The Brahmanda Purana

by G.V. Tagare | 1958 | 319,243 words | ISBN-10: 8120838246 | ISBN-13: 9788120838246

This page describes royal dynasties which is Chapter 74 of the English translation of the Brahmanda Purana: one of the oldest puranas including common Puranic elements such as cosmogony, genealogy, ethics, geography and yoga. Traditionally, the Brahmandapurana is said to consist of 12,000 verses metrical Sanskrit verses.

Chapter 74 - Royal Dynasties

Sūta said:—

1. Vahni was the son of Turvasu. Gobhānu was the son of Vahni.[1] Trisānu, the unvanquished hero, was the son of Gobhānu.

2. Karandhama was the son of Trisānu. Marutta was his son. Marutta, the son of Āvikṣit mentioned before, was another king.

3. It is heard that, that king Marutta was issueless. He adopted Duṣyanta the son of Pūru, as his son.

4. It is said that thus, in view of the former curse of Yayāti in the context of the transference of old age, the race of Turvasu got merged in the family of Pūru.

5. The successor of Duṣkanta (? Duṣyanta) was the king named Sarūpya.[2] Āṇḍīra was born of Sarūpya. He had four sons.

6. They were Pāṇḍya, Kerala, Cola and Kulya. Their realms were Pāṇḍyas, Keralas, Colas and Kulyas.

7. The two sons of Druhyu, viz. Babhru and Setu were renowned warriors. Aruddha was Setu’s son and Ripu is mentioned as the son of Babhru.

8. This strong king fought a great battle with Yauvanāśva for full fourteen months. Due to great strain, he was killed in that battle by Yauvanāśva.

9. The heir and successor of Aruddha was the king named Gandhāra.[3] The great realm of Gandhāra is named after him.

10. The horses born (bred) in the country of Gāndhāra are excellent horses. Dharma was the son of Gāndhāra. Dhṛta was his son.

11. Durdama was born as the son of Dhṛta. Pracetas was his son. Hundred sons were born to Pracetas. All of them were kings.

12. They were the rulers of the Mleccha territories in the northern quarter.

Anu had three sons. They were great heroes and extremely pious.

13. They are renowned by the name of Sabhānara, Kālacakṣus and Parākṣa.

The son of Sabhānara was Kālānala, the scholarly king.

14. Sṛñjaya was the son of Kālānala. He was righteous and famous. The heroic son of Sṛñjaya was Purañjaya by name.

15. This king was on a par with Indra. His fame became established even in heaven. Mahāmanas, the righteous one, was the son of that Mahāśāla (the great householder).

16. King Mahāmanas was the lord of the seven continents. He became an emperor of great renown. He begot two well-reputed sons.

17. They were Uśīnara who was conversant with piety and Virtue and Titikṣu who was righteous. Uśīnara had five wives who hailed from the families of saintly kings.

18-20. They were Nṛgā, Kṛmī, Darvā, Navā and the fifth one Dṛṣadvatī. Uśīnara had from them five daughters who supported the family. After performing severe penance when he became old, the following virtuous sons were born to him.

Nṛga was the son of Nṛgā. Nava was the son of Navā. Kṛmi was the son of Kṛmī. The virtuous son named Suvrata was the son of Darvā. Śibi (famous as) Auśīnara. O Brāhmaṇas, was the son of Dṛṣadvatī.

21. The city of Śibi became well known as Śivapura.[4] That of Nṛga was Yaudheya; that of Nava was Navarāṣṭra and. the city of Kṛmi was Kṛmilā.

22-23. The city of Suvrata was Ambaṣṭā.[5] Now understand the sons of Śibi.

Śibi had four sons honoured in the world. They were known as Śibis. They were Vṛṣadarbha, Suvīra, Kekaya and Madraka. Their territories were flourishing viz. Kekayas, Madrakas, Vṛṣadarbhas and Suvīras.

Listen to the children of Titikṣu.

24-25. Titikṣu became famous as the king in the Eastern quarter. The mighty Uśadratha was his son. Hema was his son. Sutapas was born to Hema and Bali was the son of Sutapas.

26. The noble-minded Bali who was bound by Vāmana was a great Yogin and he took birth in human womb being desirous of children, as the family was nearing extinction due to absence of issues.

27-28. He begot sons who established the disciplined life of four castes. He begot Aṅga, Vaṅga, Suhma (? Puṇḍra), Yuddha (?) and Kaliṅga. This group is called Bāleya Kṣatra (i.e. Kṣatriya dynasty of Bali). Brāhmaṇas too known as Bāleyas perpetuated the line of that lord.

29-32. Many boons were granted to the intelligent Bali by Brahmā who had become pleased. They were—Mahāyogitva (State of being a great Yogin); longevity extending to one Kalpa; invincibility in battles; ability to visit the three worlds, prominence in the matter of progeny due to his power of piety and devotion, state of being unrivalled, ability to understand the principle of Dharma (Devotion, Virtue and Piety). (He was told thus)—“You will establish the four castes duly”. On being told thus by the lord (Brahmā), Bali, the king, attained great tranquility. After a long time the scholarly king attained his own region.

33. Their territories viz. Aṅgas, Vaṅgas, Suḥmakas, Puṇḍras and Kaliṅgas were very flourishing. Understand their genealogy,

34. All those sons of his were Kṣetrajas (born of his wife to another). They were born to a sage. Those sons of great prowess were born to Suḍeṣṇā by Dīrghatamas.1

The Sages said:—

35. How were the five sons of Bali begot as Kṣetrajas, O holy Sir, by the sage Dīrghatamas. Kindly recount this to us who ask you.

Sūta said:—

36. Formerly, there was a well- renowned and intelligent Sage named Uśija. The wife of this noble-souled sage was Mamatā by name.

37. The younger brother of Uśija was the priest of heaven-dwellers named Bṛhaspati. He had a great deal of effulgence. He approached Mamatā.

38. Mamatā who did not like Bṛhaspati said to him—“I am the wife of your elder brother and I am pregnant too.

39. This child in my womb, O Bṛhaspati, yells constantly practising the recitation of the Vedas along with their Aṅgas (ancillary subjects).

40. You too are Amogharetas (one whose semen never goes in vain). It does not behove you, O lord, to approach me on this occasion or in the manner you think.”

41-42. Though told thus clearly Bṛhaspati of great effulgence could not resist the passionate impulse of himself, although he was a noble soul.

The righteous-souled Bṛhaspati did indeed have sexual intercourse with her. Even as he was discharging the seminal fluid, the child in the womb spoke to him.

43.—“Do not discharge semen O Bṛhaspati. There is no space here for two. You are one whose semen never goes in vain. But I have come here before.”

44. On being told thus, the exalted sage Bṛhaspati, became infuriated then. He cursed the son of his brother Uśija, though he was yet in the womb.

45. “Since, out of delusion, you told me thus, at a time eagerly desired by all living beings, you will enter a period of prolonged darkness”.

46. Thereupon, due to the curse, the son of Uśija became a sage named Dīrghatamas. He earned great reputation and he was on a par with Bṛhaspati by means of his splendour and prowess.

47. He was an Ūrddhivaretas (a person abstaining from sexual inter-course). He lived in the hermitage of the brother (of his father). He heard Godharma (the dharma of the cattle) from a lordly bull, the son of Surabhi.

48. His father’s brother built a house for him. While he was staying, the bull came there casually.

49. The son of Surabhi grazed the Darbha grass spread in the yard for the Darśa rites (the holy rites to be performed on the New moon day). Dīrghatamas caught hold of him by the horns even as he was struggling to free himself.

50-51. On being held by him, the bull did not move even a step. Then he told the sage—“Leave me, O most excellent one among the mighty beings. O dear one, a mighty person like you, I have never come across anywhere. I am the vehicle of lord Tryambaka, and am born now on the Earth. Therefore, O excellent one among the mighty beings, release me. Acquire my affection in return and choose a boon.”

52-53. On being told thus, he spoke to him (the Sage said to the bull)—“Where will you go alive away from me? Hence, I will not leave you though a quadruped, (because) you have eaten other’s property. Then the bull replied to Dīrghatamas.

54-55. “O we do not incur anything like the sin of theft,

O dear one. We do not distinguish between what should be eaten and what should not be eaten or what should be drunk and what should not be drunk. O Brāhmaṇa, we do not differentiate between what should be done and what should not be done or what should be approached and what should not be approached. We are not at all sinners, O Brāhmaṇa. This Dharma of kine is well known.”

56. On hearing the name of cows, he became bewildered and released him. With his devotion and desire to hear the bull’s words he propitiated the son of the cow.

57. By the grace of the leading bull he accepted Godharma[6] (law of cattle). He retained it in his mind. Being eagerly devoted to it, he became one like the Bulls.

58. Thereafter, as ill luck would have it he became deluded in his mind and so he sexually desired the wife of his younger brother (or son?) Autathya, although she struggled and cried in protest.

59. It was by resorting to Godharma that he desired his daughter-in-law. Śaradvān did not brook it, as he considered it an outrage and insult.

60-62. On seeing this perversity, the noble-souled Śaradvān thought over it deeply. He understood the future consequences. With the eyes turned red due to anger, he disparagingly said to Dīrghatamas—“You do not distinguish between what should be approached and what should not be approached. Adopting Godharma, you have desired your own daughter-in-law. Since you are ill-behaved, I abandon you. You may go along with your evil action. Since you are blind and old (I considered) that you should be sustained, but you have acted in a vile manner. Therefore, you are forsaken.I consider you as one of evil conduct.”

Sūta said:—

63-64. Therefore, he (i.e. Śaradvān) thought of a cruel activity. He rebuked him in many ways, caught hold of him with both arms and put him in a sealed box. Then he cast it off in the waters of Gaṅgā.

65-67. The sealed box was carried by the current and was wafted here and there for seven days. A king named Bali[7] saw it. He was conversant with the principles of piety and matters concerning wealth. He was accompanied by his wife. He saw the box sinking and floating. When it came near the bank the pious king Bali, the son of Virocana, took it. He propitiated Dīrghatamas with different kinds of foodstuffs and kept him well-looked after, in the harem. On being delighted due to that, he (the sage) asked Bali to choose a boon.

68-69. The leading Dānava who was desirous of sons, chose the boon thus.

Bali said:—

O sage of exalted dignity and fortune, O bestower of honour, I am desirous of progeny. It behoves you to beget sons of my wife, sons endowed with virtue and wealth.

On being told thus, the sage said to him—“So be it”.

70. The king sent his wife named Sudeṣṇā to the sage. On seeing him blind and old, the queen did not go to him.

71-73. She beautified her maid with ornaments and sent her to him. The sage of great Self-control with a pious soul begot two sons viz. Kakṣīvān and Cakṣus of her in the womb of a Śūdra lady. The two sons Kakṣīvān and Cakṣus had great prowess. On seeing them well learned in the Vedas in accordance with the injunctions, and on observing them to be masters of everything and expounders of Vedic lore, on finding that they have achieved spiritual enlightenment and that they had become the most excellent ones, Bali, the son of Virocana, said to the sage—“These two are my sons”.

74-75. He (the sage) said—“No”. Thereafter, he said again—“These are my sons. They are excellent Brāhmaṇas born of Śūdra womb, the servant of yours.

Considering me blind and old, Sudeṣṇā your chief Queen sent her Śūdra maid to me thereby insulting me.

76-77. Thereupon, Bali propitiated the excellent sage once again. Bali, the lord rebuked his wife Sudeṣṇā. He made her bedecked in ornaments and offered her to the sage.

78-79. The sage Dīrghatamas then said to the Queen—“O splendid lady, I will be completely smeared with curd mixed with salt and I will remain nude. Without any feeling of revulsion you must lick my body from head to the sole of foot. Thereby, O gentle lady, you shall attain sons as desired by you.

80. The Queen carried out his behest but coming to the anus she had feelings of revulsion and so she avoided it.

81-82. Then the sage told her, “Since, O splendid lady, you avoided the anus, you will have the eldest of your sons without anus.

Thereupon, that queen replied to Dīrghatamas—“O exalted one, it does not behove you to give me a son like this”

The sage said:—

83-84. “O Queen, this is your own fault. It cannot be otherwise. O Queen of good holy rites, I shall grant you a grandson like this; Even without the anus, he will have capability.

Touching her belly Dīrghatamas said thus:—

85-86. “O lady of pure smiles, since the curd has been licked by you from my body, your conception is complete. Your womb is filled like the ocean on the full-moon day.

Five sons comparable to the sons of Devas will be born to you.

They will be lustrous and virtuous. They will have exploits. They will be oppressors of their foes. They will be performing sacrifices.

87. Then Aṅga was born as the eldest son of Sudeṣṇā. Thereafter, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Puṇḍra and Suhma were born.

88. These five sons were born of the wife of Bali and they perpetuated the line. It was thus that these sons were formerly given to Bali by Dīrghatamas.

89-90. In view of certain reasons, progeny of Bali had been prevented by Brahmā, saying—“Let there not be any offspring of this noble-souled king by his own wives. That was why he begot children of human womb.

The delighted cow Surabhi spoke these words to Dīrghatamas.

91. “O sage, you pondered over Godharma and did like this. Therefore, I am pleased with your single-minded devotion to us.

92-94. Hence, I shall dispel your chronic darkness. You will be able to see. By sniffing and inhaling the air from your body, I shall dispel the sin of curse imprecated by Bṛhaspati, which lingers yet in your body. I shall dispel the fear of old age and death in you.”

The moment he was sniffed and smelt, he became competent to see as the darkness was dispelled. He became a young man endowed with longevity and power of sight. He became Gautama because his Tamas (darkness) was removed by a cow.[8]

95. Kakṣīvān went to Girivraja along with his father and performed elaborate penance as directed by him.

96. After the lapse of a great deal of time, he became sanctified through austerities. The saintly lord got rid of his defects. He attained the status of a Brāhmaṇa along with his younger brother Cakṣus,

97. Then the father said to him:—“O- lord, now I am one endowed with son. With you as my famous son, O dear one, I am now contented and happy.

98-99a. Thereafter, he engaged himself in Yogic practice and attained the abode of Brahmā.

After attaining the status of a Brāhmaṇa, Kakṣīvān begot a thousand sons. Those sons are remembered as Kūṣmāṇḍas and Gautamas.

99b-100a. Thus the mutual contact of Dīrghatamas and Bali the son of Virocana, has been recounted. Their children have been enumerated.

100b-101. After performing the coronation of his five sinless (meritorious) sons, lord Bali became satisfied. Resorting to Yogic power and having communion with the Supreme Soul, he moves about in the world biding his time. He is invisible to all living beings.

102. King Dadhivāhana was the son of the saintly king Aṅga. Due to the fault of Sudeṣṇā, that king was called Anapāna without anus.

103. King Diviratha is remembered as the son of Anapāna. The learned king Dharmaratha was the son of Diviratha.

104-106. These are said to be the descendants of Ikṣvāku. They will be born in the Kaliyuga in the family of Bṛhadbala.

They shall be endowed with great vigour and exploit. They will be heroic, learned and truthful. They will conquer the sense-organs.

In this context the following verse regarding the family is cited by the people who know future events.

—“This family of Ikṣvākus shall continue upto Sumitra. Having reached Sumitra hi the Kali Yuga it will become extinct.”

107-110. Thus the Kṣatriya clan originating from Manu and Aila (Pururavas) has been recounted. Henceforth, I shall narrate to you the lineage of king Bṛhadratha of Magadha, especially the kings of the past, present and future[9] born in the race of Jarāsandha, in the family of Sahadeva, in accordance with their importance.

Understand the same as I recount.

Sahadeva was vanquished and killed in the Bhārata battle. The saintly king Somāpi was his son. He ruled the kingdom of Girivraja for fifty-eight years.

111. His son Śrutaśravas ruled for sixty-seven years. His son Ayutāyu ruled the kingdom for twenty-six years.

112. Nirāmitra enjoyed the Earth for a hundred years and went to heaven.

Sukṣatra held sway over the Earth for fifty-six years.

113. Bṛhatkarman ruled the kingdom for twenty-three years. Senājit is reigning at present. The following kings of the future will rule the kingdom for the period (mentioned against their names).

114-115. Śrutañjaya will rule for forty years. The mighty king Ripuñjaya of great intellect and exploit will rule over the Earth for thirty-five years.

Śuci will stay in the kingdom (as a ruler) for fifty-eight years.

116. Kṣema will be the king for full twenty-eight years. The vigorous king Suvrata will retain the kingdom for sixty-four years.

117-118. (?) Dharmanetra will be five years old when he becomes a king. He will enjoy (the kingdom) for fifty-eight years. Suśarmā will reign over the kingdom for thirty-eight and protect the Earth after exterminating the Kṣatriyas, due to the force of inevitability of the future. Dṛḍhasena will be a king for forty, ten and eight years (i.e. 58 years).

119. Then Sumati will obtain and rule the kingdom for thirty-three years. Thereafter, king Sunetra will enjoy (the kingdom) for forty years.

120. Satyajit will rule over the Earth for eighty-three years. After obtaining the kingdom Viśvajit will rule over it for twenty-five years.

121-124. Ariñjaya will retain the Earth (as a king) for fifty years. Thus there will be twenty-two kings (called) Bṛhadrathas. They will retain the kingdom for full thousand years.

When the Bṛhadrathas pass away, when there will be no slayers of heroes, Śunaka will kill his master and crown his son. Even as all the Kṣatriyas remain watching, he will kill his master the king and crown his son Pradyoti by his might.

He will be made to do like this by the (inevitability of the) future. All the vassal kings will bow down to him. That excellent person will rule as a king for twenty-three years.

125. Thereafter, Pālaka will be the king for twenty-four years. Viśākhayūpa will be the king for fifty years.

126. Ajaka will have the kingdom for twenty-one years. His son Nandivardhana will be the king for twenty years.

127-129. These five kings called Pradyotas (Descendants of Pradyoti) will rule for one hundred and thirty-eight years. Śiśunāga will dispel their entire glory and become (king) in Vārāṇasī. His son will go to Girivraja. Śiśunāga will be the king for forty years; Kākavarṇa, his son, will be the king for thirty-six years. Thereafter, Kṣemadharmā will be the king for twenty years.

130. Then Kṣatraujas will obtain the kingdom and rule for forty years. Vidhisāra will be king for thirty-eight years.

131. Ajātaśatru will be the king for twenty-five years. Darbhaka will be the king for thirty-five years.

132-133. Afterwards Upayi will become king (and rule) for thirty-three years. On the fourth day that king will build an excellent city named Kusumapura (now Patna in Bihār) on the Southern bank of Gaṅgā. Nandivardhana will be the Icing for forty years.

134-135. Mahānandi will be the king for forty-three years.

Thus Śiśunāga and his descendants will be the kings for three hundred and sixty years. Kings of the family of Śiśunāga are thus only ten. They are all Kṣatriyas by caste. Other kings will rule thereafter for an equal period.

136-138. There will be twenty-four kings in the dynasty of Ikṣvāku, twenty-five (rulers of) Pāñcālas, twenty-four Kālakas, twenty-four kings in Haihaya dynasty, thirty-two rulers in Ekaliṅga dynasty, twenty-five kings in Śaka race, thirty six rulers in the Kuru dynasty and twenty-eight kings of Mithilā; the Śūrasena rulers were twenty-three, the Vītihotra rulers twenty. Thus all these kings will be contemporaries (?)

139. Mahānandi’s son, begot of a Śūdra woman, will become the king by force of Time (circumstances). (He will be called) Mahāpadma. He will be an exterminator of all Kṣatriyas.

140-141. Thereafter, all the future kings will be born of Śūdra wombs. Mahāpadma will be a single ruler of great power, the sole Emperor. He will rule for eighty-eight years

142. Thereafter, his eight sons will be kings for twelve years in due order, in the family of Mahāpadma.

143. The leading Brāhmaṇa Kauṭilya will exterminate all of them. That leading man will enjoy[10] the Earth for a hundred years.

144. Kauṭilya will install Candragupta. He will be king for twenty-four years.

145. Bhadrasāra (?) will be king for twenty-five years. The king will accord contentment to Aśoka (by installing him as a king) for thirty-six years.

146. His son Kulāla (Kuśāla, Kuṇāla) will be king for eight years. Bandhupālita, the son of Kuśāla, shall enjoy the kingdom for eight years.

147. Indrapālita will be the heir and successor of Bandhupālita. [For Ten years’ as emended in DKA p. 29]. Devavarmā shall become the ruler of men for seven years.

148-149. His son shall be the king Śatadhanu. Bṛhadratha shall be the king for seven years. Thus these nine Mauryas will enjoy the Earth for full hundred and thirty-seven years. From them the kingdom will go to the Śuṅgas.

150. Puṣyamitra the commander-in-chief will overthrow Bṛhadratha and rule the kingdom for sixty years.

151. Agnimitra will be the king for eight years. Thereafter, Sujyeṣṭha will be the king for seven years.

152. Vasumitra will then become king and reign for ten years. Then Bhadra will be the ruler for two years.

153. Thereafter, Pulindaka will be the king for three years. Thereafter, Ghoṣa will be the king for three years.

154. Vajramitra will be the king for seven years. Bhāgavata will be the king for thirty-two years.

155-157. His son Devabhūmi will be the king for ten years. Thus these ten kings of the family of Śuṅgas will enjoy the Earth for full one hundred and twelve years. From them, the kingdom will go to the Kaṇva family. The Minister Vasudeva will kill king Devabhūmi who will be indulging in vice from childhood onwards. He will become the king in the realm of the Śuṅgas. He will be a Kāṇvāyana (Belonging to the family of Kaṇva) and will reign for five years.

158. Bhūmimitra, his son, will be the king for twenty-four years. After him Nārāyaṇa will be the king for twelve years.

159-161. His son Suśarmā will be the king for four years. The kings called Kāṇvāyanas shall be four and they will reign for forty-five years and enjoy the Earth. Then the kingdom will pass on to the Āndhras.

Sindhuka belonging to the Andhra race will uproot by force, Suśarmā the Kāṇvāyana and hold sway over the Earth.

Sindhuka will be the king for twenty three years.

162-163. Kṛṣṇa, his brother, will be the king for ten years after him. His son, Śrī-Śāntakarṇi [Śātakarṇi] will be a great king; Śāntakarṇi will be the king for fifty-six years. His son Āpolava will be the king for twelve years.

164. Paṭumān will be the king for twenty-four years. Aniṣṭakarmā will be the king for twenty-five years.

165. Then for a full year, Hāla will be the king. The extremely powerful king named Pattallaka will be the king for five years.

166. Purīṣabhīru will be the king for twenty-one years. Śātakarni will be the king for a year.

167. Śivasvāti will be the king for twenty-eight years. Gautamīputra will be the king for twenty-one years.

168. Then Yajña-Śrī Śātakarṇi will be the king for nineteen years. After him Vijaya will be the king for only six years.

169-170. His son Daṇḍaśrī Śātakarṇi will be the king for three years, Pulomāri (?) shall be the king for seven years.

Thus these thirty Andhra kings will enjoy the Earth for four hundred and fifty-six years.

171. Five families of Āndhras have passed away. Those belonging to their families are seven in the future (?) Thereafter there will be ten Ābhīra kings.

172. Gardabhin kings are seven. Then the Śaka rulers are ten. There will be eight Yavana families and fourteen Tuṣāras.

173. There will be thirteen Guruṇḍas and eleven Maunas. Āndhras will enjoy the Earth for three hundred years.

174. The ten Ābhīras will be kings for sixty-seven years. The seven Gardabhins will enjoy the Earth for seventy-two years.

175. Śakas will enjoy the Earth for three hundred and eighty years.

Yavanas will enjoy the Earth for one hundred and sixty years.

176-177. Tuṣāras will retain the kingdom for five hundred years. The thirteen Guruṇḍas who belong to Mleccha tribes will enjoy the Earth for three hundred years (?) along with Vṛṣalas.

The eleven Maunas will reign for three hundred years.

178. When they are exterminated by force of time, the clan of Kilakila shall rule. After the Kilakilas, Vindhyaśakti will be the king.

179. He will retain the Earth for ninety-six years. Understand, henceforth, the kings of the future belonging to the land of Vidiśā.

180-181. The serpent-king Sadācandra, the son of Śeṣa, the king of Serpents, will conquer the city of Suras.[11] He will uplift the race of Nāgas (serpents).

The second king will be Candrāṃśu. Thereafter, Nakhavān will be the king. The fourth one born in this family will be Dhanadharmā.

182. Bhūtinanda shall succeed him as ruler in Vidiśā. His younger brother will be Nandiyaśas by name.

183. In his family, there will be only three kings. His daughters’ son shall become the king in Pūrikā.

184. Vindhyaśakti’s son, a heroic warrior named Pravīra will enjoy the city Kāñcanakā for sixty years.

185. He will perform Vājapeya sacrifices after distributing excellent Dakṣiṇās at the conclusion. His four sons will become rulers.

186-187. Three of them by marriage alliance with Vindhyakas[12] shall become kings. Supratīka and Gabhīra shall enjoy the kingdom for twenty years.

King Śaṅkamāna will become the ruler of Mahiṣī. There shall be six Puṣyamitras and thirteen Strīmitras (Paṭṭamitras in Vā. P.)

188. There will be seven kings ruling over Mekalā for seventy years. The kings in Komalā will be very powerful.

189. They are called Meghas and they are very intelligent. There will be nine kings in that line. All the Naiṣadhas will be great kings, and the family will last till the close of Manvantara.

190-193. They are born in the family of Nala. They will be vigorous and extremely powerful.

Viśvasphāṇi will be the king of Magadha. He will be very vigorous. After uprooting all the kings, he will create other castes viz. Kaivartas, Madrakas, Pulindas and Brāhmaṇas. Those kings will establish the people in different lands. Viśvasphāṇi will be extremely powerful and noble. In battle he will be as brilliant as Viṣṇu. The king Viśvasphāṇi, it is said, will appear like a eunuch. After exterminating the current Kṣatriyas, he will create other Kṣatriyas.

194. Nine Nāga kings will rule over the city of Campāvatī. Seven Nāga kings will enjoy the beautiful city of Mathurā.

195. The descendants of those seven families will enjoy the territories around Gaṅgā such as Prayāga, Sāketa and Magadha.

196. They will enjoy the following territories abounding in jewels and food-grains viz,. Naiṣadha, Yaduka, Śaiśīta and Kālatoyaka.

197. Devarakṣitas (those guarded by Devas) will rule over the territories of Kosala, Āndhra, Pauṇḍra, Tāmralipta and Sāgara as well as the charming city of Campā.

198. Guha will protect the following territories viz. Kaliṅga, Mahiṣa and Mahendranilaya.

199-200. Kanakāhvaya (one named Kanaka) will

enjoy the territories of Strīrāṣṭra (realm of women) and Bhojaka.

All these kings will be contemporaries. There will be Yavanas (Yavana kings) who will be difficult to please and quick in being furious. They will be untruthful and unrighteous in the affairs of Virtue, Love and Wealth.

201. Those kings will not be regularly consecrated with the ritualistic sprinkling of holy water over the head. Those kings will be evil in their conduct, due to the evil influence of the Yuga.[13]

202. Those persons will become kings by turns after the lapse of some time. They will be devoid of Dharma. They will be base and mean in the matter of love and wealth.

203. On account of them all the territories will become inter-mixed. They will follow the customs and conventions of the Mlecchas. They will act in contravention of established principles of religion and ruin the subjects.

204-206. When their turn comes, when the era becomes abounding in women, the kings will be greedy, miserly and untruthful. The subjects will slowly and little by little decline and decay in regard to length of life, features of the body, physical strength and learning. When the subjects thus reach the lowest point (of deterioration) the kings and emperors will be over-whelmed by Kāla (God of Time, or death) and they will be ruined. Struck down, by Kalki, all the Mlecchas will face destruction.

207. Similarly, all those who are unrighteous and extremely heretic will face destruction.

Even the name ‘king’ will vanish, when only the Sandhyā period of junction between two Yugas in the Kali Yuga remains.

208. The few people who survive till that period will face various hardships, as Dharma (virtue) has become discredited. They will become destitutes without possessions and belongings. They will not have proper means. Their wealth and assets will be taken away and destroyed. They will be afflicted by sickness, miseries and sorrows.

209. They will be ruined due to drought and absence of rain and by killing one another.

210. They will have none to support them. Due to great fear, they will desert their profession and places of work. They will become still more miserable. They will leave off cities and villages. They will begin to dwell in forest.

211-212. Thus, when all these things are destroyed, the people will abandon their houses and resort to rivers and mountains. When the feelings of affection are lost, they will become miserable with all their friends devoid of friendship. They will err and deviate from the discipline and duties of the four castes and stages of life. They will have a mixed caste with intermarriages etc. and it will be an awful state of affairs.

213-217a. They will resort to rivers, marshy places in the foreshores of seas as well as mountains. Men will resort to Aṅga, Kaliṅga, Vaṅga, Kāśmīra, Kāśī, Kosala and large lakes and ponds around the mountain Ṛṣikānta.

The noble people along with the Mlecchas will go to the shores of the salty sea and to the top of Himavān and the forests in between.

Men will sustain themselves with the meat of deer, fishes, birds and beasts of prey as well as sugar-cane plants, honey, greens, fruits and roots.

Like the sages of olden days, they will make for themselves different garments of leaves, barks of trees and hides of deer and wear them.

217b-220. With wooden spikes they will attempt to ferret out seeds and other edible things from beneath' the ground. With great effort, they will keep goats, sheep, donkeys and camels. Men will resort to the rivers for the sake of water and sustenance. The kings will be harassing one another by means of their evil dealings. They will think highly of themselves. They will be devoid of progeny. They will not maintain cleanliness or good habits and conventions. Men will be like this, engaged fully in sinful activities. The common people will have to obey people of mean and base nature, evil conduct and depressed condition.

221-222. No one will live beyond a life span of twenty-three years. They will be weak and oppressed by old age. They will be sick and fatigued on account of sensuous attachment to worldly objects. They will be taking in léaves, roots and fruits as their food and will wear barks of trees and hides of antelopes for dress. Desirous of means of sustenance and occupations for livelihood, they will be roaming over the Earth.

223-225. By the time the subjects reach this situation, the Kali Yuga will come to a close. Kali Yuga consisting of a thousand years according to divine reckoning, will lapse and along with the Kali Yuga, the people will also pass away. When the Kali Yuga lapses completely along with the Sandhyāṃśa (period of junction or transition), Kṛta Yuga will dawn.

When the Sun, Moon, Bṛhaspati (Jupiter) and Tiṣya constellations meet together in one Rāśi (sign of zodiac), the Kṛta Yuga will set in.

226. The genealogy and the order of succession of the kings of the past, present and future, has been completely recounted to you.

227. It should be known that the period beginning with the birth of Parīkṣit and ending with the coronation of Mahānanda consists of a thousand and fifty years.

228-229. (Defective Text). It is possible to mention proof (?) for the fact that the period after Mahāpadma and ending with the Āndhra kings is remembered as comprising eight hundred and thirty-six years. This has already been mentioned. This period has been calculated by well-known sages conversant with Purāṇas.

230-231. The stellar zone consists of twenty-seven stars. The Saptarṣis are seven sages (Ursa Major). During the period of Parīkṣit the Saptarṣīs were in the Pitrya constellation (i.e. Maghā) where they stayed for a hundred years. They will stay for a hundred years in each of the contellations by twins. Hence, the period of dynasty of Āndhras will be two thousand seven hundred years.

232-234. This Yuga of Saptarṣis, it should be known is in accordance with the divine reckoning. The numbers of months calculated in accordance with the divine reckoning are remembered as six and the divine years are seven. From them the divine period begins to function (360x7½=2700) The first two (stars) of the Saptarṣis are seen in the sky in the north; Between them, a constellation is seen. It should be known that the Saptarṣis are in conjunction with that star. This period of contact will last for a hundred years.

235-238. This is the basis for the contact of the Ṛṣis and the stars. The Saptarṣis in contact with Maghā constellation were there for hundred years in the age of Parīkṣit.

(?) Hundred years will be completed with the twenty-fourth (king) in the line of Āndhras.

The subjects will violently attack the Prakṛtis (ministers etc).

When the holy rites laid down in Śrutis and Smṛtis fall into disuse and become slack, when the discipline of life in the four stages and castes becomes upset, the subjects will be oppressed by falsehood in regard to virtue, wealth and love. They will be deluded and morally weak. They will become involved in Saṃkara (inter-mixture of castes). The Śūdras will have alliance with the Brāhmaṇas (and- other “twice-born” people.).

239. Brāhmaṇas will perform Yāgas (sacrifices) on behalf of Śūdras. Śudras will be the source of origin of Mantras. Brāhmaṇas will resort to them and attend on them with a desire to get some base means of livelihood.

240. Their subjects will be falling away from Dharma little by little. At the end of the Yuga, the subjects will be utterly destroyed.

241. Kali Yuga began on the day when Kṛṣṇa passed on to heaven. Understand how it is calculated.

242-243. Three hundred and sixty thousand years (3,60,000) according to human reckoning constitute the Kali Yuga. That is the period of a thousand years according to divine reckoning. The two periods of its conjunction have already been mentioned. When the entire period lapses, Kṛta Yuga sets in.

244. The two dynasties viz. that of Aila and that of Ikṣvāku have been recounted along with their different clans and subdivisions. The solar dynasty of Ikṣvāku is remembered as ending with Sumitra.

245-246. Persons conversant with the lunar dynasty know that the Kṣatriya race of Aila ends with Kṣemaka. These renowned descendants of the Sun of the past, present and future have been glorified. They are remembered to have been born as Brāhmaṇas, Kṣatriyas, Vaiśyas and Śūdras.

247-248. Thousands of noble souls have passed on in different Yugas. Their number is legion. Many names are repeated. Hence, the kings are not fully enumerated family-wise. In this Vaivasvata Manvantara, Nimi’s race comes to an end.

249. I shall mention those persons from whom the Kṣatriya race begins in this Yuga. Even as I recount it try to understand the same.

250. Devāpi, the king belonging to the family of Pūru, and Maru who belongs to Ikṣvāku family, these two are endowed with great Yogic power. They occupied the village called Kalāpa.

251-253. In the twenty-fourth Catur-Yuga (set of four Yugas) these will be the persons responsible for the functioning of Kṣatriya race. A son named Suvarcas will be born to Ikṣvāku in the twenty-ninth Yuga. He will be the founder in the race. Paula shall be the first person in the Aila dynasty of Devāpi. These two will be the persons who set the Kṣatriya race function in the set of four Yugas. The same principle regarding the perpetuation of the line should be understood everywhere. When the Kali Yuga lapses, they will be born in the Kṛta Yuga.

254-259. In the first Tretā Yuga, along with the Saptarṣis, they will set the Gotras of Brāhmaṇas and the families of Kṣatriyas function. With a part of Dvāpara, the Kṣatriyas will stay behind along with the sages. It is for the sake of the nucleus of the races of Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas in the future creation of the Kṛta Yuga.

In the same manner, the Saptarṣis stay behind among the Asuras along with the kings in every Yuga for the perpetuation of the line. The relationship of the Kṣatriyas with the Brāhmaṇas is remembered as one of extermination (?)

The progeny of the seven Manvantaras has been heard by you. The origin of the Yugas as well as of the race of Brāhmaṇas and Kṣatriyas is mutually interdependent (?)

The origin and destruction of these, how these function and how they meet with destruction after beginning to function,—only the Saptarṣis know this because of their longevity.

260-261. In this order, O Brāhmaṇas, the families—Aila and Ikṣvāku are originated in the Trctā and destroyed in the Kali Yuga. They will follow the Yuga, till the close of the Manvantara.

162. When the Kṣatriyas were completely exterminated by Rāma son of Jamadagni, this entire Earth was rendered confused by the Kṣatriya kings.

263-264. I shall recount the original cause of the two races. Understand it. The origins of the family of Aila and that of Ikṣvāku are different (Sun and Moon).

The kings and other Kṣatriyas come in a series (?). Just as those belonging to the family of Aila, so also those of Ikṣvāku are well renowned kings.

265. Hundred and one families belonging to them have been accorded coronation. The extent of the Bhojas is remembered as twice.

266. (Defective Text). Three-fourths of the Kṣatriyas, become established. The other one-fourth is scattered here and there in various directions (?). Undersand even as I recount those who are equal (?) to those who are of the past.

267. There are hundred descendants of the Prativindhyas, hundred Nāgas along with Haihayas, hundred and one Dhṛtarāṣṭṛas and eighty Janamejayas.

268-269. Hundred Brahmadattas, hundred Śārins and Vīrins and hundred Paulas, Śvetas, Kāśyas, Kuśas and others who have gone by and Śaśabindus are a thousand. All of them performed horse-sacrifices distributing millions of coins as monetary gifts.

270-271. Thus there had been hundreds and thousands of saintly kings in the past in the current Manvantara of Vaivasvata Manu. Many of the children born to them are remembered. But understand that it is impossible to describe them in detail and in the proper order even in hundreds of years.

272-274. Twenty-eight sets of four Yugas have gone by in the Vaivasvata Manvantara along with these saintly kings. Understand those that yet remain. Forty-three sets of four Yugas are yet to come in the future along with the future kings. Thereafter, the Vaivasvata Manvantara will come to a close, thus everything has been mentioned to you either succinctly or in detail.

275-278. On account of the innumerable repetitions it is impossible to mention all completely along with the Yugas.

These five families of the sons of Yayāti are beneficial to the people. They have been recounted. They have passed by sustaining the worlds.

By retaining in memory and by listening to the description of the five families of great intellect one acquires five excellent and rare worldly benefits viz. long life, reputation, wealth, children and heavenly bliss for an indefinite period.

Thus, O Brāhmaṇas, the third Pāda (section) has been recounted to you in detail as well as in the proper order.

What else shall I describe?

Footnotes and references:

1.

AIHT.p.144 records Garbha as the descendent of Vahni and Gobhānu comes after Garbha.

2.

The same as Sarūtha in Vā.P. But Bharata is regarded as the son of Duṣyanta and Śakuntalā in Mbh. etc.

3.

It means Druhyu dynasty ruled over a part of Afghanistan.

4.

The following are the locations of places mentioned here:

i. Śivapura—The country of Siaposh; it included Kafiristan (De 211)....
ii. Yaudheya—Located between Hydaspes and Indus (De 215).
iii. Navarāṣṭra—Nausari in Baroach Dist. Gujarat (De 139)
iv. Kṛmilā—untraced.

5.

The country of the tribe of Ambutai who lived in northern Sindh at the time of Alexander. (De 6)

6.

This obscure rite is mentioned by Buddha in derision. Mbh. attests to the existence of this practice—MW 365A

7.

The text has mixed up Bali, the great rival of Indra and this Bali, the king of East India. The story of having Aṅga, Vaṅga, Kaliṅga, Puṇḍra, Suhma as the sons from Dīrghatamas to his queen Sudeṣṇā is of a different Bali and not of Iṇḍra’s rival. See MLBD. PE. pp.104-105.

8.

A popular etymology of Gautama.

9.

VV. 107-203 give the brief history of different ‘Future’ dynasties. The dynasties mentioned here are (1) Bārhadratha, (2) Pradyota, (3) Śiśunāga (4) Nanda, (5) Maurya, (6) Kāṇva and (8) Āndhra.

For the discussion of these historical dynasties, see Introduction “Historical Tradition in Bd.P.”

10.

As suggested by Pargiter (DKA p.26) bhuktā mahī ‘the earth that was enjoyed’ (for 100 years etc) was a better reading.

11.

Surapurañjaya but Svarapurñjaya in Vā. P. 99.368.

12.

vindhyakānāṃ kulānāṃ te nṛpā vaivāhikās trayaḥ. the word vaivāhika renders the meaning obscure if not absurd. Vā. P. 99.372 reads:

vindhyakānāṃ kule ‘tīte nṛpā vaivāhikās trayaḥ.

“when the dynasty of Vindhyaka was terminated, there were three kings of the Agni-kula (the race of the Fire god)”.

13.

VV.201-241 depict the gloomy picture of the Kali Age. This description is common to other Purāṇas also. R. C. Hazra, in PRHRC states that such was probably the condition of Hindu society from 200 B.C. to A.D. 200.

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