Cakshus, Cakṣus, Cakshush: 12 definitions

Introduction

Cakshus means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Cakṣus can be transliterated into English as Caksus or Cakshus, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Chakshus.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—One of the four rivers originating from the “river of the sky”, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 82. This ‘river of the sky’ starts at the ‘ocean of the sky’ and, being agitated by the elephant of Indra, falls at the top of mount Meru, where at the bottom it forms into these four rivers. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—A synonym of the Sun. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 1, Verse 42).

2) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—A tributary of river Gaṅgā. Starting from Viṣṇupāda (Svarga) the Gaṅgā falls into Devayāna and thence into the moon and after flooding the whole area it divides itself into four tributaries, viz., Sītā, Cakṣus, Alakanandā and Bhadrā and falls into Brahmaloka and flows in four directions. Of the four tributaries the river called Cakṣus falls on the peak of Mount Mālyavān and then flows through Ketumāla and falls into the western sea. The Gaṅgā which flows through India is a branch of the above-mentioned tributary, Alakanandā. (Devī Bhāgavata, Aṣṭama Skandha).

3) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—A king born in the lunar dynasty. He was the son of King Anudruhyu. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्, ‘eye’),—The ‘evil eye’ (ghoraṃ cakṣus) was well known in the Atharvaveda, which contains spells to counteract its influence. As remedies against it are mentioned salve from Mount Trikakubh and the Jaṅgiḍa plant. In the wedding ceremony the wife is entreated not to have the evil eye (aghora-cakṣus). The structure of the eye, and its division into white (śukla), dark (kṛṣṇa), and the pupil (kanīnakā) are repeatedly referred to in the later Brāhmaṇas. The disease Alaji appears to have been an affection of the eyes.

In Buddhism

Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra

1) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्, “visual power”).—the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV) attributes five cakṣus or visual powers to the Buddha.

These are:

  1. the fleshly eye (māṃsacakṣus),
  2. the divine eye (divyacakṣus),
  3. the wisdom-eye (prajñācakṣus),
  4. the Dharma-eye (dharmacakṣus),
  5. the buddha-eye (buddhacakṣus).

The same list occurs in Mahāvastu, I, p. 158, and Dharmasaṃgraha, chap. LXVI.

The wisdom-eye (prajñācakṣus) knows the true nature (satyalakṣaṇa) of the dharmas; the Dharma-eye (dharmacakṣus) sees a given person and discovers by what skillful means (upāya) and by what teaching (dharma) that person will find the Path; the buddha-eye (buddhacakṣus) is the direct insight (pratyakṣāvagama) into all dharmas.

2) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्, “visual power”) refers to the “two eyes”, from which the Buddha emitted numerous rays when he smiled with his whole body after contemplating the entire universe, according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra (chapter XIV).—Accordingly, having himself arranged the lion-seat, the Bhagavat sat down cross-legged; holding his body upright and fixing his attention, he entered into the samādhirājasamādhi. Then, having tranquilly come out of this samādhi and having contemplated the entire universe with his divine eye (divyacakṣus), the Bhagavat smiled with his whole body. Wheels with a thousand spokes imprinted on the soles of his feet (pādatala) shoot out six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays. In the same way, beams of six hundred prabhedakoṭi of rays are emitted from his two eyes (cakṣus).

3) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्, “sight”) refers to the one of the twenty-two faculties (indriya), according to the 2nd century Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra chapter 38. The word indriya, derived from the root id or ind, is synonymous with great power, with control. The twenty-two Dharmas in question [viz., cakṣus] have the characteristic of being dominant in regard to the living being (sattva) in that which concerns: his primary constitution, his distinctiveness, his duration, his moral defilement and his purification.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-samgraha

1) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्, “eye”) or cakṣurāyatana refers to one of the “twelve sense spheres” (āyatana) as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 24). The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., cakṣus). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

Cakṣus (“eye”) also represents one of the “eighteen elements” (dhātu) as well as one of the “eleven form components” (rūpaskandha).

2) Cakṣus (चक्षुस्) or Pañcacakṣus refers to the “five eyes” as defined in the Dharma-saṃgraha (section 65):

  1. māṃsa-cakṣus (the fleshly eye),
  2. dharma-cakṣus (the dharma eye),
  3. prajñā-cakṣus (the wisdom eye),
  4. divya-cakṣus (the divine eye),
  5. buddha-cakṣus (and the Buddha eye).

The Dharma-samgraha (Dharmasangraha) is an extensive glossary of Buddhist technical terms in Sanskrit (eg., cakṣus). The work is attributed to Nagarjuna who lived around the 2nd century A.D.

India history and geogprahy

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Cakṣus.—(IE 7-1-2), ‘two’; cf. netra. Cf. Pali cakkhu (EI 5), Buddhist; vision, five in number. Cf. cakṣur-vadha, ‘killing at sight’, ‘killing instantaneously’; or probably ‘blinding of the eyes’. See Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXIII, p. 307 and note 1. Note: cakṣus is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—a. [cakṣ karaṇe usi Uṇ.2.118] Seeing. -n.

1) The eye; दृश्यं तमसि न पश्यति दीपेन विना सचक्षुरपि (dṛśyaṃ tamasi na paśyati dīpena vinā sacakṣurapi) M.1.9; कृष्णसारे ददच्चक्षुः (kṛṣṇasāre dadaccakṣuḥ) Ś.1.6; cf. words like घ्राणचक्षुस्, ज्ञानचक्षुस्, नयचक्षुस्, चारचक्षुस् (ghrāṇacakṣus, jñānacakṣus, nayacakṣus, cāracakṣus) &c.

2) Sight, look, vision, the faculty of sight; चक्षुरायुश्चैव प्रहीयते (cakṣurāyuścaiva prahīyate) Ms.4.41,42.

3) Light, clearness.

4) Lustre, splendour.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—in pañca-c° (= Pali pañca-cakkhu), the five superior qualities of vision (partly physical, partly mental or spiritual) possessed by a Buddha (compare pañcacakṣuḥ- samanvāgata Lalitavistara 3.5; 403.2, of Buddha): listed, in agree- ment except for order, Dharmasaṃgraha 66; Asaṅga (Mahāyāna-sūtrālaṃkāra) xviii.54, commentary; and Mahāvastu i.158.1 ff., where each is explained in some detail, viz. māṃsa-c° 158.8—159.5; divya-c° 159.5—7; prajñā-c° 159.8—9; dharma-c° 159.9—160.7 (= daśānāṃ balānāṃ manovibhutā, 159.10; then follows a statement on the 10 bala, 159.12—160.5, in verse); and buddha-c° 160.7—16 (this = the 18 āveṇikā buddhadharmāḥ, which are then listed). In Pali (see Childers and [Pali Text Society’s Pali-English Dictionary]) the list contains maṃsa-, dibba-, paññā-, and buddha-cakkhu, but for dharma- substitutes samanta-c° (before or after buddha-c°). A difficult and corrupt line, Mahāvastu i.42.15 = 53.12 = 337.4 (in the last printed by Senart as prose), contains some form of bhava-cakṣuka, which Senart regards as containing a *bhava-cakṣu(s) = māṃsa-c°, quite wrongly; his translation(s) (note on 42.15) misunderstands māṃsa-c° which is a complimentary and superior power, not one to be derogated. Possibly rather eye of existence and agreeing with prajñā-skandha (337.4 prajñā-cakṣu[r])? The preponderant evidence of the mss. points to bhava- cakṣuke (or °ko or °kaiḥ) apāye prajñāskandho (or °dhe, °dhā; 337.4 see above) niveśeyaṃ (? °yaḥ, or other vv.ll.). All too obscure to be useful.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—n.

(-kṣuḥ) The eye. E. cakṣ to speak, and karaṇe usi aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—[cakṣ + us], n. The eye, [Indralokāgamana] 4, 1.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Cakṣus (चक्षुस्).—[adjective] seeing. [masculine] [Name] of a Marut & [several] Ṛṣis; [neuter] brightness, light, view, sight, eye.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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