Maru; 20 Definition(s)

Introduction

Maru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

1) Maru (मरु):—Son of Śīghra (son of Agnivarna). He had a son named Prasuśruta. He will also beget a son at the end of the Kali-yuga. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.12.6-7)

2) Maru (मरु):—Son of Haryaśva (son of Dhṛṣṭaketu). He had a son named Pratīpaka. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.13.15-16)

Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana

1) Maru (मरु).—A king of the Ikṣvāku dynasty, the father of Prasuśruta and son of Śīghra. He had become "Cirañjīvī" (immortal) by his Yogic power. According to Bhāgavata Purāṇa, all Kṣatriya families would perish in Kaliyuga. At that time, Maru would come back to the world to revive the Kṣatriya race. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

2) Maru (मरु).—A Videha king of the Nimi dynasty. (Bhāgavata, 9th Skandha).

3) Maru (मरु).—One of the chief lieutenants of Narakāsura. He was slain by Śrī Kṛṣṇa.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Maru (मरु).—The name of a desert;1 water in, due to ignorance.2

  • 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 35.
  • 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 104. 39.

1b) The son of Śighrarāja and father of Praśruta (Prasuśraka, Viṣṇu-purāṇa); having attained perfection in yoga he resides in Kalāpagrāma (still rooted in Yoga, Viṣṇu-purāṇa): would revive the solar race at the end of Kali.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 12. 5-7; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 210-11. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 108-11.

1c) A son of Haryaśva and father of Pratīpaka (Pratyambaka br. p.; Pratitvaka, Vāyu-purāṇa).*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 13. 15-6; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 64. 11. Vāyu-purāṇa 89. 11.

1d) (c)—on the way from Dvārakā to Hāstinapura.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 71. 21.

1e) Of the Ikṣvāku line, living in Kalāpagrāma and endowed with Yoga.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 2. 37.

1f) A son of the III Sāvarṇa Manu.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 81.

1g) The place sacred to Lalitā.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 44. 98.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

The son of Agnivarṇa was named Śīghra, and his son was Maru. Having achieved perfection in the power of mystic yoga, Maru still lives in a place known as Kalāpa-grāma. At the end of Kali-yuga, he will revive the lost Sūrya dynasty by begetting a son.

Source: VedaBase: Śrīmad Bhāgavatam

Maru (मरु).—Rama released that splendid arrow towards that place which is now known as Maru and is near the deserts of Jaisalmer in Rajasthan. Due to the granting of a boon by Rama, the desert of Maru became the most congenial and suitable place for living, bestowing merits of Lord Rama’s blessings.

Source: Divya Kataksham: Sri Vishnu Sahasranamam
Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Kavya (poetry)

Māru (मारु) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Rājaputanā or Marwar.

Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Maru (मरु) is a synonym for a “desert wasteland”, according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil [viz., Maru], mountains, jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Māru (मारु, “desert”) refers to one of the twelve types of lands mentioned in the Amarakoṣa and classified according to fertility of the soil, irrigation and physical characteristics. Agriculture (kṛṣi) is frequently mentioned in India’s ancient literature.

Source: Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Agriculture: A Survey
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Maru (मरु) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22). Prayāga is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Kramaṇī accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Karāla. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the aṅkuśa. A similar system appears in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18).

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II) (shaivism)
Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Maru was a king of the solar dynasty, the son of Shigragha, and an ancestor of Rama. Prashushruka is his son.

Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology

In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Maru (मरु) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Cakravartinī, according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Cakravartinī is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the southern lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Pāṇḍaravāsinī. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.

Maru is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Maru is to be contemplated as situated in the large toes. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners

Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini

1) Maru (मरु) is one of the two Upaśmaśāna (‘sacred spot’) present within the Kāyacakra (‘circle of body’) which is associated with the Ḍākinī named Pātālavāsinī (‘a woman living underground’), according to the 9th-centruy Vajraḍākatantra. Vākcakra is one of three Cakras within the Tricakra system which embodies twenty-four sacred spots or districts (viz., Maru) resided over by twenty-four ‘sacred girls’ (ḍākinīs) whose husbands abide in one’s body in the form of twenty-four ingredients (dhātu) of one’s body.

Maru has the presiding Ḍākinī named Cakravartinī whose husband, or hero (vīra) is named Vajrocana. The associated internal location are the ‘thumbs of feet’ and the bodily ingredients (dhātu) are the ‘phlegm’. According to the Vajraḍākavivṛti, the districts Kulatā, Maru, Pretapurī and Triśakuni are associated with the family deity of Vārāhī; while in the Abhidhānottarottaratantra there is the Ḍāka deity named Viśvaḍāka standing in the center of the districts named Nagara, Sindhu, Maru and Kulatā.

2) Maru (मरु) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Maru] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.

Maru is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Kramaṇī accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Karāla. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the aṅkuśa and pāśa and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being a big desert.

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Maru (मरु) refers to a class of kimpuruṣa deities according to Digambara, while the Śvetāmbara tradition does not recognize this class. The kimpuruṣas refer to a category of vyantaras gods which represents one of the four classes of celestial beings (devas). The kimpuruṣas are are golden in appearance according to Digambara, but white in complexion with very bright faces according to Śvetāmbara.

The deities such as the Marus are defined in ancient Jain cosmological texts such as the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapaṇṇati by Yativṛṣabha (5th century) in the Digambara tradition.

Source: Wisdom Library: Jainism
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

maru : (f.) sand; a sandy waste. (m.), a deity.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

1) Maru, 2 (Vedic marut, always in pl. marutaḥ, the gods of the thunder-storm) 1. pl. marū the genii, spirits of the air Sn. 681, 688; Miln. 278 (nāga-yakkha-nara-marū; perhaps in meaning 2); Mhvs 5, 27.—2. gods in general (°-) Mhvs 15, 211 (°gaṇā hosts of gods); 18, 68 (°narā gods and men).—Cp. māruta & māluta. (Page 524)

2) Maru, 1 (cp. Epic Sk. maru) a region destitute of water, a desert. Always combined with °kantāra: Nd1 155 (as Name); J. I, 107; VbhA. 6; VvA. 332; PvA. 99, 112. (Page 524)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

marū (मरू).—m S The province Marwaṛ or Malwa. 2 A region or soil destitute of water; sands, a desert, a waste. 3 A mountain.

--- OR ---

mārū (मारू).—a (māraṇēṃ) Killing, bewitching, fascinating, entrancing, heart-enthralling--eyes, blandishments &c. 2 Cutting, stinging, keen &c.--speech.

--- OR ---

mārū (मारू).—ind mārūmitī f Terms in accounts &c. indicating the Marwaṛi mode of reckoning the month, viz. from full moon to full moon.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

mārū (मारू).—a Killing. Faseinating. Cutting.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maru (मरु).—[mriyante'smin bhūtānīti maruḥ nirjaladeśaḥ, mṛ-u Uṇ.1.7]

1) A desert, sandy desert, a wilderness, any region destitute of water.

2) A mountain or rock.

3) A kind of plant (kurabaka).

4) Abstinence from drinking; मरुं साधयतो राजन् नाकपृष्ठमताशके (maruṃ sādhayato rājan nākapṛṣṭhamatāśake) Mb.13.57.14;142.44. -m. pl. Name of a country or its inhabitants.

Derivable forms: maruḥ (मरुः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Maru (मरु).—m. (in mgs. 1, 2 = Pali id.; compare marut, maruta), (1) in the sense of Sanskrit Marut, a class of Vedic gods: indro …maruhi parivṛto Mv iii.267.16 (verse); in this sense rare; (2) very commonly, god, = deva, sura; oftenest in verses, but also in prose, e.g. nara-maru-kanyā- LV 82.15; often, as here, bracketed with nara or a synonym: SP 12.13; 30.9; 208.9; LV 12.13; 80.19 (read ca marusahasrair); 129.19; 370.14; Mv i.71.21; 72.11, 15, etc.; 90.18; 100.9; 113.15; 143.16; 268.15; ii.299.5; 328.5, etc.; Av ii.176.12; passim; (3) a kind of drum (not recorded anywhere): Mv i.259.11; ii.180.8; 410.7; iii.443.13; (4) n. of a future Buddha: Mv ii.355.10, but this is probably a misprint for Meru, in the same passage iii.279.15.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Maru (मरु).—m.

(-ruḥ) 1. A region or soil destitute of water, sands, a desert. 2. A mountain. 3. The province Marwar, or in the plu.

(-ruvaḥ) The inhabitants. E. mṛ to die, (where,) and Unadi aff. u .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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