Ghosha, Ghoṣa, Ghosa, Ghoṣā: 26 definitions
Ghosha means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Ghoṣa and Ghoṣā can be transliterated into English as Ghosa or Ghosha, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Ghosh.
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Ghoṣā (घोषा).—A tapasvinī famed in Ṛgveda. She was the grand-daughter of Dṛgata maharṣi and daughter of sage Kakṣīvān. As she contracted leprosy in her very childhood nobody came forward to marry her. Ultimately she composed a mantra in praise of Aśvinīdevas. They cured Ghoṣā of leprosy and she got married. (Ṛgveda, Maṇḍala 1, Anuvāka 7, Sūkta 117).Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Ghoṣa (घोष) is the enchanting of Vedic mantras or making some other loud sound.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Ghoṣa (घोष).—A son of Pulinda and father of Vajramitra; a Śunga king; ruled for three years.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa XII. 1. 17. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 153.
1b) A son of Lambā (Langhā, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) and Dharma.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 3. 33; Matsya-purāṇa 5. 18; 203. 8. Vāyu-purāṇa 66. 33; 80. 31. Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 15. 107.
1c) A small village hamlet.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 69. 40; 70. 10. Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 40.
Ghoṣa (घोष) refers to the son of Lambā: one of the daughters of Dakṣa given to Dharma in marriage, according to one account of Vaṃśa (‘genealogical description’) of the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, Dakṣa gets married to Asikni, the daughter of Prajāpati Viraṇa and begot sixty daughters. [He gave ten daughters to Dharma in marriage] [...] The ten wives of Dharma are Sādhyā, Viśvā, Saṃkalpā, Muhūrtā, Arundhatī, Marutvatī, Vasu, Bhūnu, Lambā and Jāmī. Lambā gave birth to Ghoṣa.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Ghoṣa (घोष) refers to “voiced consonants” in Sanskrit grammar. It is a classification of consonants (vyañjana) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 15.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Vyakarana (Sanskrit grammar)Source: Wikisource: A dictionary of Sanskrit grammar
Ghoṣa (घोष).—An external effort in the pronunciation of a sonant or a soft consonant which causes depth of the tone: cf. अन्ये तु घोषाः स्युः संवृताः (anye tu ghoṣāḥ syuḥ saṃvṛtāḥ) etc., Sid. Kau. on VIII. 2. 1 .
Vyakarana (व्याकरण, vyākaraṇa) refers to Sanskrit grammar and represents one of the six additional sciences (vedanga) to be studied along with the Vedas. Vyakarana concerns itself with the rules of Sanskrit grammar and linguistic analysis in order to establish the correct context of words and sentences.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu
Ghoṣā (घोषा) is another name for Śatāhvā, an unidentified medicinal plant, according to verse 4.10-13 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The fourth chapter (śatāhvādi-varga) of this book enumerates eighty varieties of small plants (pṛthu-kṣupa). Also see the description of the plant Miśreyā. Together with the names Ghoṣā and Śatāhvā, there are a total of twenty-four Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Ghosa - The village in which Buddhaghosa was born. Sas.29.
2. Ghosa, Ghosaka - A devaputta, Kotuhalaka, in a previous birth. Unable to make a living in his own country, he left it and came with his wife and child to a herdsmans house, where, having eaten too heartily after a long period of starvation, he died and was born as a dog in the same house, because be had envied a bitch which lived there. When the dog grew up, it used to accompany the herdsman on a visit to a Pacceka Buddha, who had meals in his house. Sometimes, when the herdsman was unable to go himself, be would send the dog to summon the Pacceka Buddha. The road led through a forest and the dog would bark aloud to frighten away the wild beasts. One day, when the Pacceka Buddha went elsewhere, the dog died of a broken heart and was reborn in Tavatimsa as the god Ghosa or Ghosaka.
He was later reborn as Ghosaka setthi. DhA.i.169f; AA.i.227f; MA.i.539f; DA.i.317.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Chronological History of Buddhism
Ghosha and Purna Maitrayaniputra (1165-1080 BCE) Ghosha and Purna were the illustrious philosophers of Sarvastivada. According to Indian and Tibetan traditions, Purna was the author of Dhatukayapada, one of the seven treatises of the Abhidharma of Sarvastivada.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (jainism)
Ghosa (घोस) is a Prakrit ending for deriving proper personal names, mentioned as an example in the Aṅgavijjā chapter 26. This chapter includes general rules to follow when deriving proper names. The Aṅgavijjā (mentioning ghosa) is an ancient treatise from the 3rd century CE dealing with physiognomic readings, bodily gestures and predictions and was written by a Jain ascetic in 9000 Prakrit stanzas.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Ghoṣa (घोष) refers to a name-ending for place-names according to Pāṇini VI.2.85. Pāṇini also cautions his readers that the etymological meaning of place-names should not be held authoritative since the name should vanish when the people leave the place who gave their name to it.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
Ghoṣa.—(CII 4), a settlement of the milkmen. Note: ghoṣa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
ghosa : (m.) sound; shout; utterance.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Ghosa, (Vedic ghoṣa to ghus) 1. shout, sound, utterance Vin.II, 155 (“Buddha” —ghosa); M.I, 294; A.I, 87, 228; Sn.p. 106; Sn.696, 698; Dhs.637, 720 (+ghosa-kamma).—2. shouting, howling, wailing (of Petas) Pv III, 34; IV, 36, 338.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
ghōṣa (घोष).—m (S) A deep continuing sound;--as the roar of the ocean, the rumbling of low thunder &c. 2 Reading over and over to impress on the memory; conning. 3 Unceasing or reiterated mention or expression of a purpose or desire; dwelling upon one note or strain. v ghē, lāva, māṇḍa, lāga.
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ghōsa (घोस) [or घोंस, ghōṃsa].—m (gucch S through H) A bunch or cluster (of flowers, fruits, pearls &c.) 2 (Sea-term. P) The lower end of the sailyard; the tack on board. Hence Weather side or windward. 3 R A voyage, a sea-trip. Ex. mumbaīcyā ghōṃsāsa dāhā rupayē paḍatāta. bharaghōṃsānēṃ or bharaghōṃsāniśīṃ or bharalyā ghōṃsānēṃ (With swelling sails.) With all vigor collected, every nerve strained, every faculty exerted. Ex. bhara- ghōṃsāniśīṃ killā ghētalā; bharalyā ghōṃsānēṃ ḍōṅgarāvara caḍhalā. 4 In the zenith, plenitude, full tide (of health, prosperity, reputation). Ex. tōbhara ghōṃsānēṃ mēlā.
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ghōsa (घोस) [or घोंस, ghōṃsa].—a Large, fine, full, bulky and showy. Used much as ṭhaḷaka, ghavaghavīta &c.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
ghōṣa (घोष).—m A deep continuing sound. Read- ing over and over to impress on the memory; conning. Unceasing or reiterated mention or expression of a purpose or desire; dwelling upon one note or strain. v ghē, lāva, māṇḍa, lāga.
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ghōsa (घोस) [or ghōsa, or घोस].—m A bunch or cluster of (flowers, fruits, pearls &c.). Weather side or windward. A voyage, a sea- trip. bharaghōṃsānēṃ or bharalyā ghōṃsānēṃ (with swell- ing sails.) With all vigour collected, every nerve strained, every faculty exerted. In the zenith, plenitude, full tide (of health, prosperity, reputa- tion). Ex. tō bharaghōṃsānēṃ mēlā.
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ghōsa (घोस) [or ghōṃsa, or घोंस].—a Large, fine, full, bulky and showy.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष).—[ghuṣ-bhāve ghañ]
1) Noise, tumult, cry or sound in general; स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् (sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat) Bg.1.19; so रथ°, तूर्य°, शङ्ख° (ratha°, tūrya°, śaṅkha°) &c.
2) The thundering of clouds; स्निग्ध गम्भीरघोषम् (snigdha gambhīraghoṣam) Me.64 (v.l.).
4) Rumour, report; दुःशासुरागादिति घोष आसीत् (duḥśāsurāgāditi ghoṣa āsīt) Rv.1. 33.1.
5) A herdsman; see घोषवृद्ध (ghoṣavṛddha) below.
6) A hamlet, station of cowherds; Bhāg.5.5.3; विहार- भूमेरभिघोषमुत्सुकाः (vihāra- bhūmerabhighoṣamutsukāḥ) Ki.4.31; गङ्गायां घोषः (gaṅgāyāṃ ghoṣaḥ) K. P.2; घोषादा- नीय (ghoṣādā- nīya) Mk.7.
7) (In gram.) The soft sound heard in the articulation of the soft consonants; Rv. Pr.13.5.
8) A Kāyastha (one of the writer class).
9) A vowel.
1) A gnat, mosquito.
11) An epithet of Śiva.
12) Recitation, the sound of prayers; सदसि निबिडचैत्यब्हह्मघोषैः पुरस्तात् (sadasi nibiḍacaityabhahmaghoṣaiḥ purastāt) Mk.1.12.
13) An ornament that makes a tinkling sound. घोषप्रघोषरुचिरम् (ghoṣapraghoṣaruciram) Bhāg.1.8.22.
Derivable forms: ghoṣaḥ (घोषः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष).—m. (Sanskrit sound, noise, roar; in this sense nt. in Mahāvastu i.229.16 = 240.5 = 333.7 ghoṣam, n. sg.), pro- clamation: ghoṣam anuśrāvayati (q.v.) Saddharmapuṇḍarīka 123.1; Lalitavistara 266.1; Samādhirājasūtra 8.10; Śikṣāsamuccaya 38.1; or udīrayati Lalitavistara 401.2; Mahāvastu i.40.11.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ṣaḥ) 1. A station of herdsmen. 2. A herdsman. 3. A creeping plant, commonly called by the same name G'hosha, and bearing white or yellow flowers, (Luffa pentandra and acutangula.) 4. Bellmetal, tutenague, &c. 5. Low thunder or the muttering of clouds. 6. Sound. 7. A proclamation. 8. A gnat, a musqui to 9. A term proper for the name of a Kayastha. f.
(-ṣā) A kind of fennel, (Anethum sowa:) see madhurikā. E. ghuṣi to shine, to sound, &c. affix. ādhāre ghañ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष).—i. e. ghuṣ + a, m. 1. Sound, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 7, 225; roar, [Rāmāyaṇa] 2, 66, 10; language, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 52, 20. 2. A station of herdsmen, Mahābhārata 2, 215. 3. A name of Śiva, Mahābhārata 12, 10386.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष).—[masculine] noise, tumult, cry, sound, rumour, report, proclamation; a station of herdsmen.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Ghoṣa (घोष):—[from ghuṣ] a m. indistinct noise, tumult, confused cries of a multitude, battle-cry, cries of victory, cries of woe or distress, any cry or sound, roar of animals, [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.
2) [v.s. ...] the sound of a drum, of a conch-shell, of the Soma stones, of a carriage, etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda] etc.
3) [v.s. ...] the whizzing or whir of a bow-string ([Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa ii]), crackling of fire ([Mahābhārata ix, 1334]), singing in the ear ([Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa xiv])
4) [v.s. ...] the roaring of a storm, of thunder, of water, etc., [Ṛg-veda; Atharva-veda; Suśruta; Meghadūta]
5) [v.s. ...] the sound of the recital of prayers, [Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa; Mṛcchakaṭikā x, 12]
6) [v.s. ...] the sound of words spoken at a distance, [Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa ix]
7) [v.s. ...] rumour, report (also personified, [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra [Scholiast or Commentator]]), [Ṛg-veda x, 33, 1]
8) [v.s. ...] a proclamation, [Saddharma-puṇḍarīka iv]
9) [v.s. ...] a sound (of speech), [Chāndogya-upaniṣad; Suśruta]
10) [v.s. ...] the soft sound heard in the articulation of the sonant consonants (g, gh, j, jh, ḍ, ḍh, d, dh, b, bh, ṅ, ñ, ṇ, n, m, y, r, l, v, h), the vowels, and Anusvāra which with the Yamas of the first 10 of the soft consonants make up altogether 40 sounds (cf. a-gh), [Ṛgveda-prātiśākhya xiii, 5 f.; Atharvaveda-prātiśākhya [Scholiast or Commentator]; Pāṇini 1-1, 9 [Scholiast or Commentator]]
11) [v.s. ...] an ornament that makes a tinkling sound, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa x, 8, 22]
12) [v.s. ...] a station of herdsmen, [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (ifc. cf. [Pāṇini 6-2, 85])
13) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) the inhabitants of a station of herdsmen, [Mahābhārata iv, 1152]
14) [v.s. ...] a particular form of a temple, [Hemādri’s Caturvarga-cintāmaṇi ii, 1, 389]
15) [v.s. ...] a musquito, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
16) [v.s. ...] Luffa foetida or a similar plant, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
17) [v.s. ...] Name of Śiva, [Mahābhārata xii, 10386]
18) [v.s. ...] Name of a man ([Sāyaṇa]), [Ṛg-veda i, 120, 5]
19) [v.s. ...] of an Asura, [Kāṭhaka xxv, 8]
20) [v.s. ...] of a prince of the Kāṇva dynasty, [Bhāgavata-purāṇa xii, 1, 16]
21) [v.s. ...] of a son of Dakṣa’s daughter Lambā, [Harivaṃśa 148 and 12480]
22) [v.s. ...] of an Arhat, [Buddhist literature]
23) [v.s. ...] a common Name for a Kāya-stha or one of the writer caste, [Horace H. Wilson]
24) [v.s. ...] m. [plural] ([gana] dhūmādi) Name of a people or country, [Varāha-mihira’s Bṛhat-saṃhitā xiv, 2]
25) [v.s. ...] mn. brass, bell-metal, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
26) Ghoṣā (घोषा):—[from ghoṣa > ghuṣ] f. Anethum Sowa, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
27) [v.s. ...] = karkaṭa-śṛṅgī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
28) [v.s. ...] Name of a daughter of Kakṣīvat, [Ṛg-veda i, 117, 7; 122, 5] (? [imperative] √ghuṣ), [; x, 40, 5] (cf. ātma-, indra-, uccair-, etc.)
29) Ghoṣa (घोष):—b ṣaka, etc. See √1. ghuṣ.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष):—(ṣaḥ) 1. m. A station of herdsmen; a herdsman; a creeper; bell-metal; low thunder; a proclamation; a term applied to kāyasthas; a gnāt. (ṣā) f. Fennel.
[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
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1) a) [Z. 2] vom Ende füge nach Stimme hinzu [Prātiśākhya zum Ṛgveda 13, 5. 6.] [Scholiast] zu [Prātiśākha zum Atharvaveda S. 261 (I, 3. 4).] — f) ein Asura [Kāṭhaka-Recension 25, 8.] ein Fürst [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 12, 1, 16.] — h) ein lärmmachender Schmuck: praghoṣa [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 10, 8, 22.] ghoṣāḥ kaṭipādabhūṣaṇakiṅkiṇyaḥ Comm.
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1) a) ardho ghaṭo ghoṣamupaiti samyak ein halbvoller Krug bullert ganz gehörig [Spr. (II) 6882.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung
1) m. — a) Lärm , Geschrei , Kampf- , Sieges- , Wehgeschrei ; Gebrülle (von Thieren) ; Getöse , Gerassel , Geräusch , Geschwirr ; dumpfes , fernes Reden , das Getön (hergesprochener Gebete u.s.w.). — b) Gerücht , rumor. (Auch personificirt [Indische studien von Weber 13,285.] — c) Bekanntmachung , Verkündigung. — d) Laut. — e) in der Grammatik die bei der Aussprache der tönenden Laute gehörte Stimme. — f) ein tönender Schmuck. — g) Hirtenstation , die Bewohner einer — — h) *Hirt. — i) eine best. Tempelform [Hemādri’s Caturvargacintāmaṇi 2,38,10.] — k) *Mücke. — l) *Luffa foetida oder eine ähnliche Pflanze. — m) Beiname Śiva's. — n) Nomen proprium — α) verschiedener Männer. — β) Pl. eines Volkes. — γ) eines Asura. —
2) *m. n. Messing [Rājan 13,32.] —
3) f. ghoṣā — a) *Anethum Sowa. — b) *Galläpfel auf Rhus [Rājan 6,158.] — c) Nomen proprium einer Frau.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Hindi dictionarySource: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary
Ghoṣa (घोष) [Also spelled ghosh]:—(v) voiced; (nm) sound; voiced sound; a habitation.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+15): Ghosaka, Ghosana, Ghosavant, Ghoshabuddha, Ghoshad, Ghoshadatta, Ghoshadi, Ghoshakakriti, Ghoshakoti, Ghoshakrishtratamra, Ghoshakrit, Ghoshalata, Ghoshamati, Ghoshanana, Ghoshanasthana, Ghoshanatantra, Ghoshaniya, Ghoshanuga, Ghoshapada siddhacarya, Ghoshapravesha.
Ends with (+146): Abharanachattranirghosha, Abharanachhattranirghosha, Abhayaghosha, Abhighosha, Abhinirghosha, Aghosha, Analpaghosha, Anantaghosha, Aryaghosha, Ashanighosha, Ashaninirghosha, Ashvaghosha, Atmaghosha, Avaghosha, Avivartyadharmadhatunirghosha, Babu shivanarayanaghosha, Bhadanta ashvaghosha, Bhimaghosha, Bhishmottaranirghosha, Brahmaghosha.
Full-text (+197): Pitaghosha, Mahajali, Madhughosha, Ghausheya, Nitighosha, Karkotaki, Hastighosha, Sughosha, Nirghosha, Varshaghosha, Mahaghosha, Ghosadara, Analpaghosha, Jayaghosha, Kshveda, Shvetapushpa, Ghosaka, Samghosha, Manjughosha, Ghoshavati.
Search found 42 books and stories containing Ghosha, Ghōṣa, Ghoṣa, Ghosa, Ghōsa, Ghoṣā; (plurals include: Ghoshas, Ghōṣas, Ghoṣas, Ghosas, Ghōsas, Ghoṣās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
II. Gates of concentration (samādhi-mukha) < [Part 4 - Obtaining the gates of recollection and concentration]
Appendix 3 - The forty-two letters of the Arapacana alphabet < [Chapter XLIII - The Pursuit of the Six superknowledges]
Preliminary note on the ten concepts (daśa-saṃjñā) < [Chapter XXXVII - The Ten Concepts]
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 4: Iatrochemistry (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)
Part 3 - Copper extracted from Bell-metal < [Chapter XXXIV - Paribhasa (definitions)]
Part 2 - Purification of tin < [Chapter VI - Metals (6): Vanga (tin)]
Part 6 - Process of preparing Sarva-kshara < [Chapter XXVIII - Kshara (akalis)]
Vedic influence on the Sun-worship in the Puranas (by Goswami Mitali)
Part 7 - Sūrya (the Supreme Reality) < [Chapter 2 - Salient Traits of the Solar Divinities in the Veda]