Gandhara, Gandhāra, Gāndhāra, Gamdhara: 36 definitions


Gandhara means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

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In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) is a Sanskrit word for a variety of rice (ṣaṣṭika) which is said to have a superior quality, according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant Gāndhāra is part of the Śūkadhānyavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Gāndhāra is said to be cold, unctuous, non-heavy, promoting the stability of and alleviates the three doṣas.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to the third of the seven “musical notes” (svara), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 6, chapter 19 and chapter 28. These seven notes are part of the ‘vocal representation’ (vācika), which is used in communicating the meaning of the drama and calling forth the sentiment (rasa). The seven notes (svara) are to be used in different sentiments (rasa). For example, gāndhāra and niṣāda are to be used in the pathetic (karuṇa) sentiment.

The presiding deity of the gāndhāra musical note (svara) is defined by various sources:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.13-14 mentions that the gāndhāra note is sung by Soma.
Bṛhaddeśī 75-76 mentions Bhāratī as the presiding deity of gāndhāra.
Saṅgītaratnākara 1.3.57-58 mentions Sarasvatī as the presiding deity of gāndhāra.
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.38, Idem.
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

The following animal sounds are associated with this note:

Nāradīyā-śīkṣā 1.5.3 assigns this note to the she-goat (ajā) and the sheep (āvika) .
Bṛhaddeśī 64, p13, 2.1-5 assigns this note to bleat of the she-goats (ajā).
Saṃgītamakaranda 1.1.13 assigns this note to bleat of the he-goat (aja).
Saṅgītaratnākara assigns this note to bleat of the he-goat (chāga).
Cf. Saṃgītarāja

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—A province in ancient India believed to be the present day Afghanistan.

Vaishnavism book cover
context information

Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Gandhara in Purana glossary
Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—A stretch of land of ancient Bhārata. It is believed that this land stretched from the shores of river Sindhu to Kābul. Subala was a mighty ruler of this country. His daughter Gāndhārī was the wife of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. (Śloka 11, Chapter 111, Ādi Parva).

Agni Purāṇa points out a relationship between the Gāndhāras and the Drāviḍas. Descending in order from Viṣṇu were Candra—Budha—Purūravas—Āyus—Nahuṣa -Yayāti—Turvasu. In order from Turvasu were Varga—Gobhānu—Traiśāni—Karandhama—Marutta—Duṣyanta—Varūtha—Gāṇḍīra—Gāndhāra. From Gāndhāra arose the five different provincialists: Gāndhāras, Keralas, Colas, Pāṇḍyas and Kolas. (Chapter 277, Agni Purāṇa).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—The son of Aru(d)dha (Ārabdha-bhā. p., vi. p.). After him came the Gāndhāra country famous for horses. Father of Dharma.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 15; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 9-10; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 9; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 17. 4.

1b) (svara)—an auspicious one;1 the third of the seven notes of music.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 243. 21.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 21-32; 86. 37.

1c) —(c)—a northern kingdom and tribe whose king contemporary of Kṛṣṇa was Śakuni who was an ally of Jarāsandha. Hence his subjects were enlisted by Jarāsandha against the Yadus. Śakuni himself was placed on the east of Gomanta hill during its siege. Here Bharata's sons Takṣa and Puṣkara ruled;1 noted for horses;2 also gandhara.

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 52. 11 [6]; [50 (v) 3]. Matsya-purāṇa 114. 41; 121. 46; 144. 57. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 47; 18. 47; 31. 83; III. 63. 190; 73. 108; 74. 9-10. Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 189.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 10.

1d) A son of Śaradvat and a grandson of Druhyu, after whom was named the country Gāndhāra; had choice horses of the Āraṭṭa country.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 48. 6-7.

1e) People of.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 116; 47. 45; 58. 82; 98. 107.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Gandhāra (गन्धार) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.177.5) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Gandhāra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra

1) Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Śilparatna (32.4), the Mayamata (18.10) and the Kamikāgama (57.4). The term is used throughout vāstuśāstra literature.

2) Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to a variety of prāsāda (‘superstructure’, or, upper storey of any building), according to the Mayamata (5th-century guidebook on Dravidian architecture). It is part of the Dvitala (two-storey) group of prāsādas.

The Gāndhāra variety has the following specifications and decorative motif components:

Number of talas (levels): 2;
Shape of grīva (neck) and śikhara (head): Elliptical (three stūpis)

The Gāndhāra is also a variation of the Tritala (three-storey) group:

Number of talas (levels): 3;
Shape of grīva (neck) and śikhara (head): Square or Octagonal;
Number of śālas: 8;
Number of kūṭas: 8;
Number of pañjaras: 16;
Number of alpanāsis: As many as required;
Number of mahānāsis: 4;

Vastushastra book cover
context information

Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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Shiksha (linguistics: phonetics, phonology etc.)

Source: Google Books: Dattilam: A Compendium of Ancient Indian Music [shiksha]

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to the third of six notes (svara) in Indian music.—The air, rising from the navel and striking the throat and the head, blows smells to the nose and is delicious; for that reason it is gāndhāra. (Nāradīyā-śikṣā 1. 5.7-11)

context information

Shiksha (शिक्षा, śikṣā) deals with Sanskrit linguistics and represents a branch of vedanga (vedic ancillary science). Shiksha deals with subjects such as phonetics, phonology, study of sound, letters of the Sanskrit alphabet and related topics. Much attention is also given to the study of recitation (patha) of Vedic verses.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—Illustration of the gāndhāra-svara according to 15th century art.—The colour of the body of gāndhāra-svara is white. He has four hands. He holds a lotus flowers in one of his upper hand and in the other a fruit and in his lower hand a vīṇā (Indian lute) and in the other a bell. His vehicle is a goat. The colour of his scarf is rosy with red dots and the colour of the lower garment is yellow with a black design.

The illustrations (of, for example Gāndhāra) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Gandhara in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya

Gāndhāra refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Gāndhāra corresponds northern Pakistan, to the south-east of Bāhlīka.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to a country [possibly identified with Uśīnara], belonging to “Uttaratas or Uttaradeśa (northern division)” classified under the constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Śatabhiṣaj, Pūrvabhādrapada and Uttarabhādrapada represent the northern division consisting of [i.e., Gāndhāra] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Gitashastra (science of music)

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (gita)

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to one of the Seven svaras (“notes of music”), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—The sound which has the quality of satisfying nature to please the listeners’ minds and also has śrutis immediately before it is called a svara. In the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa and the Saṃgītaratnākara, seven kinds of svara [e.g., gāndhāra] are accepted. [...] It is seen that when two separate musical sounds occur at one time and both are gradually rising in one pitch following a particular direction, those sounds can be called as svaras.

context information

Gitashastra (गीतशास्त्र, gītaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of Music (gita or samgita), which is traditionally divided in Vocal music, Instrumental music and Dance (under the jurisdiction of music). The different elements and technical terms are explained in a wide range of (often Sanskrit) literature.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7

Gandhāra (गन्धार) is the name of a country (possibly identified with Afghanistan), classified as Hādi (a type of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Gandhāra] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Gandhara - A Pacceka Buddha mentioned in a nominal list. M.iii.69; ApA.i.106.

2. Gandhara - One of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (countries) (A.i.213; iv.252, etc.; in the Niddesa and Mahavastu lists Gandhara is omitted and others substituted). Its capital was Takkasila, famous for its university; its king in the time of the Buddha was Pukkusati. There was friendly intercourse between him and Bimbisara of Magadha. Merchants and visitors from one country to another were lodged and fed at the expense of the countrys king, and no tariffs were levied on their merchandise. There was constant exchange of goods and valuables, and on one occasion Bimbisara, wishing to send his friend a gift of particular value, despatched to him a letter containing news of the appearance in the world of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha. When Pukkusati read the letter he decided to become a follower of the Buddha, and ordained himself as a monk; then, leaving his kingdom, he travelled all the way to Savatthi to see the Buddha (MA.ii.979ff). This conversion of Gandharas king, however, does not seem to have had the effect of converting the rest of its people to the Buddhas faith. The memory of Pukkusati was evidently soon forgotten, for we find Moggaliputta Tissa, at the conclusion of the Third Council, sending the Thera Majjhantika to convert Gandhara (Mhv.xii.3ff).

According to Buddhaghosas account, Pukkusatis kingdom was over one hundred leagues in extent (MA.ii.988), and the distance from Takkasila to Savatthi was one hundred and ninety two leagues (MA.ii.987; from Benares it was one hundred and twenty leagues, visamyo janasata; J.i.395; ii.47). There was evidently a well known caravan route linking the two countries, although Gandhara was regarded as a paccantima janapada. (MA.ii.982; there was also constant trade between Gandhara and Videha, J.iii.365ff. It would appear from the Maha Niddesa i.154 that Takkasila was a regular centre of trade).

At the time of Majjhantikas visit, the people of Gandhara were being harassed by the Naga king Aravala, and the chronicles contain details of his conversion by the monk. The Naga king, together with his retinue, the yakkha Pandaka and his wife Harita, became devout followers of the Buddha. Majjhantika preached the Asivisupama Sutta, and many thousands joined the Order. (Mhv.xii.9ff; Smp.i.64f; Dpv.viii.4).

Gandhara appears to have included Kasmira, the two countries being always mentioned together as Kasmira Gandhara. They occupied the sites of the modern districts of Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab (PHAI. p.93). In the time of Asoka the country formed part of his empire, and is mentioned as such in Rock Edict V. Before that it was subject to the Achaemenid kings. Gandhara was always famous for its red woollen shawls (kambala) (SNA.ii.487;

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Gandhāra (गन्धार) (in Chinese: K'ien-t'o-lo) refers to one of the fifty-five kingdoms enumerated in chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective districts.—In Gandhāra, the following deities are appointed (among others): The Devaputra Agniveṣa [?]; the Yakṣa Siṃhaloma [?]; the Nāgarājas Airāvata and Bhadravīrya [?]; the Goddess Mo-ni and P'in-t'eou (Maṇi; Bindu [?]).

Gandhāra (गन्धार) (in Chinese: K'ien-t'o-lo) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Mṛgaśiras or Mṛgaśirasnakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: WikiPedia: Buddhism

Gandhara is the name of an ancient kingdom (Mahajanapada), located in northern Pakistan and eastern Afghanistan. Gandhara was located mainly in the vale of Peshawar, the Potohar plateau (see Taxila) and on the Kabul River. Its main cities were Purushapura (modern Peshawar), literally meaning City of Man[2] and Takshashila (modern Taxila).

(also known as Waihind in Persian)

The Kingdom of Gandhara lasted from c. the 6th century BCE to the 11th century CE. It attained its height from the 1st century to the 5th century under the Buddhist Kushan Kings. The Hindu Shahi, a term used by history writer Al Biruni[4] to refer to the ruling Hindu dynasty that took over from the Turki Shahi and ruled the region during the period prior to Muslim conquests of the tenth and eleventh centuries. After it was conquered by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 CE, the name Gandhara disappeared. During the Muslim period the area was administered from Lahore or from Kabul. During Mughal times the area was part of Kabul province.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Gāndhāra (गान्धार) refers to one of the sixteen classes of Vidyādharas derived from their respective Vidyās (in this case, from Gandhārī-vidyā), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.—Accordingly, “[...] After making [the two rows of Vidyādhara-cities], many villages and suburbs, they established communities [viz., the Gāndhāras] according to the suitability of place. [...] Dharaṇendra instructed them about the law as follows: ‘If any insolent persons show disrespect or do injury to the Jinas, or the Jinas’ shrines, or to those who will attain mokṣa in this birth, or to any ascetics engaged in pratimā, the Vidyās [viz., Gandhārīs] will abandon them at once, just as wealth abandons lazy people. Whoever kills a man with his wife, or enjoys women against their will, the Vidyās will abandon him at once’.”

2) Gandhārā (गन्धारा) is the wife of Bhūrinandana, a former incarnation of king Ratnamālin, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.4 [Rāma and Lakṣmaṇa].

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Gāndhāra (गान्धार) is the name of a tribe mentioned as inhabiting the region around ancient Kaśmīra (Kashmir valley) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Gāndhāras were an ancient tribe mentioned in the Rgveda and the Atharvaveda. The Mahābhārata refers to them along with the Yavanas, the Kāmbojas, the Kirātas and the Barbaras. Evidently they were the inhabitants of Gand-hāra which has been identified with the districts of Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the north-west Panjab. The jātakas and the Milindapañha indicate the close relations existing between Kaśmīra and Gandhāra. Occupation of Kaśmīra by the Kuṣāṇa king Kaniṣka, who ruled over Gandhāra also, must have strengthened these relations.

Source: Rajatarangini (Ranjit Sitaram Pandit) (history)

Gandhara (Eastern Afghanistan) is the opening scene of Kalhana’s long story.—Gandhara, as we know from the Rig-Veda and the Avesta, was the meeting ground of the Indo-Aryans and the Iranians. This contact in comparatively recent times during the Achaemenid period, preceding the invasion of Alexander the Great, was more intimate. For, several centuries after the Greek invasion, Gandhara was the home of Graeco-Buddhist culture in which the Iranians participated. [...]

Source: The Chronology of Ancient Gandhara and Bactria

Dynastic history of ancient Gandhara and Bactria (6200-3162 BCE).—According to Puranas, the dynastic history of Gandhara begins with Chandravamsi King Gandhara who was the contemporary of Ikshvaku king Mandhata (~6200 BCE). Aitareya Brahmana mentions King Nagnajit of Gandhara, a contemporary of King Janaka of Videha. Kaikeyi’s son Bharata reigned over Gandhara during Ramayana period.

Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism

Gandhāra (गन्धार) refers to one of the two Mahājanapadas of the Uttarāpatha  (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—The kingdom of Gandhāra included Kashmīr and the Takshasīlā region. Gandhāra comprises the districts of Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab as we find in the Mahāvaṃsa wherein it is stated that after the dissolution of the Third Buddhist Council, Moggaliputtatissa Thera sent Majjhantika Thera to Kāsmīra-Gandhāra for propagation of the Buddhist faith. Gandhāra thus comprised the whole of the districts of Peshawar and Rawalpindi in the northern Punjab.

In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, Gandhāra is included in the list of the sixteen Mahājanapadas. The Gandhāras were a very ancient people. Their capital Takshasīlā is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata in connection with the story of King Jātamejaya who is said to have conquered it. Takkasīlā or Taxila was the capital city of the Gandhāra kingdom, and according to the Jātakas it lay 2,000 leagues from Benares. In the time of Nimi, King of Videha, Durmukha, King of Pañchāla. and Bhīma, King of Vidarbha, the throne of Gandhāra was occupied by Naggaji or Nagnajit (cf. Kumbhakāra Jātaka, Aitareya Brāhmaṇa and Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Gandhara in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

gandhāra : (m.) the country (now called) Kandahar.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Gandhāra, (adj.) belonging to the Gandhāra country (Kandahar) f. gandhārī in gandhārī vijjā N. of a magical charm D.I, 213; at J.IV, 498 it renders one invisible. (Page 244)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

gandhāra (गंधार).—m (gāndhāra S) One of the seven primary notes of music,--the third ascending.

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gāndhāra (गांधार).—m S The third of the seven primary notes of music.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Gandhāra (गन्धार).—(pl.)

1) Name of a country and its rulers; पुरुषं गन्धारेभ्योऽभिनद्धाक्षमानीय (puruṣaṃ gandhārebhyo'bhinaddhākṣamānīya) Ch. Up.6.14.1.

2) The third note (in music).

3) A particular Rāga.

Derivable forms: gandhāraḥ (गन्धारः).

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Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—

1) The third of the seven primary notes of the Indian Gamut; (commonly denoted by ga in musical notation).

2) Red lead.

3) Name of a country between India and Persia, the modern Kandahāra.

5) A native or a ruler of that country.

-ram Gum myrrh.

Derivable forms: gāndhāraḥ (गान्धारः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Gandhāra (गन्धार).—m. (1) (= Sanskrit Lex. id.; MIndic for Sanskrit gāndhāra), the third note of the gamut: Mahāvyutpatti 5030 (v.l. gān°, but Mironov gan°); (2) name of a nāga-king: Mahāvyutpatti 3298; Mahā-Māyūrī 247.37.

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Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—name of a maharṣi: Mahā-Māyūrī 256.31.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—m.

(-raḥ) 1. One of the seven primary notes of music. 2. Minium or red lead. 3. A country, (Candahar, between the north of India and Persia). n.

(-raṃ) Gum myrrh f. (-rī) 1. The wife of Dhritarash- Tra mother of Duryod'Hana. 2. One of the tutelary female deities of the Jainas. 3. A plant (Hedysarum alhagi.) 4. Prickly nightshade. E. gāndha the aggregate of gandha smell, &c. to go and aṇ affix; the note being said to be produced by pure and fragrant breath, &c. gāndhāreya m.

(-yaḥ) A name of Duryod'Hana, the son of Dhri- Tarashtra. E. gāndhārī the name of the mother of this chief, and ḍhak aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gandhāra (गन्धार).—m. pl. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 1, 2440.

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Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—i. e. I. gāndhāri + a, 1. m. A prince of the Gāndhāris. 2. f. , A princess of the Gāndhāris, Mahābhārata 1, 3790. Ii. m. pl. The name of a people, Mahābhārata 6, 361. Iii. m. The third note of the scale, Mahābhārata 4, 515.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gandhāra (गन्धार).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.

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Gāndhāra (गान्धार).—[masculine] ī [feminine] a prince and princess of the Gandharis; [masculine] [plural] = seq.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Gandhāra (गन्धार):—m. [plural] (gaṇas kacchādi and sindhv-ādi) Name of a people, [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Atharva-veda.Pariś.; Mahābhārata i, 2440]

2) m. (= gāndh) the third note, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) (in music) a particular Rāga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) red lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) Gāndhāra (गान्धार):—mfn. [from] gandh [gana] kacchādi and sindhv-ādi

6) m. ([Pāṇini 4-1, 169]) a prince of the Gāndhāris, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa viii, 1, 4, 10; Aitareya-brāhmaṇa vii, 34; Harivaṃśa 8395]


7) Name of a prince (from whom the Gāndhāras derive their origin), [1839; Bhāgavata-purāṇa ix, 23, 14]

8) the third of the 7 primary notes of music, [Mahābhārata iv, xii, xiv; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā lxxxvi, 40]

9) (also personified as a son of Rāga Bhairava)

10) minium or red lead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) m. [plural] Name of a people and of their country (north-east of Peshawar and giving its Name to Kandahar; Pāṇini is said to have been a Gāndhāra; cf. gandh, gandhāri, gāndhāri), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa iv, vii; Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā] etc.

12) n. gum myrrh, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

13) (= gañjākinī) the points of hemp

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Gāndhāra (गान्धार):—(raḥ) 1. m. One of the seven primary notes of music; red lead; a country. n. Gum, myrrh. f. () Wife of Dhritarāshtra; music.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Gandhāra (गन्धार) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Gaṃdhāra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Gandhara in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Gaṃdhāra (गंधार) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Gandhāra.

2) Gaṃdhāra (गंधार) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Gāndhāra.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Gāṃdhāra (ಗಾಂಧಾರ):—

1) [noun] name of a country, in the present Afghanistan.

2) [noun] Kandahar, a prominent city in that country.

3) [noun] a man belonging to that country.

4) [noun] the third of the seven notes in an octave of Karnāṭaka and Hindustāni music systems, approximately corresponding to the 'E' of C Major.

5) [noun] red oxide of lead, Pb3O4, derived from massicot, used in making paint, in glassmaking, etc.; the red-lead.

6) [noun] a fragrant, bitter-tasting gum resin exuded from Commiphora trees, used in making incense, perfume, etc.; gum myrrh.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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