Palaka, Pālaka: 35 definitions


Palaka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Palak.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Pālaka (पालक).—A son born to the King Caṇḍamahāsena of his wife Aṅgāravatī. Aṅgāravatī got two sons. The other son was named Gopālaka. (Kathāmukhalambaka, Kathāsaritsāgara).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Pālaka (पालक) refers to the “protectorate (of the universe)”, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.4.5 (“Kārttikeya is crowned”).—Accordingly, after the Gods spoke to Śiva: “[...] The intelligent Viṣṇu performed the auspicious ceremony of crowning Kārttikeya in the company of the gods by means of waters from all holy centres. [...] Bowing to Kārttikeya with pleasure along with the gods and sages he eulogised the eternal form of Śiva with various hymns. Karttikeya seated in the excellent throne and assuming the lordship and protectorate (pālaka) of the universe [brahmāṃḍasyāsi pālakaḥ] shone extremely well. [...]”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Pālaka (पालक).—The son of Pṛadyota and father of Viśākhayupa.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 3.

1b) A son of Bālaka, ruled for 28 years*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 125; Matsya-purāṇa 272. 3. Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 312.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Pālaka (पालक) is the name of one of the two sons of Caṇḍamahāsena and his wife Aṅgāravatī, from Ujjayinī, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 11. Pālaka had a brother named Gopālaka. Caṇḍamahāsena was previously known by the name Mahāsena and was the son of Jayasena, son of Mahendravarman (king of Ujjayinī). Aṅgāravatī was the daughter of Aṅgāraka, who broke the chariot of Caṇḍamahāsena in the form of a fierce boar and fled into a cavern, but was later slain by Caṇḍamahāsena.

Pālaka (पालक) is also mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 112. Accordingly, as Suratamañjarī said to Hariśikha: “... there is in Ujjayinī a fortunate king named Pālaka, he has a son, a prince named Avantivardhana; by him I was married; and this night, when I was asleep on the top of the palace, and my husband was asleep also, I was carried off by this villain”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Pālaka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: Gleanings from Atula’s Musikavamsa

Pālaka (पालक) is the son of Nandinī, daughter of the Cedi king who became the wife of Īśānavarman, an ancient king, according to the historical poem Mūṣikavaṃśa by Atula dealing with the royal lineage of North Kerala in roughly 1000 verses.—The frustrated Nandinī worships Goddess Bhadrakālī, who visualizes before her and grants her the boon that henceforth, the kingship of the country should pass on the son of the women of her line. She got a son called Pālaka who was sent to the King of Cedis for his upbringing. Even though the kingship was passed on Nūpārāma [i.e., the son of Īśānavarman] and, at the time of his death to his son Candavarman, true to the blessings of Kālī, ultimately it had to be handed over to Pālaka himself, at the time of their untimely death.  Later, we see that the kingship passes to the nephew of Pālaka and the succession becomes matrilineal

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Veterinary Medicine (The study and treatment of Animals)

Source: Shodhganga: Portrayal of Animal Kingdom (Tiryaks) in Epics An Analytical study

Pālaka (पालक) (lit. “one who is protected”) is a synonym (another name) for the Horse (Aśva), according to scientific texts such as the Mṛgapakṣiśāstra (Mriga-pakshi-shastra) or “the ancient Indian science of animals and birds” by Hamsadeva, containing the varieties and descriptions of the animals and birds seen in the Sanskrit Epics such as the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

Nighantu (Synonyms and Characteristics of Drugs and technical terms)

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Pālaka (पालक) is another name for Citraka, a medicinal plant identified with (1) [white variety] Plumbago zeylanica Linn.; (2) [red variety] Plumbago rosea Linn. syn. or Plumbago indica Linn., both from the Plumbaginaceae or “leadwort” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.43-45 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—The sixth chapter (pippalyādi-varga) of this book enumerates ninety-five varieties of plants obtained from the market (paṇyauṣadhi). Together with the names Pālaka and Citraka, there are a total of twenty Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Pālaka (पालक) refers to a “guardian” (associated with the sacred seat), according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “The sacred seat of Oḍḍiyāṇa is in between the eyebrows. It illumines (the surroundings) like a jewel and rotates in the shape of a wheel that shines like the rays of the sun in the form of all things. The venerable and great lord of Oḍu, surrounded by the troupe of Yoginīs, is the emperor (of this seat). The power of the will abides as the essential nature (of all things) within the Wheel as the lordship of the sacred seat. In (this), the first sacred seat, there is a tree, creeper, guardian, cremation ground, monastery, gesture, cave and the rest (associated with them) [i.e., vṛkṣa-vallī-pālaka-śmaśana-maṭha-mudrā-guha]. Within one's own body it is located between the eyebrows and in accord with the sequence of emanation. One should know (this) the first sacred seat by means of the essential nature of (the deity’s) energy”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Pālaka (पालक) refers to a “shield”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] May the goddess Vajreśvarī give me all objects of my desire. She is known to have her abode at the right corner [of the central triangle]. She is resplendent like a thunderbolt, beautiful like fresh coral, and has a bow, arrows, a snare, a hook, a shield (pālaka), and a mātuluṅga fruit attached to her six arms. [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Yoga (school of philosophy)

Source: ORA: Amanaska (king of all yogas): A Critical Edition and Annotated Translation by Jason Birch

Palaka (पलक) refers to “(the time-unit of a) Pala”, according to the Amanaska Yoga treatise dealing with meditation, absorption, yogic powers and liberation.—Accordingly, as Īśvara says to Vāmadeva: “[...] [Now], I shall define the nature of that highest, mind-free absorption which arises for those devoted to constant practice. [...] Remaining in absorption for the [following] times; moments, breaths, Palas [i.e., palaka], Nāḍīs, Praharas, days, months and years, [the Yogin] then goes to the highest reality. A breath consists of an inspiration and expiration. A palas is regarded as six breaths. A ghaṭikā corresponds in time to sixty palas. [...]”.

Yoga book cover
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Yoga is originally considered a branch of Hindu philosophy (astika), but both ancient and modern Yoga combine the physical, mental and spiritual. Yoga teaches various physical techniques also known as āsanas (postures), used for various purposes (eg., meditation, contemplation, relaxation).

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Pālaka (पालक) is the name of a Śrāvaka mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Pālaka).

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism

1) Pālaka (पालक) refers to a class of piśāca deities according to the Śvetāmbara tradition of Jainism, while Digambara does not recognize this class. The piśācas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas).

The deities such as the Pālakas are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

2) Pālaka (पालक) refers to a type of vegetable (śāka), according to The Vyākhyāprajñapti 7.3.276. It is also known as Pālaṃka. Different kinds of vegetables were grown in the vegetable gardens (kaccha / kakṣa). The consumption of vegetables was considered essential for digesting food according to the Niśīthacūrṇi. The Jaina texts forbid the consumption of certain vegetables as it leads to killing of insects.

The Vyākhyāprajñapti, also known as the Bhagavatīsūtra contains a compilation of 36,000 questions answered by Mahāvīra and dates to at least the 1st century A.D. The Niśīthacūrṇi by Jinadāsa is a 7th century commentary on the Niśthasūtra and deals with Jain medical knowledge.

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Pālaka (पालक) is the name of a God from the Ābhiyogika heaen, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism. Accordingly, “Vāsava instructed an Ābhiyogika-god named Pālaka, ‘Make a car that can not be copied’. Then Pālaka, observing the Lord’s command, made a car that filled the sky with a flood of light from a thousand jeweled pillars; having eyes, as it were, in the form of windows; having teeth, as it were, in the form of balconies; having horripilation, as it were, in the form of finials; five hundred yojanas high and a hundred thousand square, moving from the inference of a wish”.

2) Pālaka (पालक) is the name of a messenger of king Daṇḍaka, according to the Jain Ramayana and chapter 7.5 [The kidnapping of Sītā].—Accordingly, as sage Sugupta narrated to Rāma: “[...] One day Daṇḍaka sent a messenger, a Brāhman named Pālaka, to King Jitaśatru, on some business. At that time Jitaśatru was devoted to the fellowship of the Arhats’ religion, but Pālaka, evil-minded, began to corrupt his religion. [...]”.

Source: The epoch of the Mahavira-nirvana

Palaka dynasty according to Harivamsa Purana and Tiloyapannati.—Starting from the epoch of Mahavira nirvana (1189 BCE), Palaka ruled for 60 years, Vishaya kings for 150 years, Murundas for 40 years, Pushpamitra for 30 years, Vasumitra & Agnimitra for 60 years, Gandhavvaya or Rasabha kings for 100 years, Naravahana for 40 years, Bhattubanas for 242 years and Guptas for 231 years.

Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra

Pālaka (पालक) is the name of a village visited by Mahāvīra during his twelfth year of spiritual-exertion.—From Meḍhiyāgrāma he reached Kauśāmbī. After leaving Kauśāmbī, the Lord arrived at Campā city after passing through the villages Sumaṅgala, Suchettā, Pālaka etc. After four months fast, he completed the 12th cāturmāsa at the sacrificial hall of the Brahmin Svātidatta. Leaving that place the Lord arrived at Jambhiyagrāma.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Pālaka (पालक) refers to a “protector”, according to the 11th century Jñānārṇava, a treatise on Jain Yoga in roughly 2200 Sanskrit verses composed by Śubhacandra.—Accordingly, “That very same doctrine, which is devoted to the helpless, is a preceptor and a friend, and the doctrine is a master and a brother. It is a protector  [com.pālaka] without a motive. This doctrine saves the three worlds [from] sinking into the pit of hell. Also, it confers happiness beyond the senses for corporeal [souls]”.

Synonyms: Trātṛ.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Pālaka.—(EI 3), cf. grāmasya pālakaḥ, ‘the headman of a village’. (Select Inscriptions, p. 236), escort. Note: pālaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Palaka in India is the name of a plant defined with Plumbago zeylanica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Plumbago scandens L. (among others).

2) Palaka is also identified with Saussurea costus It has the synonym Aplotaxis lappa Decaisne (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Dict. Sci. Nat. (1827)
· Linnaea (1846)
· Species Plantarum (1762)
· Botanicheskii Zhurnal (1964)
· Flora of Tropical East Africa, Plumbaginaceae (1976)
· Prodr. Fl. SW. Afr. (1967)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Palaka, for example side effects, pregnancy safety, health benefits, chemical composition, extract dosage, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

pālaka : (m.) a guard; keeper; protector.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Palaka, (cp. late Sk. pala, flesh, meat) a species of plant J. VI, 564. (Page 439)

— or —

Pālaka, (-°) (fr. ) a guardian, herdsman M. I, 79; S. III, 154; A. IV, 127; J. III, 444. (Page 455)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

palaka (पलक) [or पलख, palakha].—m n ( P) A twinkling of the eye (as a measure of time); a moment, an instant.

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paḷakā (पळका).—a (paḷaṇēṃ) Fleet, swift, quick in running. 2 Of a runaway disposition.

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paḷakā (पळका).—m (pōḷaṇēṃ) The skin that peels off from a burn.

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pālaka (पालक) [or ख, kha].—m (Poetry.) A cradle. Ex. suvāsiṇī miḷavūni sakaḷā || ghātalēṃ bāḷa pālakhānta ||. 2 f m A vegetable, Beta Bengalensis.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

palaka (पलक) [or palakha, or पलख].—m n A twinkling of the eye, a moment.

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paḷakā (पळका).—a Fleet, swift. Of a runaway disposition.

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pālaka (पालक).—

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pālaka (पालक).—[pāl-ṇvul]

1) A guardian, protector.

2) A prince, king, ruler, sovereign.

3) A groom, horsekeeper.

4) A horse.

5) The Chitraka tree.

6) A fosterfather.

7) Protection.

8) One who maintains or observes (as a promise &c).

-kam A spittoon.

Derivable forms: pālakaḥ (पालकः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Palaka (पलक).—(-palaka), m. ([etymology] not clear), app. point (of a spear), see kunta-p°.

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Pālaka (पालक).—(1) name of a servant of Śroṇa Koṭīkarṇa: Divyāvadāna 3.12; 4.22; 5.17 ff.; 6.3; mentioned with Dāsaka, q.v.; (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 46.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pālaka (पालक).—mfn.

(-kaḥ-kā-kaṃ) Who or what protects, nourishes, &c. m.

(-kaḥ) 1. A horse-keeper, a groom. 2. A cherisher, a protector, a guardian. 3. A prince. 4. A horse. 5. The chitraka tree. E. pāl to nourish, aff. ṇvul .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pālaka (पालक).—[pāla + ka], m. 1. A guardian, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 5, 263. 2. A protector, Mārk. P. 61, 66.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pālaka (पालक).—[masculine] guard, protector ([feminine] likā), prince, ruler; a man’s name.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Palāka (पलाक):—m. n., [Siddhānta-kaumudī]

2) Pālaka (पालक):—[from pāl] mf(ikā)n. guarding, protecting, nourishing, [Horace H. Wilson]

3) [v.s. ...] m. a guardian, protector, [Mahābhārata] (f(ikā). )

4) [v.s. ...] m. a foster-father, [Rājataraṅgiṇī]

5) [v.s. ...] a prince, ruler, sovereign, [ib.; Bhāgavata-purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] a world-protector (= loka-p), [Kāmandakīya-nītisāra]

7) [v.s. ...] a horse-keeper, groom, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] a maintainer, observer, [Mārkaṇḍeya-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] a species of plant with a poisonous bulb, [Suśruta]

10) [v.s. ...] Plumbago Zeylanica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] a horse, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] Name of sub voce princes, [Mṛcchakaṭikā; Kathāsaritsāgara; Purāṇa]

13) [v.s. ...] n. a spittoon, [Demetrius Galanos’s Lexiko: sanskritikes, anglikes, hellenikes] (cf. pāla above).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Pālaka (पालक):—[(kaḥ-kī-kaṃ) a.] Protecting. m. A protector; a groom.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Palaka (पलक) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Palaga, Pālaya.

[Sanskrit to German]

Palaka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Palaka (पलक) [Also spelled palak]:—(nf) an eyelid; —[jhapakate/girate] in a blink, in no time; —[na māranā] not to sleep a wink, not to bat an eyelid; —[pasījanā] to have tearful eyes; to be moved by compassion; —[bichānā] to extend a respectful welcome; —[pāṃvaḍe bichānā] to extend a red carpet welcome, to give a deferential welcome; —[bhāṃjanā] to wink (at); —[māranā] to wink (at); to have a wink; —[mārate] in a blink or within a moment, in no time; —[laganā] to have a short nap/sleep, to go asleep; —[se palaka na laganā] to lie wide awake, to have no sleep; —[se jamīna jhāḍanā, —se tinake cunanā] to serve reverentially; [palakeṃ bhārī honā] the eyes to be heavy through sleep, to feel sleepy; [palakoṃ para biṭhānā/rakhanā/lenā] to accord a most cordial welcome, to receive with immense cordiality.

2) Pālaka (पालक) [Also spelled palak]:—(nm) a protector; one who or that which keeps/maintains/sustains/nourishes; spinach, spinage.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Palaka (ಪಲಕ):—[noun] = ಪಲ [pala]3 - 2.

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Paḷaka (ಪಳಕ):—

1) [noun] the fact of being used for long; usage.

2) [noun] repeated action; practice.

3) [noun] the process or fact of training or being trained.

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Paḻaka (ಪೞಕ):—[noun] = ಪೞಹ [palaha].

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Pālaka (ಪಾಲಕ):—

1) [noun] he who protects, takes care of, tends, etc.; a protector.

2) [noun] a ruler; a king.

3) [noun] a protecting or being protected; protection.

4) [noun] a horse.

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Pālaka (ಪಾಲಕ):—[noun] = ಪಾಲಕ್ಯ [palakya].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Palaka (पलक):—n. 1. time taken by one blinking of eyes; very short time; 2. eyelid; 3. moment; flash; split second;

2) Pālaka (पालक):—n. 1. protector; guardian; 2. the lord; the creator; 3. king; master; adj. protecting; guarding; safeguarding;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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