas representing gras to swallow (not otherwise found in Pāli!), and expls the BSk. ras’âgrin as a distortion of the P. form. —añjana a sort of ointment (among 5 kinds), “vitriol” (Rh. D.) Vin. I, 203. —âda enjoying the objects of taste M. III, 168. —āyatana the sphere of taste D. III, 243, 290; Dhs. 629, 653, 1195 (insert after gandha°, see Dhs. trsl. 319). —ārammaṇa object of taste Dhs. 12, 147, 157. —āsā craving for tastes Dhs. 1059. —garuka bent on enjoyment SnA 107. —taṇhā thirst for taste, lust of sensual enjoyment D. III, 244, 280; J. V, 293; Dhs. 1059; DhA. IV, 196. —saññā perception of tastes D. III, 244 (where also °sañcetanā). —haraṇī (f.) (ph. °haraṇiyo, in compn haraṇi°) taste-conductor, taste-receiver; the salivary canals of the mouth or the nerves of sensation; these are in later literature given as numbering 7000, e.g. at J. V, 293 (khobhetvā phari); DhA. I, 134 (anuphari); KhA 51 (only as 7!); SnA 107 (paṭhama-kabaḷe mukhe pakkhitta-matte satta rasa-haraṇi-sahassāni amaten’eva phutāni ahesuṃ). Older passages are: Vin. II, 137; D. III, 167 (referring to the Mahāpurisa: “sampajjasā r-haranī susaṇṭhitā, ” trsln: erect taste-bearers planted well (in throat)). (Page 566)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

rasa (रस).—m (S) Flavor, taste, sapidity. 2 Juice or sap; the liquor of fruits or plants. 3 By way of eminence. Sugarcane-juice or mango-juice. 4 Liquor obtained by infusion or decoction. 5 The primary or essential juice or fluid of the body; whence blood, serum, sweat &c. are supposed to be engendered. 6 Metal in the state of fusion. 7 Taste, sentiment, susceptibility; or a sentiment or passion; any affection or emotion of the mind. Nine sentiments are enumerated; śṛṅgāra or rati, utsāha or hāsya, kāruṇya, raudra or krōdha, vismaya or adbhuta, bhaya, bītsabha, śānta, vātsalya. See navarasa. 8 In figurative senses. Spirit, sweetness, salt, fire, pathos, beauty &c. (as in a composition, an incident, a business). 9 A mineral or a metallic salt; as sulphur, borax, talc, vitriol &c. 10 In Sanskrit this word stands for quicksilver, semen virile, water, poison, gum myrrh &c.; and under it, as the common term, are comprehended the several items of stimulant or sapid food, as spices, curds, oil, sugar, salt &c. Some of these senses will sometimes be met with in Maraṭhi. rasīṃ utaraṇēṃ To get gourdiness in the extremities--a horse.

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rasā (रसा).—m (rasa) A sauce made of spices pounded together and mixed with water.

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rāśa (राश).—&c. Popular forms of rāśi, rāśighaṭita &c.

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rāśā (राशा).—a (rāsa Heap or stock.) Middling. Applied only to men, and with the implication of neuter or impotent; and, thence, imbecile or incompetent in general.

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rāsa (रास).—f (rāśi S) A sign of the zodiac. 2 A heap or pile; an accumulation; a stock &c. See rāśi throughout its senses and its phrases.

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rāsa (रास).—m or ind This word, from A Head, is used, in stating the number of horses, in the sense A head or an individual; as sara ( P Head) is used to express A head of bulls, bullocks, buffaloes, and cows; naphara to express A head of camels; and naga to express A head of elephants. Ex. ghōḍē rāsa dāhā; baila or gāya &c. sara pāñca; uṇṭa naphara vīsa.

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rāsa (रास).—m (S) A festival amongst cowherds consisting of songs and dances and lively sporting; esp. the circular dance as performed by Krishn̤a and the Gopis or cowherdesses.

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rāsa (रास).—a & ad ( P) Straight, not oblique or obliquely;--used of cloth cut or of cutting cloth. A term amongst tailors. Opp. to irēpha.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

rasa (रस).—m Flavour. Juice. Metal in the state of fusion. Fig. Sweetness. Taste. Any affection or emotion of the nine rasa such as śṛṅgāra, vīra, &c.

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rasā (रसा).—m A sauce made of spices.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Rasa (रस).—[ras-ac]

1) Sap, juice (of trees); इक्षुरसः, कुसुमरसः (ikṣurasaḥ, kusumarasaḥ) &c.

2) A liquid, fluid; यष्टव्यं पशुभिर्मुख्यैरथो बीजै रसैरिति (yaṣṭavyaṃ paśubhirmukhyairatho bījai rasairiti) Mb.14.91.21; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (nyastākṣarā dhāturasena yatra) Ku.1.7.

3) Water; सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः (sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṃ raviḥ) R.1.18; Bv.2.144.

4) Liquor, drink; Ms.2.177.

5) A draught, potion.

6) Taste, flavour, relish (fig. also) (considered in Vaiś. phil. as one of the 24 gunas; the rasas are six; kaṭu, amla, madhura, lavaṇa, tikta and kaṣāya); परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथ- मिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः (parāyattaḥ prīteḥ katha- miva rasaṃ vettu puruṣaḥ) Mu.3.4; U.2.2.

7) A sauce, condiment,

8) An object of taste; मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा (mano babandhānyarasān vilaṅdhya sā) R.3.4.

9) Taste or inclination for a thing, liking, desire; रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते (rasavarjaṃ raso'pyasya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate) Bg.2.59; इष्टे वस्तुन्युपचितरसाः प्रेमराशीभवन्ति (iṣṭe vastunyupacitarasāḥ premarāśībhavanti) Me.114.

1) Love, affection; जरसा यस्मिन्नहार्यो रसः (jarasā yasminnahāryo rasaḥ) U.1.39; प्रसरति रसो निर्वृतिघनः (prasarati raso nirvṛtighanaḥ) 6.11 'feeling of love'; रसादृते (rasādṛte) V.2.21; Ku. 3.37.

11) Pleasure, delight, happiness; चिरात्सुतस्पर्श- रसज्ञतां ययौ (cirātsutasparśa- rasajñatāṃ yayau) R.3.26.

12) Charm, interest, elegance, beauty.

13) Pathos, emotion, feeling.

14) (In poetic compositions) A sentiment; नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति (navarasarucirāṃ nirmitimādadhatī bhāratī kaverjayati); K. P.1. (The rasas are usually eight :-- śṛṅgārahāsyakaruṇaraudravīrabhayānakāḥ | bhībhatsādbhutasaṃjñau cetyaṣṭau nāṭye rasāḥ smṛtāḥ || but sometimes śāntarasa is added; thus making the total number 9; nirvedasthāyibhāvo'sti śānto'pi navamo rasaḥ K. P.4; sometimes a tenth, vātsalyarasa, is also added. Rasas are more or less a necessary factor of every poetic composition, but, according to Viśvanātha, they constitute the very essence of poetry; vākyaṃ rasātmakaṃ kāvyam S. D.3.).

15) Essence, pith, best part; ब्रह्म तेजोमयं शुक्रं यस्य सर्वमिदं रसः (brahma tejomayaṃ śukraṃ yasya sarvamidaṃ rasaḥ)Mb.12.24.9.

16) A constituent fluid of the body.

17) Semen virile.

18) Mercury.

19) A poison, poisonous drink; as in तीक्ष्णरस- दायिनः (tīkṣṇarasa- dāyinaḥ); रसविधानकौशलैः (rasavidhānakauśalaiḥ) Dk.2.8.

2) Any mineral metallic salt.

21) Juice of the sugar-cane.

22) Milk.

23) Melted butter.

24) Nectar; मयः कूपरसेऽक्षिपत् (mayaḥ kūparase'kṣipat) Bhāg.7.1.59-6.

25) Soup, broth.

26) A symbolical expression for the number 'six'.

27) Green onion.

28) Myrrh.

29) Gold.

3) A metal in a state of fusion.

31) See रसातल (rasātala); अनेन नूनं वेदानां कृतमाहरणं रसात् (anena nūnaṃ vedānāṃ kṛtamāharaṇaṃ rasāt) Mb.12.347.67.

32) The tongue (as the organ of taste); वाण्यां च छन्दांसि रसे जलेशम् (vāṇyāṃ ca chandāṃsi rase jaleśam) Bhāg.8.2.27; जितं सर्वं जिते रसे (jitaṃ sarvaṃ jite rase) 11.8.21.

33) (With Vaiṣṇavas.) Disposition of the heart or mind (the five Rasas are śānti, dāsya, sākhya, vātsalya and mādhurya).

Derivable forms: rasaḥ (रसः).

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Rasā (रसा).—

1) The lower or infernal regions, hell.

2) The earth, ground, soil; यद् ग्रावेव रसातलं पुनरसौ यातो गजग्रामणीः (yad grāveva rasātalaṃ punarasau yāto gajagrāmaṇīḥ) Bv.1.59; रसादिपञ्चीकृतभूतसंभवम् (rasādipañcīkṛtabhūtasaṃbhavam) A. Rām.7.5.28; स्मरस्य युद्धरङ्गतां रसाऽऽर सारसारसा (smarasya yuddharaṅgatāṃ rasā''ra sārasārasā) Nalod.2.1.

3) the tongue.

4) A vine or grapes.

5) Ved. Moisture.

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Rāsa (रास).—

1) An uproar, a din, confused noise.

2) A sound in general.

3) Speech.

4) A kind of dance practised by Kṛṣṇa and the cowherds but particularly the gopis or cowherdesses of Vrindāvana; तत्रारभत गोविन्दो रासक्रीडामनुव्रतैः । स्त्रीरत्नैरन्वितः प्रीतैरन्योन्याबद्धबाहुभिः (tatrārabhata govindo rāsakrīḍāmanuvrataiḥ | strīratnairanvitaḥ prītairanyonyābaddhabāhubhiḥ) || Bhāg.1.33.2; उत्सृज्य रासे रसं गच्छन्तीम् (utsṛjya rāse rasaṃ gacchantīm) Ve.1.2; रासे हरिमिह विहितविलासं स्मरति मनो मम कृतपरिहासम् (rāse harimiha vihitavilāsaṃ smarati mano mama kṛtaparihāsam) Gīt.2; also Gīt.1.

5) A chain.

6) A sport, play.

Derivable forms: rāsaḥ (रासः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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