Rasa, Rasā, Rasha: 67 definitions
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Rasa means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
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Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Rasa (रस) is a Sanskrit technical term, translating to the “taste” of a plant (e.g. bitter). It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā and the Caraka-saṃhitā.Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu
1a) Rasa (रस) or Rasavarga is another name for Pānīyādi: the fourteenth chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Rasa-varga].
1b) Rasa also refers to a property of medicinal drugs, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). Accordingly, “the Rasa, Vīrya and Vipāka of the drugs should be noted (studied) carefully. [...] Rasa is indicated as Madhura, Amla, Lavaṇa, Kaṭu, Tikta and Kaṣāya”.
2) Rasā (रसा) refers to “earth” and is mentioned in a list of 53 synonyms for dharaṇi (“earth”), according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Rasā], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.Source: archive.org: Sushruta samhita, Volume I
[Since a matter is designated after the name of the preponderant natural element, which enters into its composition], taste is said to be a water-origined principle. All material elements are inseparably connected with one another, and there is a sort of interdependence among them, each one contributing to the continuance of the other and jointly entering, to a more or less extent, into the composition of all material substances.
This water-origined flavour (Rasa), which becoming modified through its contact with the rest of the material elements, admits of being divided into six different kinds, such as
- sweet (Madhura),
- acid (Amla),
- saline (Havana),
- pungent (Katuka),
- bitter (Tikta),
- and astringent (Kashāya).
These, in their turn, being combined with one another, give rise to sixty-three different kinds.
According to certain authorities, there are only two kinds of tastes, owing to the two-fold (hot and cold) nature of the temperament of the world. Of these the tastes such as sweet, bitter and astringent are cold in their properties, while the pungent, acid and saline ones exercise fiery or heat making virtues.
The watery (Saumya) tastes are cold. The fiery (Āgneya) ones are hot.Source: archive.org: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)
Rasa (रस) refers to “flavours” and is mentioned in verse 3.8 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—Accordingly, “[...] having (only) little fuel, it may cook the elements (when) kindled by wind. In this cold (season), therefore, one shall turn to the sweet, sour, and salt flavours [rasa]”.
Note: Rasa and its equivalent ro (“flavour”) have been used metonymically for food possessed of the flavours mentioned.Source: PMC: Rasa Nirdhāraṇa (assessment of taste) of Leonotis nepetifolia
Rasa (a concept corresponding to taste) is the only perceivable parameter for drug identification in Ayurveda. The Ayurvedic pharmacological principles such as guṇa (quality), vīrya (potency) and vipāka (effect of biotransformation) are inferred based on the identified Rasa of a drug. All these principles together predict the probable spectrum of drug action in Ayurveda.Source: PMC: The scientific basis of rasa (taste)
Rasa, roughly corresponds to “taste” in English. Ayurvedic pharmacology has the concept that helps exploring and verifying pharmacological behavior of a substance based on its rasa. Rasa is quite larger a concept than taste, where taste is only the first tool to enter into a larger concept. Rasa is defined as a “knowledge perceived through Rasanā Indriya (roughly gustatory sensation) located at Jihvā (tongue).” Caraka says Rasa is experienced the moment a substance comes into contact with the tongue.
Rasa indirectly indicates the pharamacological behavior of the substance but directly reflects the mahābhautika state of the substance. There are six primary Rasas viz.
- madhura (sweet),
- amla (sour),
- lavaṇa (salty),
- kaṭu (hot),
- tikta (bitter)
- and kaṣaya (astringent).
The concept of Rasa in Ayurveda includes not only the sensory knowledge through taste buds but also the trigeminal senses. Each Rasa indicates a distinct mahābhautika status of the substance.Source: Cogprints: Concepts of Human Physiology in Ayurveda
The term ‘Rasa’ stands for all circulating fluids in the body including the fluid portion of blood (Cakrapāṇi on Carakasaṃhitā Cikitsāsthāna 15/36). ‘Rasa’ isalso the minutest and essential fraction of properly digested food. Heart is the site for this ‘Rasa’ (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 14/3). This ‘Rasa’ circulates in the body along with ‘Rakta’ (Ātaṅkadarpaṇa on Mādhava-nidāna 33/4). Ten great blood vessels connected to heart carry the ‘Rasātmaka Ojas’, onwhich the whole life process is dependent (Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā Śārirasthāna 3/18).
From the above references it is clear that three major substances circulate in the cardiovascular compartment—the first one is ‘Rasa’—the liquid nutrient portion of blood (Plasma); the second substance is ‘Rakta’, the oxygen-carrying red material (RBCs); and the third one is ‘Ojas’—the white substance that is responsible for immunity (WBCs).
The manner, in which ‘Rasa’ moves all over the body, is exactly similar to the manner in which sound, fire and water move (Suśrutasaṃhitā Sūtrasthāna 4/16).Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Rasa (रस) refers to “tastes” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—In the Rasa or “taste” group of foodstuffs, the following substances are beneficial (hita) to the body: Madhura (sweet).Source: gurumukhi.ru: Ayurveda glossary of terms
1) Rasa (रस):—Taste; feeling percieved by Rasanendriya(Tongue) when the substance comes in contact with it; 6 in number; Each Rasa indicates the pattern of pharmacological activity of the substance;
2) Element mercury with atomic weight 200. 6 symbol Hg
3) Refers to meat soup. Qualities of this is nutritive, provides satity, aphrodisiac, improves vision and cure wound.Source: National Mission for Manuscripts: Traditional Medicine System in India
Rasa (रस, “taste”) refers to the “taste of drugs” and represents one of the six divisions of dravya (drugs).—The drug/dravya, if is properly used it is equivalent to amṛta (nectar) and if improperly used it is like viṣa (poison). According to Āyurveda, dravya or drug is comprised of rasa (taste), guṇa (properties and qualities), vīrya (potency), vipāka (post-digestive-taste), prabhāva (serendipity—specific effect of a drug) and karma (targeted action of a drug).
Rasa (“taste”) are six in number. They are:
- madhura (sweet),
- amla (sour),
- lavaṇa (salty),
- kaṭu (spicy),
- tikta (bitter),
- kaṣāya (astringent).
The different parts of the tongue can perceive the tastes and it makes effect on the body, whether it is a food or medicine or a level of medicines.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (kāmasūtra)
Rasa (रस) refers to “dampness” (at the female genitalia), according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyana and Jaśodhara’s commentary called the Jayamaṅgalā .—Accordingly, “[When you are] about to practise sex, [first you should] rub her genitalia with your hand, and when there is dampness (rasa-prāpti-kāla), the sexual act can be commenced. This is the restoration of passion”.Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa
Rasa (रस) refers to “soup” or “gravy”, and is part of the diet in the treatment of horses, according to sections on the treatment of Horses (Gajāyurveda or Aśvāyurveda) in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—The diet also plays a role during the treatment because the food imparts a greater strength and vigour to the horses and acts as a general prophylactic against diseases. The following diets are mentioned for the horses in Garuḍapurāṇa, which are according to the doṣa: [...] The diet in kaphaja-vikāra: In diseases of the deranged kapha, mudga (green gram) or kulattha (horse gram) rasa (soup/ gravy) mixed with kaṭu, tikta (pungent, bitter drugs), should be given to horses. [...]
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)Source: Wisdom Library: Rasa-śāstra
Rasā (रसा):—One of the sixty-eight Rasauṣadhi, very powerful drugs known to be useful in alchemical processes related to mercury (rasa), according to Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara (chapter 9).Source: Google Books: Alchemical Traditions
Rasa (रस):—The origin myth of mercury (rasa) as recorded in the Rasendracūḍāmaṇi, the Rasaratnasamucchaya and the Ānandakandam is a variant on the puranic myth of the birth of the boy-god Skanda. Here, when the god Śiva has been interrupted in the midst of an interminable bout of sexual intercourse with the Goddess, he ejaculates into the mouth of the fire god Agni, who has taken the form of a pigeon. As Agni flies across the heavens, drops of Śiva’s semen fall from his beak onto the ground, where they bore down through the earth’s surface to create five wells (kūpa), each some nine hundred miles in depth. It is in these wells, the myth concludes, that Śiva’s semen is found today in the form of merucry. Anxious of the powers that mercury could afford to humans, the lesser gods of the Hindu pantheon plead with Śiva to vitiate it with various impurities, for which reason it is now found in a variety of colors, ranging from the white mercury of the eastern well to the red (and purest) mercury of the northern well. These sources generally locate this northern well in Darada-deśa (‘Cinnabar Land’)
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Shilpashastra (iconography)Source: Google Books: Aparājitapṛcchā, a Critical Study
Pandit Raj Jagannatha says that rasa is the name given to bhāva when it is immediately apprehended by the consciousness without veils.
Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
1) Rasa (रस) refers to the “sentiment” of a dramatic play. According to the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.17-18, when Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda he took rasa (sentiment) from the Atharvaveda.
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.15, the eight sentiments (rasa) recognized in drama are as follows:
- śṛṅgāra (Erotic),
- hāsya (Comic),
- karuṇa (Pathetic),
- raudra (Furious),
- vīra (Heroic),
- bhayānaka (Terrible),
- bībhatsa (Odious),
- adbhuta (Marvellous)
According to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6.31, “No poetic meaning proceeds from speech without any kind of sentiment (rasa). Now the Sentiment is produced (rasaniṣpatti) from a combination (saṃyoga) of Determinants (vibhāva), Consequents (anubhāva) and Complementary Psychological States (vyabhicāribhāva).”
2) Rasa (रस, “taste”) refers to an aspect of the representation of objects and senses, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 24. Accordingly, “by slightly narrowing down the eyes and expanding the nostrils and in the same breath, the wise one is to represent the agreeable taste (rasa) and the smell (gandha)”.Source: Shodhganga: Mankhaka a sanskrit literary genius (natya)
Rasa (रस, “sentiment”).—The term rasa or the sentiment primarily denotes taste or favour, however in literature; it has the connotation of emotional experience of beauty. Bharata, the author of the NŚ,is said to be the first exponent of the theory of rasa. His famous rasa-sūtra runs as follows—“rasa is the outcome of the combinations of vibhāva, anubhāva and vyabhicāribhāva”.
In the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita of Maṅkhaka, various kinds of poetic sentiments are found to be depicted. Maṅkhaka himself states that his poem is full of rasas. In his poem, Maṅkhaka delineates all the sentiments, some in broad details and some in short; however, his claim is quite justified as all the rasas get attention from the poet.Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (natya)
1) Rasa (sentiment) or Navarasa is defined in the first book of the Pañcamarapu (‘five-fold traditional usage’) which deals with niruttam (dance, one of the sixty–four arts) and represents an important piece of Tamil literature.—
The nine rasas (sentiments) are:—
- uvakai (joy),
- nakai (laughter),
- alukai (pathetic),
- vekuli (anger),
- perumitam (sense of pride),
- accam (fear),
- ilivaral (fatigue),
- maruṭkai (surprise),
- naṭunilai (peace).
These nine rasas are exhibited through three characters namely, the sāttvika, rājasa and tāmasa. The sixteen types of tāṇḍava that were danced by Śiva and Kālī in a place called Ālankāṭu are said to have expressed the characters and navarasas of akam in their dance and this aspect is known as akamarga.
2) Rasa (रस) refers to “sentiment” or “aesthetic sense” as used within the classical tradition of Indian dance and performance, also known as Bharatanatyam.—Rasa means sentiment or flavour or aesthetic sense that is in the performer. In Indian aesthetics, rasa is the tasting of the flavour of a work of art. Bharata explains the eight rasas in the chapter 6 of Nāṭyaśāstra, titled Rasādhyāya or the “chapter on sentiments”.
The eight rasas are:
- śṛṅgāra (the erotic),
- hāsya (the comic),
- karuṇa (the pathetic),
- raudra (the furious),
- vīra (the heroic),
- bhayānaka (the fearful),
- bībhatsa (the disgusting),
- adbhuta (the wondrous).
The ninth rasa is called śānta (the peaceful). Thus the rasas together are called navarasas (the nine sentiments). Abhinavagupta mentions the śānta rasa as the major and basic rasa.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Rasa (रस).—A Tuṣita god.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 19.
1b) The guṇa of waters becomes absorbed in jyotis or tejas and consequently waters reach the verge of destruction.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 101. 42. 102. 9.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Vaisheshika (school of philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Vaiśeṣika
Rasa (रस, “taste”) is one of the seventeen guṇas (‘qualities’), according to the Vaiśeṣika-sūtras. These guṇas are considered as a category of padārtha (“metaphysical correlate”). These padārthas represent everything that exists which can be cognized and named. Together with their subdivisions, they attempt to explain the nature of the universe and the existence of living beings.
Vaisheshika (वैशेषिक, vaiśeṣika) refers to a school of orthodox Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. Vaisheshika deals with subjects such as logic, epistemology, philosophy and expounds concepts similar to Buddhism in nature
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Jaiva-dharma
Rasa (रस) or Rasatattva is an unequalled tattva which can be compared to the rising of the moon, whose radiance is the expanding līlā of para-brahma Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Bhakti-rasa is the function of kṛṣṇa-bhakti when it becomes absolutely pure. It is made up of four different ingredients: (1) vibhāva, (2) anubhāva, (3) sāttvika, and (4) vyabhicārī or sañcārī.Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhagavad-gita (4th edition)
Rasa (रस) refers to “the exact English equivalent is untranslatable, but is herein rendered as ‘mellow quality’. It is the spiritual trans-formation of the heart which takes place when the perfected state of love for Kṛṣṇa, known as rati, is converted into heart-melting emotions by combining with various types of transcendental ecstasies”. (cf. Glossary page from Śrīmad-Bhagavad-Gītā).Source: Pure Bhakti: Bhajana-rahasya - 2nd Edition
Rasa (रस) refers to:—(1) the spiritual transformation of the heart which takes place when the perfectional state of love for Śrī Kṛṣṇa, known as rati, is converted into ‘liquid’ emotions by combining with various types of transcendental ecstasies; (2) taste, flavour. (cf. Glossary page from Bhajana-Rahasya).Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition
Rasa (रस) refers to “sugar” and represents one of the “five ambrosial ingredients” (Pañcāmṛta), used on special occasions for bathing śrī-guru or the deity), according to the Arcana-dīpikā (manual on deity worship).—Accordingly, while explaining mantras to sanctify the Pañcāmṛta Ingredients (pañcāmṛta-śodhana-mantras), for sugar (rasa):—“oṃ apāṃ rasaṃ udvayasaṃ sūrye santaṃ samāhitaṃ apāṃ rasasya yo rasas taṃ vo gṛhṇāmi uttamamupayāma gṛhīto’sīndrāya juṣṭaṃ gṛhṇāmy eṣa te yonir indrāya te juṣṭatamam”.Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Rasa (रस) refers to:—Transcendental mellow or taste; the astonishing experience of sublime liquid emotion when the five ingredients of love, beginning with sthāyibhāva, combine in the heart of the pure devotee. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Kavyashastra (science of poetry)Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyavilasa of Ciranjiva Bhattacarya (kavyashastra)
Rasa (रस) refers to the “soul of poetry” according to Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya (fl. 17th century).—Cirañjīva Bhaṭṭācārya has enumerated the number of rasas. According to him there are nine rasas—
Nine sthāyibhāvas (permanent moods) favourable to different rasas:—Cirañjīva has enumerated nine sthāyibhāvas conducive to nine rasas admitted by him before. These are—rati, hāsa, śoka, krodha, utsāha, bhaya, jugupsā, vismaya and nirveda related to nine rasas.
Nine colours related to the nine rasas:—The śṛṅgāra is dark-blue coloured; the hāsya is crystal coloured; the karuṇa is pigion coloured; the colours of raudra, vīra, bhayānaka, bībhatsa, adbhuta, śānta are red, yellow, soily, blue, white and dark respectively.
Nine deities related to the nine rasas:—According to Cirañjīva the deities of nine rasas are Viṣṇu, Māruta, Varuṇa, Rudra, Śakra (Indra), Kṛtānta (Yama), Mahākāla (an aweful form of Śiva), Vidhātā (creator) and Brahmā respectively.
Kavyashastra (काव्यशास्त्र, kāvyaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian tradition of poetry (kavya). Canonical literature (shastra) of the includes encyclopedic manuals dealing with prosody, rhetoric and various other guidelines serving to teach the poet how to compose literature.
Nyaya (school of philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: A study of Nyāya-vaiśeṣika categories
Rasa (रस, “taste”) or Rasaguṇa refers to one of the twenty-four guṇas (qualities) according to all the modern works on Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika.—Rasa (taste) is the second quality. It is a special quality. According to Praśastapāda rasa (taste) is perceived by tongue. Viśvanātha also defines rasa (taste) as that which is apprehended by the tongue. The taste of atoms of water is eternal but all other taste is non-eternal. Similar definition is forwarded by Annaṃbhaṭṭa also. In his view also quality is known as rasa (taste) which is perceived by tongue. The word guṇa is added in this definition to avoid the over-pervasion to rasatva. Tastehood or the generality of taste is perceived by tongue, so there is over-pervasion. However, with the addition of the word guṇa this over-pervasion can be avoided, tastehood being different from quality. Śivāditya makes this definition more clearly by stating that the quality of rasa possesses the generic character rasatva and is perceptible by tongue.
Taste (rasa) is of six kinds, viz., sweet, sour, salty, pungent, astringent and bitter. The substratums of rasa are earth and water. All the six varieties of rasa subsist in earth but water has only the sweet variety. Viśvanātha states that rasa is both eternal and non-enteral. The rasa of the atom of water is eternal, while others are non-eternal.
Nyaya (न्याय, nyaya) refers to a school of Hindu philosophy (astika), drawing its subject-matter from the Upanishads. The Nyaya philosophy is known for its theories on logic, methodology and epistemology, however, it is closely related with Vaisheshika in terms of metaphysics.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Journal of the University of Bombay Volume V: Apabhramsa metres (2)
1) Rāsa (रास) is the name of a catuṣpadi metre (as popularly employed by the Apabhraṃśa bards), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Rāsa has 16 mātrās in each of their four lines, with a line having 3 caturmātras and 2 long letters at the end.
2) Rāsa (रास) also refers to a antarasama-catuṣpadi metre (also known as Ardhasama), as discussed in books such as the Chandonuśāsana, Kavidarpaṇa, Vṛttajātisamuccaya and Svayambhūchandas.—Rāsa is made up of 7 and 13 mātrās in their odd and even lines respectively.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Yoga (school of philosophy)Source: academia.edu: Meaning of haṭha in Early Haṭhayoga
Rasa (रस) refers to “enjoyment”.—In contrasting tranquility (śānti) with haṭhapāka, the commentator, Jayaratha, describes tranquility as a “process of pleasant combustion” (madhurapākakrama). When the Guru has been propitiated, the “tranquil” methods of initiation (dīkṣā-sādhana) and devotion to a religious practice (anuṣṭhāniṣṭhatā) will bring about transcendence (atyaya) at the time of death. However, haṭhapāka is a sudden and violent process that burns up all things (bhāva) in the fire of intelligence. It destroys duality and is likened by Abhinavagupta to the enjoyment (rasa) of devouring enough (alaṅgrāsa). The commentator notes that haṭhapāka is a forceful action (balātkāreṇa) that transgresses the normal order (kramavyatikramarūpa) and, as noted earlier, this connotation of haṭha is implicit in Haṭhayoga’s effect of raising the downward-moving breath (apāna) and the normally dormant Kuṇḍalinī.
Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
1) Rasa (रस) refers to “juice”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 7), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “If Mercury should cut through the five constellations from Ārdrā to Maghā, mankind will suffer from wars, from hunger, from disease and from drought. If he should cut through the six constellations from Hasta, his disc appearing to rub against those of the stars, cows will suffer, the price of liquid substances and of juice [i.e., rasa] will rise, but there will be abundance of food grains in the land”.
2) Rasa (रस) refers to “quicksilver”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Jupiter also presides over the ensigns of royalty—the umbrella, the flag-staff, the Cāmara and the like; over Śaileyaka, Mānsī, Tagara, Kuṣṭha, quicksilver (rasa), salt, beans, sweet flavour, wax and Coraka”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions
1) Rasa (रस) refers to an “(alchemical) elixir”, according to the Īśvarapratyabhijñākārikā III.2.12.—Accordingly, “When further [the layers of the objective “self”] from the Void to the [very] tissues of the body are transmuted by means of the ‘alchemical elixir,’ (siddha-rasa-yoga) i.e. by the [fundamental] ‘I’-sense which is certainly conjoined with the qualities of magnificent power, eternality, sovereignty, [and others] of such nature that are cognized [as aspects of that ‘I’], then in this state [called] Beyond the Fourth they abandon (as it were) their objectivity”.
2) Rasa (रस) refers to the “juice” (of fruit), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[The intercourse (saṃga)]:—[...] He should dry brahmamaṇḍūkī together with its roots in the shade. He should mix it with grape-juice (mṛdvīkā-rasa), candied sugar and ghee. He should have it three times [a day] for three months in portions measuring a dice as food and drink and he should drink milk. His semen will not deteriorate in millions of years if he practises sex [with Māyā]. His [semen] will never ever wane. It is for the rejuvenation of the body, O Priyā. [...]”.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)Source: archive.org: Hindu Mathematics
Rasa (रस) represents the number 6 (six) in the “word-numeral system” (bhūtasaṃkhyā), which was used in Sanskrit texts dealing with astronomy, mathematics, metrics, as well as in the dates of inscriptions and manuscripts in ancient Indian literature.—A system of expressing numbers by means of words arranged as in the place-value notation was developed and perfected in India in the early centuries of the Christian era. In this system the numerals [e.g., 6—rasa] are expressed by names of things, beings or concepts, which, naturally or in accordance with the teaching of the Śāstras, connote numbers.
Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Google Books: Croaking Frogs: A Guide to Sanskrit Metrics and Figures of Speech
Rasa (रस, “flavor”):—The theory of rasa as the essence of literature has led to endless debate among scholars. Rasa means “sap”, “juice”, “essence”, “taste”, “delight”, “charm” and “sentiment”. All of these meanings are wrapped up in rasa as the defining trait of artistic literature. Only those who are gifted with a sense of good taste (the rasika) are able to appreciate the work of peots.Source: Srimad Bhagavatam: The Book
Every living entity, beginning from Brahmā, the first-born living being within the material world, down to the insignificant ant, desires to relish some sort of taste derived from sense perceptions. These sensual pleasures are technically called rasas. Such rasas are of different varieties.
In the revealed scriptures the following twelve varieties of rasas are enumerated:
- raudra (anger),
- adbhuta (wonder),
- śṛṅgāra (conjugal love),
- hāsya (comedy),
- vīra (chivalry),
- dayā (mercy),
- dāsya (servitorship),
- sakhya (fraternity),
- bhayānaka (horror),
- bībhatsa (shock),
- śānta (neutrality),
- vātsalya (parenthood).
A term for mercury, the prime alchemical reagent, was rasa.Source: academia.edu: Tessitori Collection I (hinduism)
Rasa (रस) refers to “esthetics”, according to the Amaracandrikā by Sūrata Miśra (dealing with Poetics and Erotics), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—Sūrata (or Sūrati) Miśra was a Brahman of Agra who has at least ten works to his credit, several of which testify to his sustained interest in poetics, understood as rhetorical figures (alaṃkāra), classification of female characters in relation to love (nāyikā-bheda) and esthetics (rasa). This trend is illustrated by his commentaries on Keśavdās’s Kavipriyā and Rasikapriyā, and by the present work which was composed in VS 1794 = 1737 century.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Journey to Nibbana: Patthana Dhama
Taste;Source: Dhamma Study: Cetasikas
Function or achievement.Source: Pali Kanon: Introducing Buddhist Abhidhamma
lit: 'taste'; Property of matter (rupa).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Rasa (रस, “taste”) according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XXVIII). Accordingly, “Why condemn tastes (rasa)? One must reason [and say]: Just by coveting exquisite tastes I will suffer all the sufferings; they will pour molten copper into my mouth, I will swallow balls of burning iron. If I do not consider the nature of foods, feelings of gluttony will be established in me and I will fall into the level of the impure insects”.Source: academia.edu: A Study and Translation of the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā
Rasa (रस) refers to “tastes”, according to the Gaganagañjaparipṛcchā: the eighth chapter of the Mahāsaṃnipāta (a collection of Mahāyāna Buddhist Sūtras).—Accordingly, “Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by sounds, knowing ear, sound, and [ear]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by scents, knowing nose, scents, and [nose]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. Since reflecting on the thought is not distracted by tastes (rasa), knowing tongue, tastes, and [tongue]-consciousness he practices meditation purified in respect of its proper essential character. [...]”.Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (mahayana)
Rasa (रस) refers to “(offering worship with) juices”, according to the eighth chapter of the Suvarṇaprabhāsottamasūtra.—[...] In chapter 8, the Śrīparivarta, the goddess Śrī offers support to the Dharma preacher and good fortune to his audience. A rite which provides prosperity is described, through which Śrī herself enters that place. According to the ritual instructions, one’s home must be purified and one should bathe and wear clean garments. One should offer worship (pūjā) with perfumes, flowers and incense, then sprinkle juices (rasa) and utter the names of Śrī, Ratnakusuma Tathāgata and the Suvarṇaprabhāsa. One should then recite dhāraṇī-spells, draw a maṇḍala of cow-dung and offer perfumes, flowers and incense. Finally, a pure seat should be provided where Śrī descends and stays.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: OSU Press: Cakrasamvara Samadhi
Rasa (रस) refers to the “(pure) essence” (of Buddha knowledge), according to the Ṭīkā Pot Worship [i.e., Kalaśapūjā] ritual often performed in combination with the Cakrasaṃvara Samādhi, which refers to the primary pūjā and sādhanā practice of Newah Mahāyāna-Vajrayāna Buddhists in Nepal.—Accordingly, “Rising out across the circle, that kindles the wind, of a hundred shining suns, A burning triad, infatuating the three worlds, an overflowing stream of nectar, Giving her own abundant bliss, having the pure essence of Buddha knowledge (buddhajñāna-rasa-anvitā), Free from traversing existence and non-existence, beloved sow, drink to you”.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha
1) Rasa (रस, “taste”) or rasāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (e.g., rasa). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.
Rasa also refers to one of the “six spheres” (ṣaḍviṣaya) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 33).
Rasa also refers to the “five qualities” (pāñcabhautika) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 40).
2) Rasa (रस, “taste”) or Ṣaḍrasa refers to the “six kinds of tastes” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 36):
- madhura (Sweet),
- amla, (sour),
- lavaṇa, (salty),
- kaṭu (acidic),
- tikta, (bitter),
- kaṣāya (astringent).
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Rasa (रस) or Rasagaurava refers to “(the vanity of the) choice of food”, according to chapter 1.1 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, in the sermon of Sūri Dharmaghoṣa:—“[...] the gift of supporting dharma (dharmopagrahadāna) is five-fold: purity of giver, receiver, gift, time, and thought. [... ] That gift would have purity of receiver, whose receiver is such a man [who is] lacking in three vanities (gaurava) [viz., rasa-gaurava], [...]”.—(Cf. Samavāyāṅgasūtra 3, p. 9a. Uttarādhyayana 31.4).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 2: the Category of the living
Rasa (रस, “taste”) refers to the object of rasana (tasting), which represents one of the “five sense-organs” (pañcendriya), according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 2.19. Cognition which results by tasting the object of knowledge is called taste (rasa). How many types of taste are there? There are five types of taste namely spicy, bitter, poisonous, sour and sweet. What is the form of taste sense organ? It is in form of a spade / axe (khurpā).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 3: The Lower and middle worlds
Rasa (रस, “healing power”) or Rasadhiriddhi refers to “the extraordinary power by which an ascetic can change any type of un-palatable food into palatable food” and represents one of the eight types of ṛddhi (extraordinary powers), that can be obtained by the Ārya (civilized people): one of the two classes of human beings, according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 3.46.—Some ascetics attain extraordinary powers to produce worldly miracles. Such attainments are called ṛddhi. There are eight types of such extraordinary powers (e.g., Rasa).
Rasa-ṛddhi (occult power to change food) is of six types namely:
- change food in the palm (payastravā-riddhi),
- change dry to buttered food (ghrastravā-riddhi),
- creating sweets (miṣṭāstravā-riddhi),
- creating food with nectar (amṛtastravā-riddhi),
- removing poison from a poisonous bite (āsyaviṣa-riddhi),
- poisonous (dṛṣṭiviṣa-riddhi).
Rasa (रस, “taste”) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra 5.23.—“The forms of matter (pudgala) are characterized by touch (sparśa), taste (rasa), smell (gandha) and colour (varṇa)”. What is the meaning of taste (rasa)? What is tasted or just tasting alone is taste. How many types of taste are there? There are five types of taste namely bitter (kasailā), sour (kadavā), acidic (khaṭṭā), sweet (mīthā) and astringent (caraparā).Source: Encyclopedia of Jainism: Tattvartha Sutra 8: Bondage of karmas
Rasa (रस) refers to “taste karma” and represents one of the various kinds of Nāma, or “physique-making (karmas)”, which represents one of the eight types of Prakṛti-bandha (species bondage): one of the four kinds of bondage (bandha) according to the 2nd-century Tattvārthasūtra chapter 8. What is the taste (rasa) body-making karma? The karmas rise of which gives the taste attribute to the body are called taste body-making karma.
How many types of taste (rasa) body-making karmas are there? These are of five types, namely:
- bitter (tikta),
- pungent (kaṭuka),
- astringent (kaṣāya),
- sour (amla),
- sweet (madhura).
Rasa (रस) refers to the “nine sentiments” (navarasa) in poetics and dramaturgy and represents one of the topics dealt with in the Anuyogadvārasūtra: a technical treatise on analytical methods, a kind of guide to applying knowledge.—In Muni Puṇyavijaya’s words, “the Nandi which is of the form of five Jñānas serves as a mangala in the beginning of the study of the Āgamas; and the Anuyogadvāra-sūtra serves as a key to the understanding of the Āgamas”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
rasa : (m.) taste; juice; flavour; quick-silver.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
1) Rasa, 2 (-°) is a dial. form of °dasa ten, and occurs in Classic Pāli only in the numerals for 13 (terasa), 15 (paṇṇa-rasa, pannarasa), 17 (sattarasa) & 18 (aṭṭhārasa, late). The Prk. has gone further: see Pischel, Prk. Gr. § 245. (Page 567)
2) Rasa, 1 (Vedic rasa; with Lat. ros “dew, ” Lith. rasā id. , and Av Ranhā N. of a river, to Idg. *eres to flow, as in Sk. arṣati, Gr. a)/yorros (to r(έw); also Sk. ṛṣabha: see usabha1.—Dhtp 325 defines as “assādane” 629 as “assāda-snehanesu”; Dhtm 451 as “assāde. ” — The decl. is usually as regular a-stem, but a secondary Instr. fr. an s-stem is to be found in rasasā by taste A. II, 63; J. III, 328) that which is connected with the sense of taste. The definition given at Vism. 447 is as follows: “jivhā-paṭihanana-lakkhaṇo raso, jivhā-viññāṇassa visaya-bhāvo raso, tass’eva gocara-paccupaṭṭhāno, mūla-raso khandha-raso ti ādinā nayena anekavidho, ” i.e. rasa is physiologically & psychologically peculiar to the tongue (sense-object & sense-perception), and also consists as a manifold object in extractions from roots, trunk etc. (see next).—The conventional encyclopædic definition of rasa at Nd1 240; Nd2 540, Dhs. 629 gives taste according to: (a) the 6—fold objective source as mūla-rasa, khandha°, taca°, patta°, puppha°, phala°, or taste (i.e. juice, liquid) of root, trunk, bark, leaf, flower & fruit; and — (b) the 12—fold subjective (physiological) sense-perception as ambila, madhura, tittika, kaṭuka loṇika, khārika, lambila (Miln. 56: ambila), kasāva; sādu, asādu, sīta, uṇha, or sour, sweet, bitter, pungent, salt, alkaline, sour, astringent; pleasant, unpleasant, cold & hot. Miln. 56 has the foll. : ambila, lavaṇa, tittaka, kaṭuka, kasāya, madhura.—1. juice (as applied in the Veda to the Soma juice), e.g. in the foll. combinations: ucchu° of sugar cane, extract of sugar, cane syrup Vin. I, 246; VvA. 180; patta° & puppha° of leaf & flower Vin. I, 246; madhura° of honey PvA. 119.—2. taste as (objective) quality, the sense-object of taste (cp. above definitions). In the list of the āyatanas, or senses with their complementary sense-objects (sentient and sensed) rasa occupies the 4th place, following upon gandha. It is stated that one tastes (or “senses”) taste with the tongue (no reference to palate): jivhāya rasaṃ sāyitvā (or viññeyya). See also āyatana 3 and rūpa.—M. III, 55 (jivhā-viññeyya r.), 267; D. III, 244, 250; Sn. 387; Dhs. 609; PvA. 50 (vaṇṇagandha-rasa-sampanna bhojana: see below 5).—3. sense of taste, as quality & personal accomplishment. Thus in the list of senses marking superiority (the 10 ādhipateyyas or ṭhāṇas), similar to rasa as special distinction of the Mahāpurisa (see cpd. ras-agga) S. IV, 275 =Pv. II, 958; A. IV, 242.—4. object or act of enjoyment, sensual stimulus, material enjoyment, pleasure (usually in pl.) Sn. 65 (rasesu gedha, see materialistic exegesis at Nd2 540), 854 (rase na anugijjhati; perhaps better rasesu, as SnA); A. III, 237 (puriso agga°-parititto: perhaps to No. 2).—5. flavour and its substance (or substratum), e.g. soup VvA. 243 (kakkaṭaka° crabsoup), cp. S. V, 149, where 8 soup flavours are given (ambila, tittaka, kaṭuka, madhura, khārika, akhārika, loṇika, aloṇika); Pv. II, 115 (aneka-rasa-vyañjana “with exceptionally flavoured sauce”); J. V, 459, 465. gorasa “flavour of cow, i.e. produce of cow: see under go. Also metaphorically: “flavour, relish, pleasure”: Sn. 257 (pariveka°, dhamma-pīṭi°, cp. SnA 299 “assād’aṭṭhena” i.e. tastiness); PvA. 287 (vimutti° relish of salvation). So also as attha°, dhamma°, vimutti° Ps. II, 89.—6. (in grammar & style) essential property, elegance, brightness; in dramatic art “sentiment” (flavour) (see Childers s. v. naṭya-rasa) Miln. 340 (with opamma and lakkhaṇa: perhaps to No. 7); PvA. 122 (°rasa as ending in Np. Aṅgīrasa, explained as jutiyā adhivacanaṃ, “ i.e. brightness, excellency).—7. at t. t. in philosophy “essential property” (Expos. 84), combined with lakkhaṇa etc. (cp. Cpd. 13, 213), either kicca° function or sampatti° property DhsA. 63, 249; Vism. 8, 448; Miln. 148.—8. fine substance, semi-solid semiliquid substance, extract, delicacy, fineness, dust. Thus in paṭhavī° “essence of earth, ” humus S. I, 134 (translation “taste of earth, ” rather abstract); or rasapaṭhavī earth as dust or in great fineness, “primitive earth” (before taking solid shape) D. III, 86 sq. (trsl. “savoury earth, ” not quite clear), opp. to bhūmipappaṭaka; Vism. 418; pabbata-rasa mountain extract, rock-substance J. III, 55; suvaṇṇa° gold dust J. I, 93. ‹-› 9. (adj.—°) tasting Vv 1611 (Amatarasā f. =nibbānarasāvinī VvA. 85).
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
rasa (रस).—m (S) Flavor, taste, sapidity. 2 Juice or sap; the liquor of fruits or plants. 3 By way of eminence. Sugarcane-juice or mango-juice. 4 Liquor obtained by infusion or decoction. 5 The primary or essential juice or fluid of the body; whence blood, serum, sweat &c. are supposed to be engendered. 6 Metal in the state of fusion. 7 Taste, sentiment, susceptibility; or a sentiment or passion; any affection or emotion of the mind. Nine sentiments are enumerated; śṛṅgāra or rati, utsāha or hāsya, kāruṇya, raudra or krōdha, vismaya or adbhuta, bhaya, bītsabha, śānta, vātsalya. See navarasa. 8 In figurative senses. Spirit, sweetness, salt, fire, pathos, beauty &c. (as in a composition, an incident, a business). 9 A mineral or a metallic salt; as sulphur, borax, talc, vitriol &c. 10 In Sanskrit this word stands for quicksilver, semen virile, water, poison, gum myrrh &c.; and under it, as the common term, are comprehended the several items of stimulant or sapid food, as spices, curds, oil, sugar, salt &c. Some of these senses will sometimes be met with in Maraṭhi. rasīṃ utaraṇēṃ To get gourdiness in the extremities--a horse.
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rasā (रसा).—m (rasa) A sauce made of spices pounded together and mixed with water.
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rāśa (राश).—&c. Popular forms of rāśi, rāśighaṭita &c.
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rāśā (राशा).—a (rāsa Heap or stock.) Middling. Applied only to men, and with the implication of neuter or impotent; and, thence, imbecile or incompetent in general.
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rāsa (रास).—f (rāśi S) A sign of the zodiac. 2 A heap or pile; an accumulation; a stock &c. See rāśi throughout its senses and its phrases.
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rāsa (रास).—m or ind This word, from A Head, is used, in stating the number of horses, in the sense A head or an individual; as sara ( P Head) is used to express A head of bulls, bullocks, buffaloes, and cows; naphara to express A head of camels; and naga to express A head of elephants. Ex. ghōḍē rāsa dāhā; baila or gāya &c. sara pāñca; uṇṭa naphara vīsa.
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rāsa (रास).—m (S) A festival amongst cowherds consisting of songs and dances and lively sporting; esp. the circular dance as performed by Krishn̤a and the Gopis or cowherdesses.
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rāsa (रास).—a & ad ( P) Straight, not oblique or obliquely;--used of cloth cut or of cutting cloth. A term amongst tailors. Opp. to irēpha.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
rasa (रस).—m Flavour. Juice. Metal in the state of fusion. Fig. Sweetness. Taste. Any affection or emotion of the nine rasa such as śṛṅgāra, vīra, &c.
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rasā (रसा).—m A sauce made of spices.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Sap, juice (of trees); इक्षुरसः, कुसुमरसः (ikṣurasaḥ, kusumarasaḥ) &c.
2) A liquid, fluid; यष्टव्यं पशुभिर्मुख्यैरथो बीजै रसैरिति (yaṣṭavyaṃ paśubhirmukhyairatho bījai rasairiti) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 14.91.21; न्यस्ताक्षरा धातुरसेन यत्र (nyastākṣarā dhāturasena yatra) Kumārasambhava 1.7.
3) Water; सहस्रगुणमुत्स्रष्टुमादत्ते हि रसं रविः (sahasraguṇamutsraṣṭumādatte hi rasaṃ raviḥ) R.1.18; Bv.2.144.
4) Liquor, drink; Manusmṛti 2.177.
5) A draught, potion.
6) Taste, flavour, relish (fig. also) (considered in Vaiś. phil. as one of the 24 gunas; the rasas are six; kaṭu, amla, madhura, lavaṇa, tikta and kaṣāya); परायत्तः प्रीतेः कथ- मिव रसं वेत्तु पुरुषः (parāyattaḥ prīteḥ katha- miva rasaṃ vettu puruṣaḥ) Mu.3.4; Uttararāmacarita 2.2.
7) A sauce, condiment,
8) An object of taste; मनो बबन्धान्यरसान् विलङ्ध्य सा (mano babandhānyarasān vilaṅdhya sā) R.3.4.
9) Taste or inclination for a thing, liking, desire; रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते (rasavarjaṃ raso'pyasya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate) Bhagavadgītā (Bombay) 2.59; इष्टे वस्तुन्युपचितरसाः प्रेमराशीभवन्ति (iṣṭe vastunyupacitarasāḥ premarāśībhavanti) Meghadūta 114.
1) Love, affection; जरसा यस्मिन्नहार्यो रसः (jarasā yasminnahāryo rasaḥ) Uttararāmacarita 1.39; प्रसरति रसो निर्वृतिघनः (prasarati raso nirvṛtighanaḥ) 6.11 'feeling of love'; रसादृते (rasādṛte) V.2.21; Ku. 3.37.
11) Pleasure, delight, happiness; चिरात्सुतस्पर्श- रसज्ञतां ययौ (cirātsutasparśa- rasajñatāṃ yayau) R.3.26.
12) Charm, interest, elegance, beauty.
13) Pathos, emotion, feeling.
14) (In poetic compositions) A sentiment; नवरसरुचिरां निर्मितिमादधती भारती कवेर्जयति (navarasarucirāṃ nirmitimādadhatī bhāratī kaverjayati); K. P.1. (The rasas are usually eight :-- śṛṅgārahāsyakaruṇaraudravīrabhayānakāḥ | bhībhatsādbhutasaṃjñau cetyaṣṭau nāṭye rasāḥ smṛtāḥ || but sometimes śāntarasa is added; thus making the total number 9; nirvedasthāyibhāvo'sti śānto'pi navamo rasaḥ K. P.4; sometimes a tenth, vātsalyarasa, is also added. Rasas are more or less a necessary factor of every poetic composition, but, according to Viśvanātha, they constitute the very essence of poetry; vākyaṃ rasātmakaṃ kāvyam S. D.3.).
15) Essence, pith, best part; ब्रह्म तेजोमयं शुक्रं यस्य सर्वमिदं रसः (brahma tejomayaṃ śukraṃ yasya sarvamidaṃ rasaḥ)Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.24.9.
16) A constituent fluid of the body.
17) Semen virile.
19) A poison, poisonous drink; as in तीक्ष्णरस- दायिनः (tīkṣṇarasa- dāyinaḥ); रसविधानकौशलैः (rasavidhānakauśalaiḥ) Daśakumāracarita 2.8.
2) Any mineral metallic salt.
21) Juice of the sugar-cane.
23) Melted butter.
24) Nectar; मयः कूपरसेऽक्षिपत् (mayaḥ kūparase'kṣipat) Bhāgavata 7.1.59-6.
25) Soup, broth.
26) A symbolical expression for the number 'six'.
27) Green onion.
3) A metal in a state of fusion.
31) See रसातल (rasātala); अनेन नूनं वेदानां कृतमाहरणं रसात् (anena nūnaṃ vedānāṃ kṛtamāharaṇaṃ rasāt) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 12.347.67.
32) The tongue (as the organ of taste); वाण्यां च छन्दांसि रसे जलेशम् (vāṇyāṃ ca chandāṃsi rase jaleśam) Bhāgavata 8.2.27; जितं सर्वं जिते रसे (jitaṃ sarvaṃ jite rase) 11.8.21.
33) (With Vaiṣṇavas.) Disposition of the heart or mind (the five Rasas are śānti, dāsya, sākhya, vātsalya and mādhurya).
Derivable forms: rasaḥ (रसः).
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1) The lower or infernal regions, hell.
2) The earth, ground, soil; यद् ग्रावेव रसातलं पुनरसौ यातो गजग्रामणीः (yad grāveva rasātalaṃ punarasau yāto gajagrāmaṇīḥ) Bv.1.59; रसादिपञ्चीकृतभूतसंभवम् (rasādipañcīkṛtabhūtasaṃbhavam) A. Rām.7.5.28; स्मरस्य युद्धरङ्गतां रसाऽऽर सारसारसा (smarasya yuddharaṅgatāṃ rasā''ra sārasārasā) Nalod.2.1.
3) the tongue.
4) A vine or grapes.
5) Ved. Moisture.
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1) An uproar, a din, confused noise.
2) A sound in general.
4) A kind of dance practised by Kṛṣṇa and the cowherds but particularly the gopis or cowherdesses of Vrindāvana; तत्रारभत गोविन्दो रासक्रीडामनुव्रतैः । स्त्रीरत्नैरन्वितः प्रीतैरन्योन्याबद्धबाहुभिः (tatrārabhata govindo rāsakrīḍāmanuvrataiḥ | strīratnairanvitaḥ prītairanyonyābaddhabāhubhiḥ) || Bhāgavata 1.33.2; उत्सृज्य रासे रसं गच्छन्तीम् (utsṛjya rāse rasaṃ gacchantīm) Ve.1.2; रासे हरिमिह विहितविलासं स्मरति मनो मम कृतपरिहासम् (rāse harimiha vihitavilāsaṃ smarati mano mama kṛtaparihāsam) Gītagovinda 2; also Gītagovinda 1.
5) A chain.
6) A sport, play.
Derivable forms: rāsaḥ (रासः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-saḥ) 1. Flavour, taste, viz:—sweet, salt, pungent, bitter, sour, and astringent. 2. Taste, sentiment, emotion, as an object of poetry or composition; eight sentiments are usually enumerated, viz:— Sringara or love, Hasya or mirth, Karuna or tenderness, Raudra or anger, Bira or heroism, Bhayanaka or terror, Bibhatsa or disgust, and Adbhuta or surprise; Santa, tranquility or content or Batsalya, paternal tenderness, is sometimes considered as the ninth. 3. Affection of the mind, passion. 4. Juice, exudation, a fluid, a liquid, or liquified substance. 5. Poison. 6. Semen virile. 7. Water. 8. The primary or essential juice or fluid of the body, whence blood, serum, sweat, &c. are supposed to be engendered; it corresponds best with chyle, but is probably of a fanciful nature. 9. Gum myrrh. 10. Quicksilver, from its being a semi-fluid metal, and according to certain alchemical notions possessed of supernatural power over the juices of the body, &c. 11. A mineral or a metallic salt, as sulphur, borax, talc, blue or green vitriol, &c.; they are however usually called Upa or inferior Rasas. f.
(-sā) 1. The earth. 2. The tongue. 3. A plant, commonly Akanadi. (Cissampelos hexandra.) 4. A sort of grain, (Panicum italicum.) 5. The frankincense-tree, (Boswellia thurifera) 6. The grape. 7. A medical drug, commonly Kakoli. E. ras to taste, to love, aff. aca .
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(-saḥ) 1. Confused noise, uproar, hubbub. 2. Sound in general. 3. Speech, discourse. 4. A chain. 5. A festival amongst the cowherds, including songs and dances, especially the circular dance as performed by Krishna and the Gopis or cowherdesses. 6. A game played by children. E. rās to sound, ghañ aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rasa (रस).—probably from ram, I. m. 1. Taste (as sweet, salt), [Pañcatantra] 61, 11. 2. Pleasure, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 146, 1; enjoyment, [Śākuntala, (ed. Böhtlingk.)] [distich] 179; [Pañcatantra] ii. [distich] 175; charm, [Pañcatantra] iv. [distich] 62. 3. Inclination, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 115 (sāhasa-ekānta-rasa-anuvartin, adj. One who follows only his inclination to inconsiderate haste); love, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 26, 2. 4. Juice, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 77; liquid, 3, 159; [Śiśupālavadha] 9, 46; a dish, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] 19, 1. 5. Essence, [Hitopadeśa] iv. [distich] 94 (tad-, Its best). 6. Condiment, [Hitopadeśa] iii. [distich] 56. 7. Water. 8. The essential juice of the body, whence blood, etc., are supposed to be engendered. 9. Semen virile. 10. Poison. 11. Gum myrrh. 12. Quicksilver. 13. A mineral substance, as sulphur, borax. 14. Taste, sentiment, emotion, as an object of poetry, as love, terror, etc., [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 2, 21; [Rāmāyaṇa] 1, 4, 7; [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 44 (? nine rasas of music). 15. Affection of the mind, [Uttara Rāmacarita, 2. ed. Calc., 1862.] 50, 8; passion, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 36; love, [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 40. Ii. f. sā. 1. A river of the lower regions,
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Rāsa (रास).—i. e. ras + a, m. 1. Sound. 2. Confused noise. 3. Speech. 4. A festival among the cowherds, including especially a circular dance. 5. A chain.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Rasa (रस).—[masculine] the sap or juice of plants and fruits, fluid, liquid i.[grammar], poet. = water; the best or finest or strongest part of anything, its essence or bloom; taste or the organ of taste, relish or inclination for, desire of ([locative] ±upari or —°), any object of taste or enjoyment; pleasure, charm, beauty; feeling, sentiment, affection; style, character ([especially] of a work of art). —[feminine] rasā moisture, humidity, [Name] of a river & a [mythological] stream; the lower world, hell.
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Rāsa (रास).—[masculine] a kind of rustic dance (performed by Kṛṣṇa); play, sport i.[grammar]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Rasa (रस):—[from ras] m. (ifc. f(ā). ) the sap or juice of plants, Juice of fruit, any liquid or fluid, the best or finest or prime part of anything, essence, marrow, [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] water, liquor, drink, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] juice of the sugar-cane, syrup, [Suśruta]
4) [v.s. ...] any mixture, draught, elixir, potion, [Rāmāyaṇa; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] melted butter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] (with or [scilicet] gavām) milk, [Mahābhārata]
7) [v.s. ...] (with or [scilicet] viṣasya) poison, [Daśakumāra-carita; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
8) [v.s. ...] nectar, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
9) [v.s. ...] soup, broth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
10) [v.s. ...] a constituent fluid or essential juice of the body, serum, ([especially]) the primary juice called chyle (formed from the food and changed by the bile into blood), [ib.]
11) [v.s. ...] mercury, quicksilver (sometimes regarded as a kind of quintessence of the human body, else where as the seminal fluid of Śiva), [Sarvadarśana-saṃgraha]
12) [v.s. ...] semen virile, [Ṛg-veda i, 105, 2]
13) [v.s. ...] myrrh, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
14) [v.s. ...] any mineral or metallic salt, [Catalogue(s)]
15) [v.s. ...] a metal or mineral in a state of fusion (cf. upa-, mahā-r)
16) [v.s. ...] gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] Vanguieria Spinosa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
18) [v.s. ...] a species of amaranth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
19) [v.s. ...] green onion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
20) [v.s. ...] resin, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
21) [v.s. ...] = amṛta, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
22) [v.s. ...] taste, flavour (as the principal quality of fluids, of which there are 6 original kinds, viz. madhura, sweet; amla, sour; lavaṇa, salt; kaṭuka, pungent; tikta, bitter; and kaṣāya, astringent; sometimes 63 varieties are distinguished, viz. beside the 6 original ones, 15 mixtures of 2, 20 of 3, 15 of 4, 6 of 5, and 1 of 6 flavours), [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa] etc. etc.
23) [v.s. ...] Name of the number ‘six’ [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā; Śrutabodha]
24) [v.s. ...] any object of taste, condiment, sauce, spice, seasoning, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
25) [v.s. ...] the tongue (as the organ of taste), [Bhāgavata-purāṇa]
26) [v.s. ...] taste or inclination or fondness for ([locative case] with or [scilicet] upari, or [compound]), love, affection, desire, [Mahābhārata; Kāvya literature] etc.
27) [v.s. ...] charm pleasure, delight, [ib.]
28) [v.s. ...] (in [rhetoric]) the taste or character of a work, the feeling or sentiment prevailing in it (from 8 to 10 Rasas are generally enumerated, viz. śṛṅgāra, love; vīra, heroism; bībhatsa, disgust; raudra, anger or fury; hāsya, mirth; bhayānaka, terror; karuṇa, pity; adbhuta, wonder; śānta, tranquillity or contentment; vātsalya, paternal fondness; the last or last two are sometimes omitted; cf. under bhāva), [Bharata-nāṭya-śāstra; Daśarūpa; Kāvyādarśa] etc.
29) [v.s. ...] the prevailing sentiment in human character, [Uttararāma-carita; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
30) [v.s. ...] (with Vaiṣṇavas) disposition of the heart or mind, religious sentiment (there are 5 Rasas or Ratis forming the 5 degrees of bhakti q.v., viz. śānti, dāsya, sākhya, vātsalya, and mādhurya), [Horace H. Wilson]
31) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Piṅgala Scholiast, i.e. halāyudha]
32) [v.s. ...] Name of the sacred syllable, ‘Om,’ [Śāṅkhāyana-gṛhya-sūtra]
33) [v.s. ...] the son of a Niṣāda and a Śanakī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
34) Rasā (रसा):—[from rasa > ras] a f. See sub voce
35) [from ras] b f. moisture, humidity, [Ṛg-veda]
36) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [ib.]
37) [v.s. ...] a mythical stream supposed to flow round the earth and the atmosphere, [ib.] ([Nirukta, by Yāska xi, 23])
38) [v.s. ...] the lower world, hell, [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa] (cf. -tala)
39) [v.s. ...] the earth, ground, soil, [Kāvya literature]
40) [v.s. ...] the tongue, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
41) [v.s. ...] Name of various plants (Clypea Hernandifolia; Boswellia Thurifera; Panicum Italicum; a vine or grape; = kākolī), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
42) Rāsa (रास):—[from rās] m. uproar, noise, din, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
43) [v.s. ...] Name of a [particular] rustic dance practised by cowherds, ([especially]) the dance practised by Kṛṣṇa and the Gopīs, [Harivaṃśa; Purāṇa; Gīta-govinda] etc. (cf. rāsaka)
44) [v.s. ...] any sport or play, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
45) [v.s. ...] a legend (?), in narmadā-sundarī-r (q.v.)
46) [v.s. ...] = bhāṣā-śṛṅkhalaka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Rasa (रस):—(saḥ) 1. m. Flavour; juice; mercury. f. The earth; tongue; a grape.
2) Rāsa (रास):—(saḥ) 1. m. Confused noise; speech; chain; festival; game.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
1) Rasa (रस) [Also spelled ras]:—(nm) juice; (aesthetic) relish; sentiment; pleasure, enjoyment; taste, flavour; ~[gullā] a typical round and spongy Bengali sweet; ~[dāra] juicy, luscious; tasty, relishing; ~[grahaṇa] appreciation; ~[jña] one who has capability to relish, blessed with aesthetic sense; who has profound understanding of poetic sentiments; a connoisseur; hence [jñātā] (nf); -[bhaṃga] interruption/interception of aesthetic relish; ~[bharī] raspberry; ~[bhīnā] full of flavour, well-steeped in sentiment; [rāja] the king of all sentiments; the erotic sentiment; ~[vāda] pleasant/erotic talk; wrangle; taking interest in erotic talks; talkativeness; ~[vādī] one who takes interest in erotic talks/quarrels; talkative; -[virodha] discordance of [rasa; ~śāstra] alchemy; ~[siddha] an expert in manifestation of [rasa]; —[ānā] to enjoy, to relish; —[barasanā] to cause a constant flow of (aesthetic) pleasure; -[luṭanā] all relish to be gone, source of pleasure to be exhausted; -[lenā] to enjoy, to relish.
2) Rasā (रसा):—(nf) the earth; soup, broth; juice; ~[sedāra] soupy, having broth; juicy.
3) Rāsa (रास) [Also spelled ras]:—(nm) a circular dance performance associated with the legend of Krishna and the gopis; reins (of a horse etc.); (a) favourable, befitting; ~[dhārī] a performer who enacts the exploits of Krishna and represents episodes from his life on the stage; ~[maṃḍalī] the ring of performers of [rāsa; ~līlā] the sport of Krishna and gopis, the enactment on the stage of the exploits of Krishna and episodes from his life; —[ānā] to prove favourable/good/beneficial; —[racānā] to organise a [rāsa]; to have a posse of damsels around, to enjoy in the company of pretty women; —[lenā] to adopt (a child).
Prakrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary
1) Rasa (रस) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Ras.
2) Rasa (रस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Rasa.
3) Rasa (रस) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Rasa.
4) Rasā (रसा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Rasā.
Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.
Kannada-English dictionarySource: Alar: Kannada-English corpus
1) [noun] the juice that circulates through a plant, esp. a woody plant, bearing water, food, etc. to the tissues; sap.
2) [noun] the liquid part of a fruit or vegetable; juice.
3) [noun] any solid thing (as cooked food) that is converted into liquid form.
4) [noun] water.
5) [noun] a yellow-white, more or less viscid substance produced by suppuration and found in abscesses, sores, etc.; pus.
6) [noun] any liquid as milk, ghee, oil, etc.
7) [noun] the food and drink of the gods which makes a mortal, if eaten, an immortal; ambrosia.
8) [noun] the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract; the semen.
9) [noun] any substance that causes injury or illness or death of a living organism; a poison.
10) [noun] a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallicwhich is the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures; mercury.
11) [noun] any of a class of solid or semisolid viscous substances obtained either as exudations from certain plants; resin.
12) [noun] any precious metal as gold.
13) [noun] the sensation that results when tastein the tongue and throat convey information about the chemical composition of a soluble stimulus; taste.
14) [noun] any of the six principal flavours.
15) [noun] joyous state; pleasure; delight.
16) [noun] the experience caused or mood created in a reader of literary work, listener of music or spectator in a theatre, by the emotional character of the situation.
17) [noun] (math.) a symbol for the number nine.
18) [noun] (math.) a symbol fot the number six.
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1) [noun] a sound; noise.
2) [noun] a game or dance characterised by deep love or by fondness of making love, played by men and women together.
3) [noun] the act of dacing; a dance.
Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+612): Rasaalu, Rasabala, Rasabale, Rasabali, Rasabandha, Rasabandhana, Rasabandhanaushadhya, Rasabdhi, Rasabha, Rasabhadhusara, Rasabhanga, Rasabharanem, Rasabharava, Rasabharita, Rasabharu, Rasabharuna, Rasabhasa, Rasabhasena, Rasabhash, Rasabhasma.
Ends with (+819): Abhinavatamarasa, Abhisaradyashtarasa, Abhishtarasa, Abhitrasa, Abhyantarasa, Accharasa, Adatarasa, Adbhutarasa, Adhitarasa, Adhyatmarasa, Adiprasa, Adirasa, Adityarasa, Adrishtatvajatinirasa, Adyamtaprasa, Adyanuprasa, Agastyarasa, Aghratagrasa, Agnimukharasa, Agnirasa.
Full-text (+2369): Raserasa, Rasadhatu, Gorasa, Sthayibhava, Rasaka, Dravarasa, Rasakrida, Rasadhara, Rasashastra, Rasakhana, Rasapayin, Rasasthana, Amritarasa, Adbhutarasa, Navarasa, Rasagandha, Jatirasa, Shrirasa, Bahurasa, Uparatarasa.
Search found 165 books and stories containing Rasa, Rasā, Rāṣa, Rāsa, Rāśā, Rāśa, Rasha; (plurals include: Rasas, Rasās, Rāṣas, Rāsas, Rāśās, Rāśas, Rashas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 4.8.43 < [Part 8 - Compatible & Incompatible Mellows (maitrī-vaira-sthiti)]
Verse 4.7.14 < [Part 7 - Ghastliness (vībhatsa-rasa)]
Verse 4.9.33 < [Part 9 - Incomplete Expression of Mellows (rasābhāsa)]
Shri Gaudiya Kanthahara (by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati)
Philosophy of Charaka-samhita (by Asokan. G)
Specific attributes (vaiśeṣika-guṇas) < [Chapter 2 - Fundamental Categories]
Dialectical terms (10): Tenet (siddhānta) < [Chapter 7 - Logic and Dialectical Speculations]
The locations, qualities, and the functions of the doṣas < [Chapter 3 - Fundamental Theories]
Chaitanya Bhagavata (by Bhumipati Dāsa)
Verse 2.13.84 < [Chapter 13 - The Deliverance of Jagāi and Mādhāi]
Verse 1.17.119 < [Chapter 17 - The Lord’s Travel to Gayā]
Verse 1.11.71 < [Chapter 11 - Meeting with Śrī Īśvara Purī]
Bhajana-Rahasya (by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura Mahasaya)
Text 22 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
Text 23 < [Chapter 6 - Ṣaṣṭha-yāma-sādhana (Sāyaṃ-kālīya-bhajana–bhāva)]
Text 23 < [Chapter 8 - Aṣṭama-yāma-sādhana (Rātri-līlā–prema-bhajana sambhoga)]
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
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