Shaka, Sāka, Śaka, Saka, Śāka, Sakā: 46 definitions


Shaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology, Tamil. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Śaka and Śāka can be transliterated into English as Saka or Shaka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

Alternative spellings of this word include Saak.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Śāka (शाक) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Tectona grandis (teak) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as having thorns, and should therefore be considered as wild. The King shoud place such trees in forests (not in or near villages). He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian horticultural recipe for the nourishment of such trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.110-112: “The powder of the dungs of goats and sheep, the powder of Yava (barley), Tila (seeds), beef as well as water should be kept together (undisturbed) for seven nights. The application of this water leads very much to the growth in flowers and fruits of all trees (such as śāka).”

Dharmashastra book cover
context information

Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa

Śāka (शाक).—Another name for Rajata, which is one of the seven major mountains in Śākadvīpa, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 86. Śākadvīpa is one of the seven islands (dvīpa), ruled over by Medhātithi, one of the ten sons of Priyavrata, son of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.

The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

1) Śaka (शक).—A particular sect of people or caste. The following information about the Śakas is gathered from the Mahābhārata.

(i) Śakas were born from the breast of Nandinī, Vasiṣṭha’s cow. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 36).

(ii) Bhīmasena, during his triumphal tour of the eastern regions subjugated the Śakas. (Sabhā Parva. Chapter 32, Verse 14).

(iii) Nakula conquered them. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 32, Verse 14).

(iv) King of the Śakas participated in Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 51, Verse 32).

(v) The Pāṇḍavas invited them to take part in the great war. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 4, Verse 15).

(vi) They did along with Sudakṣiṇa, king of Kāmboja, service in Duryodhana’s army. (Udyoga Parva, Chapter 19, Verse 21).

(vii) Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered them. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 119, Verse 45).

(viii) Karṇa once defeated them and conquered their country. (Karṇa Parva, Chapter 8, Verse 18).

(ix) Śakas who were originally Kṣatriyas were demoted as Śūdras as they incurred the displeasure and anger of brahmins. (Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 33, Verse 21).

(x) As the Śakas and the Yavanas had helped the Haihaya kings Paraśurāma, Sagara and Bharata defeated them in war and drove them off from the country. (Bhāgavata, Navama Skandha).

2) Śāka (शाक).—A tree in the Śāka island. The island got the name from this tree. (Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 23).

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Śāka (शाक) represents all green vegetables, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śaka (शक).—A northern kingdom.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 48.

1b) The tree after which the Śākadvīpa takes its name.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 94, 140.

1c) A son of Bṛhadratha Maurya, ruled for 36 years; his grandson ruled for 17 years. (?)*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 272. 24.

1d) A hill tribe;1 were defeated by Paraśurāma, Sagara and Bharata; punished with half shaving;2 were denied the Vedic study and sacrifice and hence reduced to Mlecchahood.3

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 67; III. 48. 23, 44 and 49; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 122; 98. 107.
  • 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 8. 5; 20. 30; III. 41. 39; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 3. 42;
  • 3) Ib. IV. 3. 48.

1e) The 18 kings (ten, Vāyu-purāṇa) of, ruled for 380 years;1 kingdom of;2 contemporaries of the Śiśunāgas, and after Gardabins; to be conquered by Kalki.3

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 50. 76; 273. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 268, 324, 359, 361.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 41; 121. 45; 144. 57.
  • 3) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 120, 134; 73. 108; 74. 137. 172 and 175; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 3. 47.

2a) Śāka (शाक).—Is Śākadvīpa;1 the hill after which the dvīpa is named.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. I. 32.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 123. 36.

2b) The tree in the midst of Śākadvīpam.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 49. 88; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 63.

2c) A tribe.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 116; 47. 44.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Śaka (शक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.47.19, II.47.26, II.48.15, III.48.20, V.19.21, V.158.20, VI.10.43, VI.10.50, VI.20.13, VI.52.7, VIII.51.18) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śaka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Śāka (शाक) refers to one of the various kinds of articles used for donation, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the tenth chapter contains the praise and classification of donations. It narrates the characteristics of proper recipients and the results of giving different kinds of articles like Bhūmi, Vidyā, Anna, Jala, Tila, Vāsa, Dīpa, Yāna, Śayyā, Dhānya, Aśva, Śāka, Indhana, Chatra, Auṣadha, Go, etc.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana

Śāka (शाक) refers to “leaves”.—Cf. Vicitraśākayūṣabhakṣyavikārakriyā which refers to “cooking of various leaves, soup, food etc.”, representing one of the “sixty four kinds of Art”, according to the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa.—Indian tradition, basically includes sixty four Art forms are acknowledged. The references of sixty four kinds of kalā are found in the Bhāgavatapurāṇa, Śaiva-Tantras, Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyaṇa etc.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Śaka (शक) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a reddish-yellow (gaura) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism

Śāka (शाक) refers to one of the seven continents (saptadvīpa) situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī), according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Śākadvīpa. These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.

According to the Parākhya-tantra, “outside that is the continent Śāka, where the great Śāka tree stands. Because of its length a band was put about it by Indra. Beyond that is the ocean called ‘Milk’, in which there is pure milk. This ocean was drunk from by Upamanyu as much as he wished”.

The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Śāka (शाक) refers to “vegetables”, according to the Guhyasūtra chapter 9.—Accordingly, “[...] [The Lord spoke]:—[...] In the left hand, he should hold a winnowing fan in the observance of Ardhanārīśvara. Adopting this observance he should eat alms, keep his senses under control, be devoted to regular obligatory recitation and oblation, rejecting the receipt of gifts. He should venerate God three times [a day] and perform ablutions three times [a day]. Eating vegetables and barley-gruel (śāka-yāvaka-bhikṣāśin), eating bulbs, roots and fruits, for one month. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya

Śaka refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Śaka corresponds to the satraps.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara

Śaka (शक) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This is the Śakasthan, where the Śakas first settled after coming India. Sakala or Sialkot is situated in the Lahore and Punjab, which may be identified with this Śaka of Rājaśekhara. Sakala was the first made capital by Greek king Demetrius. Sakala was in ruins when Hiuen Thsang was on his travels in India. So it is possible that before Hiuen Thsang‟s times several Hindu kings had attacked the Śakas and destroyed their capital at Sakala.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Śāka (शाक) or Śākavarga is another name for Mūlakādi: the seventh chapter of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Rāja-nighaṇṭu is a medical lexicon ascribed originally known as the Abhidhānacuṇāmaṇi. It mentions the names of 1483 medicinal drugs (auṣadhi) and substances (dravya) excluding synonyms, grouped into twenty-two chapters [viz., Śāka-varga].

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śāka (शाक) refers to “vegetables” according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Śāka-prakaraṇa deals with all types of vegetables. Here vegetables are classified into different plant parts like roots (mūla), corm (kanda), leaf (patra), marrow (karīra), tips (agra), fruits (phala), flower (puṣpa), bark (tvak), primary shoot (adhirūḍha) and stem (kāṇḍa). Each of these classification have so many varieties. This prakaraṇa is devoted to explain these varieties and their properties in detail.

In the Śāka or “plant products” group of foodstuffs, the following substances are harmful (ahita) to the body: Sārṣapa (the vegetable of mustard plant).

Śāka (all vegetable products) is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., sarvāṇi śākāni (all vegetable products)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., tilotbhavakṣāra (alkaline preparation derived from sesame)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Source: Ayurveda glossary of terms

Śāka (शाक):—A class of plants used as vegetables viz. root, fruit, leaf, flower, etc. 2. A synonym of Tectona grandis

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Śaka (शक) refers to a country [possibly identified with the descendants of the Tartars and Scythians (who invaded India)], belonging to “Apara or Aparadeśa (western divisions)” classified under the constellations of Jyeṣṭhā, Mūla and Pūrvāṣāḍha, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Jyeṣṭhā, Mūla and Pūrvāṣāḍha represent the western divisions consisting of [i.e., Śaka] [...]”.

Jyotisha book cover
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Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism

Śāka (शाक) refers to “vegetable”. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Carakasaṃhitā or the Suśrutasaṃhitā.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A tribe, mentioned in a list. The name probably refers to the Scythians. Mil. 327, 331.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Śaka (शक) (in Chinese: Chö-kia) is the name of an ancient kingdom associated with Śravaṇā or Śravaṇānakṣatra, as mentioned in chapter 18 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—Chapter 18 deals with geographical astrology and, in conversation with Brahmarāja and others, Buddha explains how he entrusts the Nakṣatras [e.g., Śravaṇā] with a group of kingdoms [e.g., Śaka] for the sake of protection and prosperity.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: The Art of Asia: Who is Who in Heaven

(Shaka) Japanese for Shakyamuni (Buddha);

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Śāka (शाक) refers to a sub-division of the Mlecchas: one of the two-fold division of men born in Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; on the mountains, Meru, etc., by kidnapping and power of learning, in the 2½ continents and in 2 oceans. [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. [...] The Mlecchas—[e.g., the Śākas, ...] and other non-Āryas also are people who do not know even the word ‘dharma’”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: South Indian Festivities

Saka is the era named after King Salivahana reckond from AD 78. The word Salivahana is from Satavahanas. A line of Kings of this dynasty is said to have ruled in the north-west of Mysore under the general name Satakarni and consequently the Mysore state has been spoken of in 1717 as in the Salivahana country.

Source: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Śaka (शक) is the name of a tribe mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. These tribes (e.g., the Śakas, latin: Shakas) migrated to places other than their original settlemenets and gave their names to the janapadas they settled. They replaced the old Vedic tribes in Punjab and Rajasthan though some of them are deemed as offshoots of the main tribe..

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study (history)

Śaka (शक) is the name of a tribe mentioned as inhabiting the region around ancient Kaśmīra (Kashmir valley) according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Driven off from the countries on the Oxus by Yeuh-chi, the Śakas had proceeded to south and occupied Ki-pin (Kapiśā—Kafiristan). Their tribes then spread over the country and formed different kingdoms including the dependencies of Hiau siun and Siun-tu (Sindh). Tarn has suggested that the southern part of Kaśmīra was, for sometime, ruled over by Demetrius. Menander, too, probably occupied Kaśmīra as Ptolemy mentions Kaspeiria in Menander’s home kingdom. Milindapañha refers to a dialogue between Menander and Nāgārjuna held at a place only twelve yojanas from Kaśmīra.

Source: The Chronology of Ancient Gandhara and Bactria

Sakas = Scythians: There were numerous migrations of the Sakas of Bactria & Gandhara to eastern Europe and northern Anatolia via Pontic Steppe since Vedic times. After Mahabharata war (3162 BCE), many large groups of Scythians also migrated to Central Asia, Eastern Europe and Northern Anatolia around 3100-3000 BCE. Most probably, the Hittites and the Mitannis of Anatolia were none other than the migrated Scythians of India who worshiped Vedic gods like Mithra, Indra, Varuna, Nāsatya etc. In fact, these migrated groups of Scythians introduced the worship of Mithra god or sun in the west after 3000 BCE. The same has been evolved into a religion of Mithraism after 2000 BCE.

Source: The Epoch of the Saka Era

The epoch of the Śaka Era.—The Śaka era was popularly used for dating in the ancient and medieval period inscriptions and literature in India, Nepal, Burma, Camobdia and Java (Indonesia). It is generally believed that the Śaka era commenced in 78 CE. The critical and comprehensive study of epigraphic and literary references of the Śaka era apparently leads us to the conclusion that the Śaka era and the Śakānta era are not identical. The epoch of the Śaka era commenced in 583 BCE whereas the epoch of the Śakānta era commenced in 78 CE. The chronological history of ancient India has been brought forward by 661 years because these two different epochs have been mistakenly considered as identical.

Source: A Textual and Intertextual Study of the Mudrārākṣasa (history)

Śaka refers to one of the territories of tribes mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa.—Śakas are said in the Purāṇic list of rivers to inhabit the banks of the river Cakṣu, i.e. the Oxus or Amu Darya (SIRCAR 1971:68).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Śaka.—(EI 24), originally, the Seythians; later any foreigners including Muhammadans; used to indicate the Musalmans (Ep. Ind., Vol. XII, p. 44; Bhandatkar's List, No. 926). Note: śaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Śaka or Śāka.—(IA 9, 19), used in the sense of ‘a year’ or ‘an era’; cf. Vikrama-śaka (IA 18). Note: śaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Śāka.—cf. a-harītaka-śāka-puṣpa-grahaṇa (EI 8-5); vegetables which the villagers were obliged to supply to the king or land- lord on occasions or to the touring officers. Cf. śāka-śaka. Note: śāka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

--- OR ---

Sākā.—(IA 29), Rājasthānī; same as jauhar or javhar. Note: sākā is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Singhi Jain Series: Ratnaprabha-suri’s Kuvalayamala-katha (history)

Śaka (शक) refers to an ancient country, kingdom or tribe of people, according to the 8th-century Kuvalayamālā written by Uddyotanasūri, a Prakrit Campū (similar to Kāvya poetry) narrating the love-story between Prince Candrāpīḍa and the Apsaras Kādambarī.—The Kuvalayamala (779 A.D.) is full of cultural material which gains in value because of the firm date of its composition. [...] On page 2.9 occurs a list of peoples in a country in which persons are born: [i.e., Śaka] [...]

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Shaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Terminalia chebula in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Myrobalanus chebula Gaertn. (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Taxon (1979)
· Plant Systematics and Evolution (1996)
· De Fructibus et Seminibus Plantarum (1790)
· Journal of Cytology and Genetics (1990)
· FBI (1878)
· Observationes Botanicae (1789)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Shaka, for example pregnancy safety, chemical composition, side effects, extract dosage, diet and recipes, health benefits, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

saka : (adj.) one's own. (m.) a relation. (nt.) one's own property. || sāka (m.; nt.), vegetable; pot herb.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Saka, (adj.) (sa4+ka) own D. I, 106, 119, 231; II, 173 (sakaṃ te “all be your own, ” as greeting to the king); M. I, 79; Vin. I, 3, 249 (ācariyaka); S. V, 261 (id.); Sn. 861; It. 76; Nd1 252; Pv. I, 51 (ghara); II, 61 (bhātā).—Opp. assaka2. — appassaka having little or nothing as one’s own (=daḷidda) A. I, 261; II, 203; kamma-ssaka possessing one’s own kamma M. III, 203 sq.; A. V, 288; Miln. 65; Dhs. 1366.

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Sāka, (nt.) (Epic Sk. śāka) 1. vegetable, potherb D. I, 166; M. I, 78, 156; A. I, 241, 295; II, 206; Pug. 55; Vism. 70; Vv 3333; J. III, 225; IV, 445; V, 103.—2. (m.) name of a tree (teak; Tectona grandis) D. I, 92; DA. I, 259; Vism. 250. °-vatthu ground for cultivation of vegetables J. IV, 446; sāka-paṇṇavaṇṇa “like the colour of vegetable leaf” (said of teeth) J. V, 206 (cp. 203). (Page 701)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śaka (शक).—m ( P) Doubt: also suspicion, misgiving, evil surmise.

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śaka (शक).—m (S) A period commencing from an epoch or a date at which some sovereign established a computation of time, an era. Ex. narmadēcē alīkaḍē śālivāhanaśaka cālatō palīkaḍē vikramaśaka cālatō. 2 śaka is especially applied to an era which is dependent on the solar year, and dates from the birth of śālivāhana. It commences on the 1st of vaiśākha 3179 of kaliyuga, or on Monday 14th March 78 A. D. Julian style. 3 Reign, the period of a king's government: also rule, domination, sway, authoritative direction. 4 Familiarly. Superiority or ascendancy over; upperhandedness or mastery. v caḍha, basa, lāga, g. of s. & vara of o. 5 A people or an individual of it. They are the followers or descendants of śāka or śālivāhana. śaka gājaviṇēṃ To become conspicuously eminent; to rise into glorious celebrity.

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śāka (शाक).—f ē (In Sanskrit m & n) A pot-herb generally; any leaf, fruit, bean, seed, root, &c. used as a vegetable. 2 A mango nearly ripened on the tree, fit for pāḍa or the gathering.

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śāka (शाक).—m S The sixth of the seven dwipas or divisions of the world, including, according to Wilford, the British isles. 2 An era, a period commencing with some celebrated prince as Vikramaditya, Shalivahana &c., who thence are denominated Shakeshwara.

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saka (सक).—n m (ṣaṭaka S) An aggregate of six. Used only of the 6 on a die, and of the number 6 in multiplying a number by it; as sakarējā, dahāsaka sāṭha. Sometimes it takes a plural form; as tīna sakē aṭharā.

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sāka (साक).—f ē or ī The palm of the hand as drawn up and hollowed (to hold water, grain &c.) sākēnēṃ pāṇī piṇēṃ To drink from the hand.

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sāka (साक).—f ē (sākṣa) A person, or a line of persons, set to watch or look out for (travelers &c. expected). v basava, ṭhēva, rākha.

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sāka (साक).—f and by redup. sākapāka f (Properly sākha) Mercantile credit or repute: also character generally. sākīpākīcā Having credit or good character.

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sākā (साका) [or सांका, sāṅkā].—m A mixture of copper and inferior gold, used in soldering trinkets. 2 Base metal foisted into a trinket together with the gold; so as to make up the weight whilst a portion of the gold is abducted. According to the revelations of a goldsmith sākā is composed of copper one part, of silver two parts. 3 Straws, rubbish, and dirt as deposited or gathered by a stream, alluvium; also as blocking up a water-channel. 4 Dregs, lees, or sediment in general.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śaka (शक).—m An era. Rule. Superiority. Doubt.

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śāka (शाक) [-kha, -ख].—f A vegetable, a pot-herd.

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śāka (शाक).—or śākhapālā m-bhājī f A general term for pot-herbs and esculent vege- tables.

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saka (सक).—n m An aggregate of six; as dahāsaka sāṭha.

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sāka (साक).—f Mercantile credit.

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sākā (साका).—m A mixture of copper and inferior gold.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śaka (शक).—1 Name of a king (especially applied to Śālivāhana; but scholars do not seem to have yet agreed as to the precise meaning and scope of the word).

2) An epoch, era (the term is especially applied to the era of Śālivāhana which commences 78 years after the Christian ear).

-kāḥ (m. pl.)

1) Name of a country.

2) Name of a particular tribe or race of people (mentioned in Manusmṛti 1.44 along with the Pauṇḍrakas &c.; see Mu.5.11 also).

Derivable forms: śakaḥ (शकः).

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Śaka (शक).—Dung, cow-dung (Ved.).

Derivable forms: śakam (शकम्).

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Śāka (शाक).—[śak-ghañ] A vegetable, pot-herb, herb, any edible leaf, fruit or root used as a vegetable; दिल्लीश्वरो वा जगदीश्वरो वा मनोरथान् पूरयितुं समर्थः । अन्यैर्नृपालैः परिदीयमानं शाकाय वा स्याल्लवणाय वा स्यात् (dillīśvaro vā jagadīśvaro vā manorathān pūrayituṃ samarthaḥ | anyairnṛpālaiḥ paridīyamānaṃ śākāya vā syāllavaṇāya vā syāt) Jag.; वेत्रशाककुजे शैले (vetraśākakuje śaile) Kirātārjunīya 15.18.

-kaḥ 1 Power, strength, energy.

2) The teak tree.

3) The Śirīṣa tree; यस्मिन् शाको नाम महीरुहः (yasmin śāko nāma mahīruhaḥ) Bhāgavata 5.2.24.

4) Name of a people; see शक (śaka).

5) An era; especially the era of Śālivāhana.

6) Name of the sixth Dvīpa.

Derivable forms: śākaḥ (शाकः).

See also (synonyms): śākam.

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Sāka (साक).—A vegetable, herb; cf. शाक (śāka).

Derivable forms: sākam (साकम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaka (शक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A sovereign, and prince who gives his name to an era, especially applied to Salivahana. 2. A particular caste, the followers or descendants of Saka or Salivahana. 3. A country. m. plu.

(-kāḥ) 1. The inhabitants, the Sacæ, the Scythians. 2. An era: see śāka. E. śak to be able, aff. ac .

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Śāka (शाक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) A pot-herb in general, any leaf, flower, fruit, stalk, root, &c., used as a vegetable. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. One of the seven Dwipas or divisions of the world; the sixth, surrounded by the sea of milk or white sea. 2. Power, strength. 3. The Sirisha-tree, (Acacia sirisa.) 4. The Teak-tree, (Tectona grandis.) 5. An era, a period usually commencing with some celebrated prince, as Yudisht'Hira Vikramaditya, Salivahana, &c., thence denominated Sake- Swaras, &c.; the term in ordinary use is applied especially to the era of Salivahana, commencing 76 or 78 years after the Christian era. E. śak to be able, ghañ aff.

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Saka (सक).—m.

(-kaḥ) He, that man. E. sa he, kan added.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaka (शक).—1. m. pl. The name of a people, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 10, 44. 2. A particular caste. 3. An era, especially that of Śālivāhana, commencing seventy-six or seventy-eight years after the Christian.

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Śāka (शाक).—partly śak + a, I. (m. and) n. A potherb, any vegetable, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 2, 246; [Hitopadeśa] i. [distich] 67, M. M. Ii. m. 1. Power. 2. One of the seven Dvīpas. 3. An era, especially that of Śālivāhana, beginning seventy-six or seventyeight years after the Christian.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śaka (शक).—1. [neuter] dung, [feminine] śakā a kind of bird or beast.

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Śaka (शक).—2. [masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people.

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Śāka (शाक).—1. [masculine] help, assistance.

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Śāka (शाक).—2. [adjective] helpful; [masculine] helper, assistant.

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Śāka (शाक).—3. [neuter] eatable herb, vegetable food.

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Śāka (शाक).—4. [adjective] belonging to the Śakas or to their kings; [masculine] [neuter] = seq.

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Saka (सक).—demin. to 1 sa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaka (शक):—[from śak] 1. śaka See su-śaka.

2) 2. śaka n. excrement, ordure, dung (cf. śakan, [i], śakṛt), [Atharva-veda]

3) water ([varia lectio] for kaśa), [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12]

4) m. a kind of animal, [Pañcarātra] ([varia lectio] śala)

5) [wrong reading] for śuka, [Mahābhārata xiii, 2835]

6) Śakā (शका):—[from śaka] f. a kind of bird or fly or long-eared animal, [Vājasaneyi-saṃhitā; Taittirīya-saṃhitā] ([Scholiast or Commentator])

7) Śaka (शक):—3. śaka m. [plural] Name of a [particular] white-skinned tribe or race of people (in the legends which relate the contests between Vasiṣṭha and Viśvāmitra the Śakas are fabled to have been produced by the Cow of Vasiṣṭha, from her sweat, for the destruction of Viśvāmitra’s army; in [Manu-smṛti x, 44], they are mentioned together with the Pauṇḍrakas, Oḍras, Draviḍas, Kāmbojas, Javanas or Yavanas, Pāradas, Pahlavas, Cīnas, Kirātas, Daradas, and Khaśas, described by, [Manvarthamuktāvalī, kullūka bhaṭṭa’s Commentary on manu-smṛti] as degraded tribes of Kṣatriyas called after the districts in which they reside: according to the [Viṣṇu-purāṇa iv, 3], king Sagara attempted to rid his kingdom of these tribes, but did not succeed in destroying them all : they are sometimes regarded as the followers of Śaka or Śāli-vāhana, and are probably to be identified with the Tartars or Indo-Scythians [Latin] Sacae who overran India before the Āryans, and were conquered by the great Vikramāditya [q.v.]; they really seem to have been dominant in the north-west of India in the last century before and the first two centuries after the beginning of our era), [Atharva-veda.Pariś.; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

8) a king of the Śakas [gana] kambojādi (on, [Pāṇini 4-1, 175], [vArttika])

9) an era, epoch (cf. -kāla)

10) a year (of any era), [Inscriptions]

11) a [particular] fragrant substance, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes]

12) Śāka (शाक):—1. śāka m. ([from] √śak) power, might, help, aid, [Ṛg-veda]

13) m. helpful, a helper, friend, [ib.]

14) 2. śāka n. (or m. [gana] ardharcādi; of doubtful derivation, and scarcely to be connected with 1. śāka) a potherb, vegetable, greens, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

15) any vegetable food, [Gautama-dharma-śāstra]

16) m. the Teak tree, Tectona Grandis, [Gṛhya-sūtra and śrauta-sūtra; Mahābhārata] etc.

17) Acacia Sirissa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

18) Name of a Dvīpa (the sixth of the seven Dvīpas, called after the Teak tree growing there, surrounded by the sea of milk or white sea, and inhabited by the Ṛta-vratas, Satya-vratas, Dāna-vratas, and Anu-vratas), [Mahābhārata; Purāṇa]

19) Śākā (शाका):—[from śāka] f. Terminalia Chebula, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

20) Śāka (शाक):—m. or n. (?) Name of a place, [Colebrooke]

21) 3. śāka m. Name of a man [gana] kuñjādi.

22) 4. śāka mfn. ([from] śaka) relating to the Śakas or Indoscythians

23) mn. ([scilicet] saṃvatsara, abda etc.) the Śaka era (also śāka-kāla; See śakak), [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā [Scholiast or Commentator]]

24) m. (also) a general Name for any era

25) ([plural]) Name of a people ([wrong reading] for śaka), [Buddhist literature]

26) Saka (सक):—[from sa] a mf(ā)n. (cf. [Pāṇini 6-1, 132 [Scholiast or Commentator]; ; vii, 3, 45]) he that man, she that woman etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda]

27) [v.s. ...] n. applied to the Intellect, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

28) b See 6. sa, p. 1111, col. 2.

29) Sāka (साक):—n. = śāka2, a vegetable, herb, culinary herb, [Uṇādi-sūtra iii, 43 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śaka (शक):—(ya, ña) śakyati, te 4. a. (ira, ḷ) śaknoti 5. c. To bear patiently; to be able. (i-ṅa) śaṅkate 1. d. To suspect; to fear.

2) (kaḥ) 1. m. Any renowned sovereign; a particular caste or country; an era. pl. The Sacoe or Scythians; an era.

3) Śāka (शाक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. A potherb, a vegetable. m. The 6th division of the world; power; teak tree; a particular era.

4) Saka (सक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. He, that man.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Śaka (शक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Saga, Sāga.

[Sanskrit to German]

Shaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Śaka (शक) [Also spelled shak]:—(nm) doubt, suspicion; —[saṃvat] an era introduced by Emperor Shalivahan of India (in 78A.D.) and revived by the post-Independence government of the country.

2) Śāka (शाक) [Also spelled shak]:—(nm) vegetable.

3) Sāka (साक) [Also spelled saak]:—(nm) see [sāga].

4) Sākā (साका):—(nm) an era; overwhelming influence, eminence; —[calanā] to have an era named after; to be a historical figure; to be very important and influential.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Saka (सक) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Adhyavaso.

Saka has the following synonyms: Ajbhavasa.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Śaka (ಶಕ):—

1) [noun] a system of reckoning time by numbering the years from some important occurrence or given point of time (as Śalivāhana śaka, Vikrama Śaka, Krista śaka (Christian era), etc.; an era.

2) [noun] a period of time considered in terms of noteworthy and characteristic events, developments; an epoch.

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Śaka (ಶಕ):—

1) [noun] (hist.) the north-western region of India which was ruled by people belonging to Śaka race.

2) [noun] that race itself.

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Śāka (ಶಾಕ):—[noun] = ಶಾಖ [shakha]1.

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Śāka (ಶಾಕ):—

1) [noun] any herbaceous plant or a part (as leaves, fruits, stem, roots, etc.) that is eaten either raw or cooked; a vegetable.

2) [noun] any food prepared using a vegetable or vegetables.

3) [noun] power; strength.

4) [noun] the tree Tectona grandis of Verbenaceae famiy, with hard, yellowish-brown wood, used for house-building, furniture, etc.; teak; Indian oak.

5) [noun] one of the seven mythological divisions of the earth.

6) [noun] ಶಾಕಾಯ ಲವಣಾಯ [shakaya lavanaya] śakāya lavaṇāya that much which would just be sufficient to meet the requirement of day’s essentials; 2. (fig.) small earnings.

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Saka (ಸಕ):—

1) [noun] (correctly, ಶಕ [shaka]) 1. a system of reckoning time by numbering the years from some important occurrence or given point of time etc.; an era.

2) [noun] a period of time considered in terms of noteworthy and characteristic events or developments; an epoch.

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Sāka (ಸಾಕ):—[noun] the tree Tectona grandis of Verbenaceae famiy, with hard, yellowish-brown wood, used for house-building, furniture, etc.; teak; Indian oak.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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