Magadha, aka: Māgadha, Māgadhā; 24 Definition(s)
Magadha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
1) Māgadha (मागध) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Māgadha) various roles suitable to them.
2) Māgadha (मागध) is the name of a tribe, usually to be represented by a dark or deep blue (śyāma) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Magadha (मगध).—A famous city of ancient India. Its present name is Rājagṛha. The Purāṇas mention many great Kings who had ruled Magadha. Bṛhadratha was once King of Magadha. (Śloka 30, Chapter 63, Ādi Parva) Jayatsena one of the Kālakeyas was once the King of Magadha. (Śloka 48, Chapter 67, Ādi Parva). Pāṇḍu father of the Pāṇḍavas once attacked Magadha and Dīrgha the then King of Magadha was killed by Pāṇḍu. (Chapter 112, Ādi Parva). While Bṛhadratha was ruling Magadha he passed an order that each and every house should worship the demoness Jarā as a house-goddess. (Śloka 10, Chapter 13, Sabhā Parva). During the time of the Mahābhārata Jarāsandha was the King of Magadha. Śrī Kṛṣṇa made Bhīmasena kill Jarāsandha. After his death Śrī Kṛṣṇa made Sahadeva brother of Jarāsandha the King of Magadha. (Śloka 43, Chapter 24, Sabhā Parva). Bhīmasena conquered this country during his victory march. The people of Magadha offered gifts to Yudhiṣṭhira at his Rājasūya. (Śloka 18, Chapter 52, Sabhā Parva). The King of Magadha and the people there fought on the side of the Pāṇḍavas in the great battle. (Śloka 2, Chapter 53, Udyoga Parva).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
Māgadha (मागध) refers to a class of professional singers that once existed in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—The Nīlamata refers to four classes of professional singers viz. Sūta, Māgadha, Vandī and Cāraṇa who, according to the Dharmaśāstras, maintained themselves by lauding the deeds of others. Their mention in one and the same line indicates that some difference, may be minute, was believed to be existing in these different types of singers.Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
1a) Magadha (मगध).—The kingdom of Jarāsandha (s.v.), see also Māgadha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 3. 10; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 39. 2, 8.
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 55; 18. 51; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 111. 47. 48; 62. 147; 99. 294; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 172; Matsya-purāṇa 50. 27.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 44-5.
- 4) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 195.
- 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 221.
- 6) Ib. 99. 383; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 63.
1c) King Viśvasphāṭika pulled down Kṣatriyas and established new varṇas; people of, like Kaivartas, Baṭu, Pulinda and Brahmanas.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 61.
2a) Māgadha (मागध).—Jarāsandha who was vanquished by Kṛṣṇa, see Magadha (s.v.).*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 3. 10; X. 2. 2; 83. 23.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 15. 20; X. 5. 5; 50. 37; 53. 43; 70. 20; 71. 29; 84. 46; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 113, 159-160, 172; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 95, 137; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 13. 52. 64.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 28. 1 and 4; 27. 13; 49. 21; 55. 9 and 14; IV. 26. 62
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 212. 14; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 147-148.
2c) (Paulastya)—a sage of the 14th epoch of Bhautya Manu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VIII. 13. 34; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa IV. 1. 112; Vāyu-purāṇa 100. 116; Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 2. 44.
2d) A Gandharva.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 26.
2e) For Śrutaśravas, son of Somādhi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 228.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 2. 2; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 42; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 45; 121. 50; 163. 66.
- 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa 11. 4. 69.
2g) The royal line from Bṛahadratha to Śrutaśravas.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 50. 27-34.
Māgadha (मागध) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.46) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Māgadha) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Māgadha (मागध) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Śilparatna (32.3), the Mayamata (18.10) and the Kamikāgama (57.4).Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Magadha (मगध) is the name of a Śāktapīṭha mentioned in the Kulārṇavatantra. The Kulārṇava-tantra is an important 11th century work for the Kaula school of Śāktism. It refers to eighteen such Śākta-pīṭhas (eg. Magadha) which is defined as a sacred sanctuary of Devī located here on earth. According to legend, there are in total fifty-one such sanctuaries (pīṭha) on earth, created from the corresponding parts of Devī’s body,Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Arthashastra (politics and welfare)
Magadha (मगध, “panegyrist”) is an official title designating one of the seventy-two officers (niyoga) of the Bāhattaraniyogādhipati circle, according to the Inscriptional glossary of Andhra Pradesh (Śāsana-śabdakośāmu). The bāhattaraniyoga-adhipati is the highest executive officer of this circle (including a Magadha). For example: During the reign of Gaṇapatideva, the area extending between Pānagal to Mārjavāḍi was entrusted to Gaṇḍapeṇḍāru Gangayasāhiṇi as Bāhattaraniyogādhipati. Later on, this office was entrusted to Kāyastha Jannigadeva.Source: Shodhganga: Kakati Ganapatideva and his times (artha)
Arthashastra (अर्थशास्त्र, arthaśāstra) literature concerns itself with the teachings (shastra) of economic prosperity (artha) statecraft, politics and military tactics. The term arthashastra refers to both the name of these scientific teachings, as well as the name of a Sanskrit work included in such literature. This book was written (3rd century BCE) by by Kautilya, who flourished in the 4th century BCE.
Magadha refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva.Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya
Magadha (मगध) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—This is the province located in the Bihar or southern part of Bihar.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Magadha (मगध) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Magadha] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Magadha (मगध).—A province of ancient India; also the capital city of King Jarāsandha.Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
One of the four chief kingdoms of India at the time of the Buddha, the others being Kosala, the kingdom of the Vamsas and Avanti. Magadha formed one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas and had its capital at Rajagaha or Giribbaja where Bimbisara, and after him Ajatasattu, reigned. Later, Pataliputta became the capital. By the time of Bimbisara, Anga, too, formed a part of Magadha, and he was known as king of Anga Magadha (see, e.g., Vin.i.27 and ThagA.i.544, where Bimbisara sends for Sona Kolivisa, a prominent citizen of Campa, capital of Anga). But prior to that, these were two separate kingdoms, often at war with each other (e.g., J.iv.454f). Several kings of Magadha are mentioned by name in the Jatakas - e.g., Arindama and Duyyodhana. In one story (J.vi.272) the Magadha kingdom is said to have been under the suzerainty of Anga. In the Buddhas day, Magadha (inclusive of Anga) consisted of eighty thousand villages (Vin.i.179) and had a circumference of some three hundred leagues (DA.i.148).
Ajatasattu succeeded in annexing Kosala with the help of the Licchavis, and he succeeded also in bringing the confederation of the latter under his sway; preliminaries to this struggle are mentioned in the books (e.g., D.ii.73f., 86).
Under Bimbisara and Ajatasattu, Magadha rose to such political eminence that for several centuries, right down to the time of Asoka, the history of Northern India was practically the history of Magadha. (A list of the kings from Bimbisara to Asoka is found in Dvy.369 ; cp. DA.i.153; Mbv.96, 98).
At the time of the Buddha, the kingdom of Magadha was bounded on the east by the river Campa (Campa flowed between Anga and Magadha; J.iv.454), on the south by the Vindhya Mountains, on the west by the river Sona, and on the north by the Ganges. The latter river formed the boundary between Magadha and the republican country of the Licchavis, and both the Magadhas and the Licchavis evidently had equal rights over the river. When the Buddha visited Vesali, Bimbisara made a road five leagues long, from Rajagaha to the river, and decorated it, and the Licchavis did the same on the other side. DhA.iii.439 f.; the Dvy. (1p.55) says that monks going from Savatthi to Rajagaha could cross the Ganges in boats kept either by Ajatasattu or by the Licchavis of Vesali.
During the early Buddhist period Magadha was an important political and commercial centre, and was visited by people from all parts of Northern India in search of commerce and of learning. The kings of Magadha maintained friendly relations with their neighbours, Bimbisara and Pasenadi marrying each others sisters. Mention is made of an alliance between Pukkusati, king of Gandhara and Bimbisara. When Candappajjota of Ujjeni was suffering from jaundice, Bimbisara sent him his own personal physician, Jivaka.
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. The name of a gotta. J.iii.339.
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.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: Buddhist Door: Glossary
General definition (in Jainism)
Magadha (मगध) is the name of a country visited by Mahāvīra during his seventh year of spiritual-exertion.—At the end of the rainy season, the Lord broke his fast outside the Bhadrikā city and left for Magadha. Wandering across different parts of Magadha, the Lord practised the seventh year of austerity without calamities for eight months. He reached the Ālambhiyā city for the monsoon stay and observing four months fast, completed his cāturmāsa meditation breaking his fast outside the city he stayed in the Vasudeva temple in ‘Kaṇḍāga’ and in Baladeva temple ‘Bhaddaṇā’ he reached Bahusāla village and there in a Sāla forest, he became meditative.Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Magadha (मगध).—This ancient kingdom corresponds to the modern districts of Patna, Gayā and Ṣāhābād in South Bihār. Its great importance in Indian history will be realised when we remember that it was not only the home of Buddhism and Jainism, but also the nucleus of two of the greatest of the Indian empires, the Maurya and the Gupta. Until the sixth century b.c. its capital was Girivraja, when its place was taken by Rājagṛha, the modern Rājgīr. Further information will be found in Rhys Davids’ Buddhist India, 1905; Cunningham’s Ancient Geography of India, 1871; and the Cambridge History of India, vol. i, 1922. —n.m.p.Source: archive.org: The ocean of story (history)
Magadha is one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—Early Pāli literature abounds in information about the Magadha country, its people, and its ancient capital Giribbaja. Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern Patna and Gayā districts of Bihar. Its earliest capital was Girivraja, or old Rājagriha, near Rājgir among the hills near Gayā. The Mahāvagga calls it Giribbaja of the Magadhas in order to distinguish it from other cities of the same name (Cf. Girivraja in Kekaya).
The Vinaya Piṭaka tells us that Magadha comprised eighty thousand villages all of which were under the sway of King Bimbisāra. The same work informs us that the river Tapodā flowed by this ancient city. Magadha was an important centre of Buddhism. According to the Kathāvatthu account Sāriputta and Moggallāna were converted by the Buddha to his faith while the latter was in Magadha. The Samantapāsādikā tells us that the missionaries who visited various places to preach the dhamma of Asoka were almost all natives of Magadha. In Asoka’s time the capital of the Magadhan kingdom was Pāṭaliputta (the older Pāṭaligāma where the ministers of Ajātasattu built a fort to repel the Vajjis). Pāli literature, however, contains numerous references to Rājagaha, the ancient capital of Magadha.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
magadha : (m.) the country of Magadha, which includes present Bihar and Orissa. || māgadha (adj.) belonging to Magadha.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Māgadha, (fr. Magadha) scent-seller, (lit. “from Magadha”) Pv. II, 937 (=gandhin PvA. 127). (Page 527)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
māgadha (मागध).—m S A bard or minstrel.Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
māgadha (मागध).—m A bard or minstrel.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Magadha (मगध).—1 Name of a country, the southern part of Bihar; अस्ति मगधेषु पुष्पपुरी नाम नगरी (asti magadheṣu puṣpapurī nāma nagarī) Dk.1; अगाधसत्त्वो मगधप्रतिष्ठः (agādhasattvo magadhapratiṣṭhaḥ) R.6.21.
2) A bard, minstrel.
-dhāḥ (pl.) The people of Magadha, the Magadhas.
-dhā 1 The town of the Magadhas.
2) Long pepper.
Derivable forms: magadhaḥ (मगधः).
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Māgadha (मागध).—a. (-dhī f.) [मगधदेशे भवः अण् (magadhadeśe bhavaḥ aṇ)] Relating to or living in the country of Magadha or the people of Magadha.
-dhaḥ 1 A king of the Magadhas.
2) Name of a mixed tribe, said to have been the offspring of a Vaiśya father and a Kṣatriya mother, (the duty of the members of this caste being that of professional bards); Ms.1.11,17; क्षत्रिया मागधं वैश्यात् (kṣatriyā māgadhaṃ vaiśyāt) Y.1.94; Mb.13.49.1.
3) A bard or panegyrist in general; सूतमागधबन्दिनः (sūtamāgadhabandinaḥ) Bhāg.1.11.2; परिणतिमिति रात्रेर्मागधा माधवाय (pariṇatimiti rātrermāgadhā mādhavāya) Śi.11.1.
-dhāḥ (pl.) Name of a people, the Magadhas.
-dhā 1 A princess of the Magadhas.
2) Long pepper.
-dhī 1 A princess of the Magadhas; तयोर्जगृहतुः पादान् राजा राज्ञी च मागधी (tayorjagṛhatuḥ pādān rājā rājñī ca māgadhī) R.1.57.
2) The language of the Magadhas, one of the four principal kinds of Prākṛta.
3) Long pepper.
4) White cumin.
5) Refined sugar.
6) A kind of jasmine.
7) A variety of cardamoms.
8) The daughter of a Kṣatriya mother and a Vaiśya father.
1) Name of a river (śoṇā).
11) A kind of रीति (rīti) in rhetorics. The अलङ्कारशेखर (alaṅkāraśekhara) (7) gives the following illustration:पाणौ पद्मधिया मधूक- कुसुमभ्रान्त्या पुनर्गण्डयोर्नीलेन्दीवरशङ्कया नयनयोर्बन्धूकबुद्ध्याधरे । लीयन्ते कबरीषु बान्धवजनव्यामोहजातस्पृहा दुर्वारा मधुपाः कियन्ति तरुणि स्थानानि रक्षिष्यसि (pāṇau padmadhiyā madhūka- kusumabhrāntyā punargaṇḍayornīlendīvaraśaṅkayā nayanayorbandhūkabuddhyādhare | līyante kabarīṣu bāndhavajanavyāmohajātaspṛhā durvārā madhupāḥ kiyanti taruṇi sthānāni rakṣiṣyasi) ||
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Māgadhā (मागधा).—Long pepper.
See also (synonyms): māgadhikā.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Māgadha (मागध).—n. of a yakṣa: Māy 63.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-dhaḥ) 1. A country, South Behar. 2. An inhabitant of that country. 3. A bard, whose peculiar province is to sing the praises of a chief’s ancestry in his presence, a family bard or minstrel. f.
(-dhā) 1. Long pepper. 2. The town of the Magadhas. E. magadha a Kandwadi verb, to ask, aff. ac; or magadha the country, aṇ aff., with alteration of the vowel optional; hence also māgadha .
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(-dhaḥ-dhī-dhaṃ) Belonging to, or produced in the province of Magad'ha or south Behar. m.
(-dhaḥ) 1. A bard, a minstrel, whose duty it is, to recite the praises of sovereigns, their genealogy, and the deeds of their ancestors, in their presence; and to attend oni the march of an army, and animate the soldiers by martial songs: the minstrel forms a particular caste, said to spring from a Vaisya father, and Kshetriya mother; in mythology, they are said to have been created at once by the will of Siva; under the name of Bhauts, they are still numerous in the west of Inda where they are a privileged tribe. 2. Cumin-seed. m. Plu.
(-dhāḥ) The inhabitants or people of Magadha. f. (-dhī) 1. A kind of jasmine. (Jasminum auriculatum.) 2. Long-pepper, (Piper longum.) 3. A sort of cardamoms grown in Guzerat. 4. Refined sugar. 5. A dialect of Sanskrit: one of the principal forms of Prakrita, and nearly the same as that used in the sacred books of the Baudd'has and Jain'as: in the drama it is the dialect of the attendants and companions of royal personages. E. magadha a Kandwadi verb, to ask, (reward,) aff. aṇ; or magadha the country, and aṇ derivative aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Jarāsandha (जरासन्ध).—m. (-ndhaḥ) A proper name, a celebrated king and warrior, sovereign of Ma...
Aśoka (अशोक) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Kāyacakra, according to the 10th c...
Search found 95 books and stories containing Magadha, Māgadha, Māgadhā; (plurals include: Magadhas, Māgadhas, Māgadhās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 10.6 < [Section II - Mixed Castes]
Verse 10.31 < [Section II - Mixed Castes]
Verse 10.47 < [Section IV - Occupations of the Mixed Castes]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 14: Expedition of conquest < [Chapter IV - Anantanāthacaritra]
Part 18: Expedition of conquest < [Chapter II - Vāsupūjyacaritra]
Part 23: Conquest of southern half of Bharata by Tripṛṣṭha < [Chapter I - Śreyāṃsanāthacaritra]
The Mahabharata - Second Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Section XIX < [Rajasuyarambha Parva]
Section XXI < [Jarasandhta-badha Parva]
Section XX < [Jarasandhta-badha Parva]
The Brahmanda Purana (by G.V. Tagare)
Chapter 36 - The Lineage of Manu: Manvantaras < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 16 - The Description of Bharata < [Section 2 - Anuṣaṅga-pāda]
Chapter 39 - The narrative of Bhārgava Paraśurāma (c) < [Section 3 - Upodghāta-pāda]
Gautama Dharmasūtra (by Gautama)
The Shiva Purana (by J. L. Shastri)