Brihaspati, Bṛhaspati: 27 definitions
Brihaspati means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Bṛhaspati can be transliterated into English as Brhaspati or Brihaspati, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Brahaspati.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) is the name of a sage who was in the company of Bharata when he recited the Nāṭyaveda them, according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 35. Accordingly, they asked the following questions, “O the best Brahmin (lit. the bull of the twice-born), tell us about the character of the god who appears in the Preliminaries (pūrvaraṅga). Why is the sound [of musical instruments] applied there? What purpose does it serve when applied? What god is pleased with this, and what does he do on being pleased? Why does the Director being himself clean, perform ablution again on the stage? How, O sir, the drama has come (lit. dropped) down to the earth from heaven? Why have your descendants come to be known as Śūdras?”.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
One of the Nava-graha (Hands that indicate the Nine Planets)—Bṛhaspati: Śikhara with both hands, as if holding the sacred thread.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Jyotiṣa
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) refers to the planet jupiter. It is also kown as devaguru, guru. The corresponding day of the week is wednesday (guruvāra). The term is used throughout Jyotiṣa literature.Source: Pt. Sanjay Rath: Bṛhaspati Kavacha Mantra
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) refers to one of the 18 names of Jupiter (Bṛhaspati) according to the Bṛhaspati-kavaca-mantra from the Brahmayāmalatantra. In jyotiṣa there is a saying that when Jupiter protects there is none that can destroy. The eighteen names of Jupiter (viz., Bṛhaspati) relate to eighteen body parts starting from the top of head (śiras). One method uses this formula: Each name associates with two drekkāṇa reckoned from lagna in the horoscope.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—The teacher of the devas (Gods). Birth. The father of Bṛhaspati was Aṅgiras, the son of Brahmā. Brahmā grew amorous, at the sight of some celestial maids who were present at a sacrifice performed by Rudra; and he had seminal flow. Brahmā put the semen in fire. From that fire the devas such as Marīci, Bhṛgu, Aṅgiras and others were born. The name Aṅgiras was given because he was born out of aṅgāra (live-coal). Eight sons were born to Aṅgiras by his wife Vasudā. They were Utathya, Bṛhaspati, Vayasya, Śānti, Ghora, Virūpa, Saṃvarta and Sudhanvā. All of them were sages who had attained oneness with the supreme Spirit by knowledge, and who had been free from worldly pain. Of them Bṛhaspati, Utathya and Saṃvarta became famous through all the worlds. In some purāṇas Vasudā, the mother of Bṛhaspati, is given the name Śraddhā also. (See full article at Story of Bṛhaspati from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—(Vedhas)—a son of Angiras by Sunīpā; (also Prajāpati, Vāyu-purāṇa); a Brahmiṣṭha famous in Svārociṣāntara; a sage of the Svārociṣa epoch,1 born of Phalguni in Cakṣuṣāntara; a Mantra-Brāhmaṇa; identified with Bhagavān,2 lord of Viśravas and Angiras; sister, Yogasiddha, wife of Prabhāsa; wife Tārā who was taken away by Soma; she came back after Śiva's war with him and Brahmā's intervention; father of Kaca and Bharadvāja;3 had sexual intercourse with Mamata (brother's wife), when she was pregnant; cursed the baby in the womb for obstructing the entry of his semen. Bharadvāja was born who was brought up by the Maruts;4 appointed Purohita of the Gods and got back to life the Gods killed by the Asuras;5 had faith in kriyāyoga;6 served as calf for the sages (milked the cowearth, Vāyu-purāṇa) to milk the Vedic lore from the earth and got the essence of tapas; saciva of Indra; caused illusion for7 Rajo's sons and got back the place for Indra;8 wielded overlordship over Indra and was the cause of his yogakṣema;9 master of Mantras;10 finding Śukra engaged for ten years with Jayanti, Br. took the guise of Śukra and acted as Śukra to the Asuras; when Śukra spoke of the deceit, they would not listen to him and hence were cursed; Bṛhaspati threw off his guise and went to his place;11 appeared before the Asuras in the guise of Kāvya;12 fought with Uśanas or Śukra in the Devāsura war;13 advised Indra besieged by Bali, to abandon the city and await better times14 was not accorded due welcome by Indra in his pride and hence Bṛhaspati abandoned the Devas when the Asuras rose up in arms against them; after consulting him on Tāraka's advance, Indra resolved on war;15 blessed Umā with a son; blessed the Deva host in the Tārakāmaya.16
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IV. 1. 35; 17. 9. 8. Matsya-purāṇa 192. 10; 196. 5. 19, 24. Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 77; 53. 33; 59. 90, 131; 85. 100; 98. 24 and 27.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 16. 22; Matsya-purāṇa 245. 86; 249. 11.
- 3) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 14. 4; Matsya-purāṇa 23. 30, 47; 26. 3; Vāyu-purāṇa 65. 103; 70. 4; 76. 1 and 25; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 6. 10.
- 4) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 20. 36-9; Matsya-purāṇa 48. 33-41; 49. 15. Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 19. 16; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 37; 103. 59; 106. 50.
- 5) Ib. IX. 24. 45; 25. 9. 12; Vāyu-purāṇa 2. 19; 3. 4; 38. 44.
- 6) Bhāgavata-purāṇa XI. 27. 2.
- 7) Ib. IV. 18. 14; Matsya-purāṇa 10. 17; Vāyu-purāṇa 62. 138 and 177.
- 8) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 24. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 29. 11; Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 67; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 9. 17-22.
- 9) Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 15; 92. 91.
- 10) Matsya-purāṇa 47. 81.
- 11) Ib. 47. 181-205.
- 12) Vāyu-purāṇa 97. 106, 121.
- 13) Bhā VIII. 10. 33.
- 14) Ib. VIII. 15. 28-31.
- 15) Ib. VI. 7. 79 and 16-19; Matsya-purāṇa 148. 62-76.
- 16) Ib. 154. 507; 174. 52.
1b) A planet; three-fourth of Śukra (Bhār
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 127. 5; Vāyu-purāṇa 52. 77-9; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 12. 19.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 22. 15; XII. 2. 24; Matsya-purāṇa 264. 8.
- 3) Ib. 163. 39.
- 4) Vāyu-purāṇa 53. 97.
- 5) Ib. 83. 42.
- 6) Ib. 101. 133; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 7. 9.
1c) A Ṛṣi;1 heard the Bhāgavata from Sānkhāyana;2 teacher of Uddava;3 went to Syamantapañcaka to see Kṛṣṇa,4 went with Kṛṣṇa to Mithilā;5 advised Janamejaya to give up Sarpasatra; by doing this he honoured the sage.6
- 1) Matsya-purāṇa 145. 92.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa III. 8. 8.
- 3) Ib. III. 1. 25; IV. 7. 60.
- 4) Ib. X. 84. 4.
- 5) Ib. X. 86. 18.
- 6) Ib. XII. 6. 23-28
1d) An author of a work on architecture; even he cannot speak fully on iconography.*
- * Matsya-purāṇa 252. 3; 261. 57.
1e) A son of Gokarṇa, an avatār of the sixteenth dvāpara.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 23. 173.
1f) The fourth Veda Vyāsa.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 3. 12.
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.60.5) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Bṛhaspati) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) is the name of a ancient authority on the science of Sanskrit metrics (chandaśāstra) mentioned by Yādavaprakāśa (commentator on Chandaśśāstra of Piṅgala).—Bṛhaspati is also one among the ancient authorities of Sanskrit Prosody, stands second to Śiva, mentioned by Yādavaprakāśa as Suraguru.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) is the name of a deity who received the Candrajñānāgama from Ananta through the mahānsambandha relation, according to the pratisaṃhitā theory of Āgama origin and relationship (sambandha). The candrajñāna-āgama, being part of the eighteen Rudrabhedāgamas, refers to one of the twenty-eight Siddhāntāgamas: a classification of the Śaiva division of Śaivāgamas. The Śaivāgamas represent the wisdom that has come down from lord Śiva, received by Pārvatī and accepted by Viṣṇu.
Bṛhaspati obtained the Candrajñānāgama from Ananta who in turn obtained it from Sadāśiva through parasambandha. Bṛhaspati in turn, transmitted it to through divya-sambandha to the Devas who, through divyādivya-sambandha, transmitted it to the Ṛṣis who finally, through adivya-sambandha, revealed the Candrajñānāgama to human beings (Manuṣya). (also see Anantaśambhu’s commentary on the Siddhāntasārāvali of Trilocanaśivācārya)
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: Shodhganga: Iconographical representations of Śiva (pancaratra)
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) or Bṛhaspatisaṃhitā is the name of a Vaiṣṇava Āgama scripture, classified as a rājasa type of the Muniprokta group of Pāñcarātra Āgamas. The vaiṣṇavāgamas represent one of the three classes of āgamas (traditionally communicated wisdom).—Texts of the Pāñcara Āgamas are divided in to two sects. It is believed that Lord Vāsudeva revealed the first group of texts which are called Divya and the next group is called Muniprokta which are further divided in to three viz. a. Sāttvika. b. Rājasa (e.g., Bṛhaspati-saṃhitā). c. Tāmasa.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) refers to:—The spiritual master of King Indra and priest of the demigods. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति), “lord of prayer”, is the name of a god in the Vedic texts. The view of Thibaut, that the name designates the planet Jupiter, is certainly not supported by good evidence. Oldenberg seems clearly right in rejecting it.Source: Apam Napat: Indian Mythology
Also called Guru, he is the preceptor of the Devas. Brihaspati is the son of Angirasa and Suroopa according to the Shiva Purana. He has two brothers named Utathya and Samvartana. He has children by three women, two of them his wives. His first wife Shuba gave birth to Bhanumathi, Raaka, Archishmathi, Mahaamathi, Mahishmathi, Sinivalli and Havishmathi, his seven daughters. His second wife Tara gives birth to seven sons and a daughter. Through his brother Utathya's wife Mamata, he has two sons, Kacha and Bharadwaja.Source: WikiPedia: Hinduism
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति, "lord of prayer or devotion") also known as Deva-guru (guru of the gods), is a Hindu god and a Vedic deity. He is considered the personification of piety and religion, and the chief 'offerer of prayers and sacrifices to the gods' (Sanskrit: Purohita), with whom he intercedes on behalf of humankind. He is described as of yellow or golden color and holding the following divine attributes: a stick, a lotus and beads. He presides over 'Guru-var' or Thursday.
Bṛhaspati is the son of Rishi Angiras (according to the Rig Veda 4.40.1) and Surupa according to the Shiva Purana. He has two brothers named Utathya and Samvartana, and has three wives. His first wife, Shuba, gave birth to Bhanumati, Raaka, Archishmati, Mahamati, Mahishmati, Sinivali, and Havishmati, his seven daughters. His second wife, Tara, gave birth to seven sons and a daughter. Through Bṛahspati's third wife, Mamata, he had two sons, Kacha and Bharadwaja.
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) refers to one of the various Grahas and Mahāgrahas mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Bṛhaspati).Source: archive.org: The Indian Buddhist Iconography
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) refers to the planet Jupiter and represents one of the nine planets (Navagraha), commonly depicted in Buddhist Iconography, and mentioned in the 11th-century Niṣpannayogāvalī of Mahāpaṇḍita Abhayākara.—His Colour is white; his Symbols are the rosary and kamaṇḍalu; his Vehicle is the frog or skull; he has two arms.
Bṛhaspati is described in the Niṣpannayogāvalī (dharmadhātuvāgīśvara-maṇḍala) as follows:—
“On a Frog or a skull there is Bṛhaspati of white colour. He carries the rosary and the kamaṇḍalu in his two hands”.
[Bṛhaspati is not represented in the Chinese collection of Peiping].
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) is the name of a deity from the Jyotiṣka-Devas or Navagraha group of deities commonly depicted as in Jaina iconography.—In this case, too, the Śvetāmbara literature furnishes two different accounts [of Bṛhaspati]. Conforming to the one, the image should bear a book and ride a swan, to the other, he should hold the attributes, in his four hands, of a rosary, staff, Kamaṇḍalu and Varada. He is the ruler of the north-eastern quarters. The Digambara Bṛhaspati sits on a lotus and holds a book, Kamaṇḍalu and a rosary.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—m (S) The name of the regent of the planet Jupiter, the Guru or preceptor of the gods. 2 The planet Jupiter. 3 Applied, appellatively, to an eloquent or a wise man, a Nestor or an Ulysses: also, or bōlūna bṛhaspati, to an insolent or a troublesome prater.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—m The planet Jupiter. App. ap- pellatively to an eloquent or a wise man.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—[bṛhataḥ vācaḥ patiḥ pāraskarādi°]
1) Name of the preceptor of the gods; सन्त्यन्येऽपि बृहस्पतिप्रभृतयः संभाविताः पञ्चषाः (santyanye'pi bṛhaspatiprabhṛtayaḥ saṃbhāvitāḥ pañcaṣāḥ) Bh.1.34; (for the abduction of his wife Tārā by the moon, see under tārā and soma).
2) The planet Jupiter; बुधबृहस्पतियोगदृश्यः (budhabṛhaspatiyogadṛśyaḥ) R.18.76.
3) Name of the author of a Smṛti; Y.1.4.
Derivable forms: bṛhaspatiḥ (बृहस्पतिः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—(1) name of a king, descendant of Aśoka: Divyāvadāna 433.23 (written Vṛh°); (2) name of a yakṣa: Mahā-Māyūrī 10.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—[bṛh + as-pati], and bṛhaspati vṛhaspati, m. 1. A deity, originally The lord of prayer, [Daśakumāracarita] in
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति).—[masculine] [Name] of a god (the lord of prayer, later of wisdom and eloquence), the planet Jupiter; a man’s name.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum
1) Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—said to be the author of the Svapnādhyāya.
2) Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति):—a name of Rāyamukuṭa.
3) Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति):—son of Bhavadeva: Malamāsarahasya.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
--- OR ---
1) Āṅgirasa, Verfasser von [Ṛgveda 10, 71. fg.] Laukya — von [10, 72.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति):—m. —
1) Nomen proprium eines Gottes , in welchem die Thätigkeit des Frommen gegenüber den Göttern personificirt ist. Gilt später als Gott der Klugheit und der Beredsamkeit , dem verschiedene Werke zugeschrieben werden. —
2) der Planet Jupiter. —
3) Nomen proprium verschiedener Männer.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Bṛhaspati (बृहस्पति) [Also spelled brahaspati]:—(nm) the name of the preceptor of gods according to Hindu mythology; the largest planet of the solar system- Jupiter; thursday; ~[vāra] thursday.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+19): Brihaspati acarya, Brihaspati mishra, Brihaspaticakra, Brihaspaticara, Brihaspatichakra, Brihaspatichara, Brihaspatidatta, Brihaspatigupta, Brihaspatika, Brihaspatikarana, Brihaspatila, Brihaspatimant, Brihaspatimata, Brihaspatimishra, Brihaspatipakshata, Brihaspatipranutta, Brihaspatiprasuta, Brihaspatipurana, Brihaspatipurohita, Brihaspatisamhita.
Full-text (+420): Devaguru, Barhaspatya, Suracarya, Tara, Kaca, Vacaspati, Indrabrihaspati, Vrihaspati, Barhaspata, Brihadbrihaspati, Citrashikhandija, Animishacarya, Utathya, Amaraguru, Angirasa, Guru, Budha, Brahmanaspati, Indrejya, Brihaspatiprasuta.
Search found 78 books and stories containing Brihaspati, Bṛhaspati, Brhaspati; (plurals include: Brihaspatis, Bṛhaspatis, Brhaspatis). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Garuda Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter CXV - Counsels by Shaunaka on forswearing bad wives etc. (End of the Brihaspati Samhita) < [Brihaspati (Nitisara) Samhita]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Satapatha Brahmana (by Julius Eggeling)
Kāṇḍa VIII, adhyāya 4, brāhmaṇa 3 < [Eight Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa V, adhyāya 5, brāhmaṇa 1 < [Fifth Kāṇḍa]
Kāṇḍa V, adhyāya 3, brāhmaṇa 2 < [Fifth Kāṇḍa]
The Devi Bhagavata Purana (by Swami Vijñanananda)
Chapter 11 - On the birth of Budha < [Book 1]
Chapter 8 - On Śacī’s praising the Devī < [Book 6]
Yoga Vasistha [English], Volume 1-4 (by Vihari-Lala Mitra)
Chapter CXI - Story of kacha and his enlightment by the brihaspati < [Book VI - Nirvana prakarana part 1 (nirvana prakarana)]
Chapter XLVIII - Story of dasura < [Book IV - Sthiti prakarana (sthiti prakarana)]
Chapter XIV - Story of indrani < [Book VII - Nirvana prakarana part 2 (nirvana prakarana)]