Vanga, aka: Vāṅga, Vaṅga, Vaṅgā; 23 Definition(s)
Vanga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग, “Tin”) is the name for a variation of ‘metal’ (dhātu/loha) from the sub-group named Pūtiloha, according to the Rasaprakāśasudhākara: a 13th century Sanskrit book on Indian alchemy, or, Rasaśāstra.
Lead has the following two varieties:
- Khura, (superior and recommended for medicinal use).
- Miśra, (inferior).
Vaṅga is of two types, i.e.
- and Miśra-vaṅga.
Of the two that which is pure, straight and white is called khura-vaṅga. It is superior and recommended for medicinal uses.
Vaṅga is considered asvātakara (vātavardhaka), rūkṣa in guṇa, tikta (bitter) in rasa, destroys meha (premehas), removes medas-medo-roga (excessive fat), kṛmi-roga, kapha doṣa, viṣa-doṣa and āpa-doṣa and almost all the diseases. It gives śakti (strength) and possess many other properties. Its dose is one bala (250 to 375 mg.) and may be given internally according to severety of diseases and strength of the patient. It is further said in this context that vaṅga-bhasma is specific of right type of vāta-rogas and twenty types of meha-rogas if used internally for one week only.Source: Indian Journal of History of Science: Rasaprakāśa-sudhākara, chapter 4-5
Vanga, one of the Puti Lohas was known to ancient Indian physicians by the name of Trapu. In Caraka-samhita, the metal is categorized under Parthiva Dravyas.
According to descriptions in Rasa Vagbhata, there are two varieties of Vanga viz.
- and Mishraka,
the former being acceptable for therapeutic applications.
Samples with the characteristics, bright white in color (Dhavala), soft (Mridula), shiny, smooth (Snigdha), easily melts (Drutadrava), and heavy (Guru) are identified as Khura Vanga and should be preferred for therapeutic purposes. Formulations of ‘Vanga’ are variously beneficial in diseases such as: Prameha, Kasa, Shwasa, Krimi, Ksaya, Pandu, Pradara, Garbhashaya Cyuti etc. Singly or in combination with other puti lohas, it is beneficial in disorders of the Genito Urinary Tract. It has also been said that, Vanga Bhasma is the drug of choice in the case of Prameha.Source: PMC: Therapeutic potentials of metals in ancient India
Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is another name (synonym) for Vārttākī, which is the Sanskrit word for Solanum melongena (eggplant), a plant from the Solanaceae family. This synonym was identified by Narahari in his 13th-century Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 7.194-195), which is an Āyurvedic medicinal thesaurus.Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग).—An important state in ancient India. The present name of this country is Bengal. Several statements occur in the Purāṇas about Vaṅga.
The following are the statements about Vaṅga given in the Mahābhārata.
(i) Arjuna visited this country during his pilgrimage. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Chapter 214, Stanza 9).
(ii) Bhīmasena attacked Vaṅga. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 30, Stanza 23).
(iii) The Kings of Vaṅga visited Yudhiṣṭhira with presents. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Stanza 18).
(iv) Karṇa conquered this country during his regional conquest. (Mahābhārata Vana Parva, Chapter 254, Stanza 8).
(v) In the Bhārata battle the King of Vaṅga confronted Ghaṭotkaca and was defeated. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 92, Stanza 6).
(vi) Once Śrī Kṛṣṇa conquered the country of Vaṅga. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 11, Stanza 15).
(vii) Paraśurāma exterminated the Kṣatriyas of Vaṅga. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 70, Stanza 12).
(viii) The low castes of Vaṅga attacked the sacrificial horse led by Arjuna who killed every one of them. (Mahābhārata Aśvamedha Parva, Chapter 82, Stanza 29).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 5.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 27 and 87; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 85; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 18. 13-14.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 48. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 28.
1b) A son of Dharmavarman and father of Nandana.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 24. 56.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. [50 (v) 3].
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 51; 18. 51; III. 74. 213.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 114. 44; 121. 50; 163. 72.
1e) The Brāhmaṇa caste of Śākadvīpa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 4. 69.
2) Vāṅga (वाङ्ग).—A Janapada of the Ketumālā country.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 15.
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.13.19, II.27.21, II.31.11, II.47.10, II.48.15, II.48.17, VI.10.44, VIII.17.2, VIII.17.2) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Vaṅga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name of a country pertaining to the Oḍramāgadhī local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the verbal style (bhāratī) and the graceful style (kaiśikī).
The Vaṅgas are usually to be represented by a dark or deep blue (śyāma) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name of a Śāktapīṭha mentioned in the Kulārṇavatantra. The Kulārṇava-tantra is an important 11th century work for the Kaula school of Śāktism. It refers to eighteen such Śākta-pīṭhas (eg. Vaṅga) which is defined as a sacred sanctuary of Devī located here on earth. According to legend, there are in total fifty-one such sanctuaries (pīṭha) on earth, created from the corresponding parts of Devī’s body,Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Vaṅga is applied to the eastern part of the delta of the Ganges on the Coast of the Bay of Bengal.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग).—The people of Vaṅga are stated to have fought in the Kurukshetra war and, in course of his expedition Bhīṣma is said to have defeated Samudrasena of Vaṅga. The Kāśikā mentions Vāṅgaka to explain Pāṇini's sūtra (IV. 3. 100) denoting loyalty of the citizen to the state. Pāṇini mentions Vāṅgī (the lady of Vaṅga Janapada) along with Avantī, Kurū and Yaudheyī. Patañjali also refers to the Vaṅgas by way of illustration.
According to the Mahābhārata Vaṅga, son of Bali, had establishad this country. The Amarakośa mentions Vaṅga as a synonym of Raṅga (lead), but lead is not available in Bengal and is found in abundance in Malaya, Pegu and East Indies. People in other parts of India may have received lead through the people of East Bengal. Suśruta also uses Vaṅga in the same sense as Amara does.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (hinduism)
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (two types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Vaṅga] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
The name of a people and their country, the modern Bengal.
It is nowhere mentioned in the four Nikayas, nor included among the Mahajanapadas.
The mother of Sihabahu and Sihasivali was a Vanga princess, the daughter of the Vanga king who had married the daughter of the king of Kalinga (Mhv.vi.1ff.; Dpv.ix.2).
The Milinda (p. 359) mentions Vanga as a trading place to be reached by sea.Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
India history and geogprahy
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name of a locality mentioned in the Gupta inscription No. 22. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The Vaṅgas here mean the ‘Vaṅga country’ the eastern Bengal of modern times.
The Vaṅga countries are also referred to in the Mahākūṭa Pillar Inscription, but in the inscriptions after the 9th century A.D. the word Vaṅgāla is usually mentioned. S.B. Chaudhuri who concludes that Vaṅgāla was within Vaṅga and hence was not altogether a separate geographical entity as is maintained by some. The Yādavaprakāśa equates Vaṅga with Harikeli but the Kalpadrukośa, a work of the seventeenth century states that Śrīhaṭṭa is Harikeli. The commentary of Yaśodhara on the Kāmasūtra refers to Vaṅga as situated to the east of the Brahmaputra.Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) is the name of a locality situated in Prācya or “eastern district” of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the Dīpavaṃsa the reference is to Vaṅga, i.e., the Vaṅga tribe or people and not Vaṅga. Vaṅga is, however, identical with modern Eastern Bengal. It did not stand as a name for the entire province as it does now.
In the Mahāvaṃsa we find a reference to the kingdom of Vaṅga and of its King Sīhabāhu. Sīhabāhu’s son Vijaya transplanted a new kingdom in Laṅkā or Ceylon. In the Milindapañho we read of sailors going on boats to Vaṅga. The Vaṅga tribe is also mentioned in the Mahāvagga of the Aṅguttara Nikāya. There is a doubtful mention of the Vaṅga tribe in the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa. But it is probable that the name Upasena Vaṅgāntaputta had something to do with the Vaṅga kingdom.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Vaṅga (वङ्ग) was originally the name of the south-eastern part of the province [viz., Bengal, Gauḍa], but it boundaries were not well defined, and other geographical names such as Samataṭa, Harikela,Vaṅgāla, were used for different parts, if not the whole, of it at different times during the pre-Muslim period. English name, Bengal, and its Portuguese form, Bengala, were both derived, not from Vaṅga, as is generally supposed, but from Vaṅgāla which the Muslim rulers adopted as the name of the province.
Vaṅgas as a tribal people are mentioned in the Aitareya Āraṇyaka. The expression “vaṅgāvagadhāścerapādāḥ” occurring in the text has been emended by scholars to “vaṅgā-magadhāḥ” which preserves the names of the ethnic groups of the Vaṅgas and the Magadhas. [...] The Vaṅgas are, however, clearly referred to in the Baudhāyana Dharmasūtra, the Purāṇas, the Arthaśāstra of Kauṭilya, the Mahābhārata, the Rāmāyana, Buddhist texts, the Mahābhāṣya of Patanjali and other literary texts.
According to Yaśodhara, a commentator on the Kāmasūtra of Vātsyāyana, Vaṅga lay to the east of the Lauhitya. [...] According to Dr. Hemacandra Ray Chaudhury, however, Vaṅga and Harikela were synonymous terms and Harikela, which is regarded as the eastern limit of East India by I sing, has been equated with modern Sylhet. It must, therefore, be conceded that extensive regions, lying to the east of the Brahmaputra, were once component parts of the geographical system of Vaṅga. In the Śaktisaṅgamatantra the entire tract from the sea up to the Brahmaputra has been called Vaṅga.Source: Shodhganga: Legacy of Buddhism in Bengal
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
vaṅga : (m.) the country of Bengal.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Vaṅga, at DA. I, 223 is syn. with kaṇa and means some kind of fault or flaw. It is probably a wrong spelling for vaṅka. (Page 592)Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
vaṅga (वंग).—n S Tin. 2 Lead.
--- OR ---
vāṅga (वांग).—m Numbness or dull aching (as from a pressure or a continued strain or stretch). v yē.
--- OR ---
vāṅga (वांग).—m (vyaṅga S) A purple or dark discoloration on the skin, a mole. Applied by some also to a freckle, to the mark of a healed boil, pustule, or small tumor, and to a pockpit. Pr. yētīla vāṅga tara phēḍatīla pāṅga. 2 fig. A black spot or stain (as arising upon gold or silver): also a mark of the forming hammer (upon metal vessels &c.)Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
vaṅga (वंग).—n Tin. Lead. vaṅgabhasma n Calx of tin.
--- OR ---
vāṅga (वांग).—m A mole. Fig. A black spot. Dull aching.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Vaṅgā (वङ्गा).—(pl.) Name of Bengal proper and its inhabitants; वङ्गानुत्खाय तरसा नेता नौसाधनोद्यतान् (vaṅgānutkhāya tarasā netā nausādhanodyatān) R.4.36; रत्नाकरं समारभ्य ब्रह्मपुत्रान्तगः प्रिये वङ्गदेश इति प्रोक्तः (ratnākaraṃ samārabhya brahmaputrāntagaḥ priye vaṅgadeśa iti proktaḥ); (see App.)
Derivable forms: vaṅgāḥ (वङ्गाः).
--- OR ---
Vaṅga (वङ्ग).—1 Cotton.
2) The egg-plant.
-ṅgam 1 Lead.
2) Tin; ताम्रं लोहं च वङ्गं च काचं च स्वर्णमाक्षिकम् (tāmraṃ lohaṃ ca vaṅgaṃ ca kācaṃ ca svarṇamākṣikam) Śiva B.3.11.
Derivable forms: vaṅgaḥ (वङ्गः).Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Vaṅga (वङ्ग).—(°-) (= Sanskrit id.) -lipi, a kind of writing: LV 125.20 (most mss. Māṅga, which Tibetan supports, maṅ ga; see also vandā).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
(-ṅgaṃ) 1. Lead. 2. Tin. m.
(-ṅgaḥ) 1. Bengal, or the eastern parts of the modern province. 2. Cotton. 3. The egg-plant, (Solanum melongena.) E. vagi to go, ac aff.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Starts with (+2): Vanga Vanga, Vangabhasma, Vangaja, Vangajivana, Vangaka, Vangala, Vangalasangala, Vangalavana, Vangali, Vangana, Vanganta, Vangantaputta, Vanganuru, Vangari, Vangasena, Vangashulvaja, Vangashulyaja, Vangati, Vangavanga, Vangavinem.
Ends with (+9): Abhishvanga, Anabhishvanga, Avanga, Bhavanga, Chinavanga, Cinavanga, Hadavanga, Havanga, Hrasvanga, Katvanga, Khadvanga, Khatvanga, Kuvanga, Lavanga, Mridvanga, Navanga, Parishvanga, Plavanga, Pravanga, Purvanga.
Full-text (+49): Kuvanga, Vangala, Panga, Vanga Vanga, Vanda, Akhyatavyakarana, Siphala, Cinavanga, Dharmavarman, Sihabahu, Vangajivana, Vangari, Vangashulyaja, Ketumaladvipa, Vangaja, Samatata, Harikeliya, Anura, Sumaha, Balayogi.
Search found 30 books and stories containing Vanga, Vāṅga, Vaṅga, Vaṅgā; (plurals include: Vangas, Vāṅgas, Vaṅgas, Vaṅgās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Mahavamsa (by Wilhelm Geiger)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 3 - Incineration of tin < [Chapter VI - Metals (6): Vanga (tin)]
Part 1 - Characteristics of Tin (vanga) < [Chapter VI - Metals (6): Vanga (tin)]
Part 5 - Taking of tin < [Chapter VI - Metals (6): Vanga (tin)]
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
The Mahabharata - Second Book (by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa)
Section LI < [Sisupala-badha Parva]
Section XXXIII < [Rajasuyika Parva]
Section XXIX < [Digvijaya Parva]
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter XXXVIII - The mode of worshipping the deities, Durga, etc. < [Agastya Samhita]
Chapter CXXXIX - Genealogy of the princes of the lunar race < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)