Shurasena, Śūrasena, Sūrasena, Surasena, Shura-sena, Sura-sena: 23 definitions
Shurasena means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Śūrasena can be transliterated into English as Surasena or Shurasena, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—The father of Vasudeva and Pāthā.Source: Pure Bhakti: Brhad Bhagavatamrtam
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) refers to:—A king born in the Vṛṣṇi dynasty. His son Vasudeva was Kṛṣṇa’s father and his daughter Pṛthā was Arjuna’s mother. (cf. Glossary page from Śrī Bṛhad-bhāgavatāmṛta).
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—A King of Yaduvaṃśa. General. Śūrasena’s kingdom was Mathurāpurī. This country was originally ruled by Kings of the Solar dynasty. Devī Bhāgavata, 4th Skandha explains how the Yādava Kings came to rule over Mathurā.
There was a region called Madhuvanam in the Kālindī river valley. Madhu, the Asura, who lived in Madhuvana had a son named Lavaṇa. Lavaṇa who was a tyrant and an oppressor of the gods, was killed by Śatrughna who established his rule there. In course of time, the place came to be known as "Madhurā". After Śatrughna’s time his two sons ruled over the country. Thus the Solar dynasty came to an end and Mathurā purī came under the rule of Yadus. The first King of Yaduvaṃśa was Śūrasena. Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa was the son of this Śūrasena. After the death of his father, since Vasudeva took up the occupation of tending cows, Ugrasena became King there. Kaṃsa was the son of this Ugrasena. Other details.
(i) Śūrasena’s daughter Kuntī was adopted and brought up by the king named Kuntibhoja. (Mahābhārata Ādi Parva, Refer Chapters 67, 109 and 110).
(ii) Devamīḍha, father of Śūrasena had another name, "Citraratha". (Mahābhārata Anuśāsana Parva, Chapter 147, Verse 29). (See full article at Story of Śūrasena from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—A son of Kārttavīrya. In Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, Chapter 86, it is mentioned that this Śūrasena killed Jamadagni. (See under Śūra II)
3) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—"Śūrasena was the old name for the region now known as Mathurāmaṇḍala or Vrajamaṇḍala. The natives of this place were called "Śūrasenas". The following pieces of information are given about the Śūrasenas in the Mahābhārata:—
(i) The Śūrasenas who were afraid of Jarāsandha, fled to the southern lands. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 14, Verse 26).
(ii) In the course of his southern campaign, Sahadeva conquered the Śūrasenas. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 31, Verse 1).
(iii) The Śūrasenas offered presents at Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya. (Mahābhārata Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Verse 13).
(iv) It was between the two countries, South Yakṛllomam and Śūrasenam that the Pāṇḍavas travelled from the land of Pāñcāla to Matsyadeśa. (Mahābhārata Virāṭa Parva Chapter 5, Verse 4).
(v) Śūrasenas were the body-guards of Bhīṣma during the Bhārata Yuddha. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 18, Verse 12).
(vi) The Śūrasena forces once stopped Arjuna on the way. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 91, Verse 37).
(vii) Śūrasena attacked Arjuna and Sātyaki in Bhārata battle. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 141, Verse 9).
(viii) Yudhiṣṭhira soaked the earth with blood by killing the Śūrasenas at Kurukṣetra. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva Chapter 157, Verse 29).
(ix) Bhīmasena butchered the Kṣatriyas of Śūrasena by hundreds. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 169, Verse 4).
(x) Kṛpācārya, Kṛtavarmā and Śakuni from the Pāṇḍava side fought against the Śūrasenas. (Mahābhārata Karṇa Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 16).
4) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—A king who fought against the Pāṇḍavas from the Kaurava side in the Bhārata Yuddha. He stood by Duryodhana in the "Krauñcavyūha" formed by Bhīṣma. (Mahābhārata Bhīṣma Parva, Chapter 75 Verse 18).
5) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—A king of the Somavaṃśa of Pratiṣṭhānapura. Śūrasena, who was childless, tried to propitiate the gods in many ways to obtain a son. In the end he got a son in the form of a serpent. But to keep it a secret, he performed the usual ceremonies connected with his son’s Upanayana, marriage etc. in the usual manner. At last by the mercy of Gautamīdevī Śūrasena’s son obtained human form. (Brahmāṇḍa Purāṇa, 111).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Śūrasena (शूरसेन).——(c)—the kingdom of Citraketu.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa VI. 14. 10; XI. 30. 18.
1b) A son of Arjuna (Kārtavīrya); a mahāratha.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 27; Matsya-purāṇa 43. 46; Vāyu-purāṇa 94. 49. 99. 325; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 11. 21.
1c) The Lord of the Yadus and overlord of Māthuras and Śūrasenas.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 1. 27.
1d) A son of Śatrughna: capital Mathurā.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 187; Vāyu-purāṇa 88. 186; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 4. 104.
1e) The people of Śūrasena territory. Fought with their kinsmen and ended their lives;1 a kingdom of madhyadeśa;2 the tribe with Śūra as their chief: Pañcarathas: honoured Sagara and were killed by Paraśurāma;3 kings of the line, 17 in number.4
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 34; 15. 39; IX. 24. 63; XI. 30. 18; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 110.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 41; III. 74; 138.
- 3) Ib. III. 45. 1; 46. 17; 49. 5; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 35.
- 4) Ib. 272. 17.
2) Surasena (सुरसेन).—A son of Karṇa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 112.
3) Sūrasena (सूरसेन).—Praised the heroic exploits of Hari.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 63.
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.28.2, IV.1.9, IV.5.4, V.53.17, VI.10.38, VI.18.12, VI.47.7, VI.112.109, VIII.4.36, VIII.30.73) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Śūrasena) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
Śūrasena is also mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.13.25, II.28.2, VI.47.7, VI.52.7) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places.Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study
1) Surasena (सुरसेन) refers to an ancient country where dharma is practiced, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—It regards Madhyadeśa i.e. the tract of land between the rivers Gaṅgā and the Yamunā, as the birth place of Sadācāra. It looks upon Kurukṣetra, Matsya, Pāñcāla and Surasena as holy countries where Dharma is practiced.
2) Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is one of the hundred sons sons of Kārtavīrya and the grandson of Kṛtavīrya, according to the Vaṃśānucarita section of the Saurapurāṇa.—Accordingly, [...] Dhanaka was the son of Dharmanetra and his son was Kṛtavīrya, who had three sons—Kārtavīrya, Kṛtāgni and Kṛtavarman. Of these three, Kārtavīrya had hundred sons, amongst whom only five were very famous. They were Śūrasena and others. They worshipped Mahādeva and received boons from The Lord.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name of a country pertaining to the Pāñcālī (Pāñcālamadhyamā) local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the grand style (sāttvatī) and the violent style (ārabhaṭī).
The Śūrasenas are usually to be represented by a dark or deep blue (śyāma) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The word can also be spelled like Śaurasena. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
1) Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name of a King whose capital is Mathurā, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 10.
2) Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name of an ancient king according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 34. Accordingly, “in old time a king named Śūrasena, who relied implicitly upon his servants, was enslaved and plundered by his ministers, who had formed a coalition”.
3) Surasena (सुरसेन) is the name of an ancient king from Surapura according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 56. Accordingly, as Nārāyaṇī narrated to a group of divine mothers (mātṛcakra) in presence of Candrasvāmin, who was listening from a tree: “... although this story makes me feel shame, still, friends, I will tell it. There is here, in the city of Surapura, a king named Surasena. He has a daughter renowned for beauty, named Vidyādharī.
4) Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is one of the two sons of king Pratāpasena, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 66. Accordingly as a prince said to Hemaprabhā: “... and that merciful god appeared to him [Pratāpasena], and said: ‘Thou shalt obtain one son, who shall be an incarnation of a Vidyādhara, and he, when his curse is at an end, shall return to his own world. And thou shalt have a second son, who shall continue thy race and uphold thy realm.’ When Śiva said this to him, he rose up in high spirits, and took food. Then he had one son born to him named Lakṣmīsena, and in course of time a second named Śūrasena”.
5) Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name of a Rājput from Śrāvastī, as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 111. Accordingly, as Gomukha said to Naravāhanadatta: “... in that town there dwelt a Rājput, who was in the service of the monarch, and lived on the proceeds of a village. His name was Śūrasena, and he had a wife named Suṣeṇā, who was a native of Mālava. She was in every respect well suited to him, and he loved her more than life”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Śūrasena, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—It is one of the countries in north India and mentions the king Kuvinda once ruled over Śūrasena, according to Rājaśekhara. Mathurā or Muthrā was the capital of the kingdom of Śūrasenas.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) [=Śūrasena?] refers to a country belonging to “Madhyadeśa (central division)” classified under the constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Kṛttikā, Rohiṇī and Mṛgaśīrṣa represent the Madhyadeśa or central division consisting of the countries of [i.e., Śūrasena] [...]”.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (both types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Śūrasena] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1) Surasena. One of the sixteen Mahajanapada (q.v.). It is mentioned with Maccha, and was located in the south of the Kuru country. Its capital was Mathura. It is famous in the Epics and the Puranas because of its connection with Krsna, and the Yadavas.
2) Surasena. A city in the time of Siddhattha Buddha, where the Bodhisatta was born as the brahmin Mangala. BuA.187.
3) Another name for Dhananjaya Korabba. J.vi.280, 281.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: archive.org: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) [?] is the name of a Yakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Cīnasthāna, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Yakṣa Śūrasena in Cīnasthāna], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) (distinguished by the city Apāpā) refers to one of the 25½ countries of the Kṣetrāryas, situated in the “middle world” (madhyaloka), according to chapter 2.3 [ajitanātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
Accordingly:—“In these 35 zones on this side of Mānuṣottara and in the Antaradvīpas, men arise by birth; [...]. From the division into Āryas and Mlecchas they are two-fold. The Āryas have sub-divisions [e.g., kṣetra (country)]. [...] The kṣetrāryas are born in the 15 Karmabhumis. Here in Bharata they have 25½ places of origin (e.g., Śūrasena), distinguishable by cities (e.g., Apāpā) in which the birth of Tīrthakṛts, Cakrabhṛts, Kṛṣṇas, and Balas takes place”.Source: archive.org: The Jaina Iconography
Śūrasena (शूरसेन) (or Sūrya, Śivarāja) is the father of Kunthanātha: the seventeenth of twenty-four Tīrthaṃkaras or Jinas, commonly depicted in Jaina iconography.—Kunthanātha’s parent’s names, as may be gathered from the Jaina Purāṇas, are variously called Śūrasena, Sūrya, Śivarāja (Śvetāmbara version) for the father, Śrīkāntā or Śrīdevī for the mother. His father belonged to the Kuru race, and Hastināpura as his capital, where the Jina was born. He, like his predecessor, became an emperor.Source: HereNow4u: Lord Śrī Mahāvīra
Sūrasena (सूरसेन) is the name of a village visited by Mahāvīra during his 24th Year as Kevalī.—Leaving Sāketa the Lord went to Kampilapura in Pāñcāla region. From there, wandering through Sūrasena, Mathurā, Nandīpura, etc, he came to Videha and spent the rainy season in Mithilā.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geographySource: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Sūrasena (सूरसेन) refers to one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the Aṅguttara Nikāya, the Sūrasena country is mentioned as one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas. The country had its capital at Madhurā or Mathurā, which like Kausāmbī stood on the river Yamunā. The ancient Greek writers refer to the Sūrasena country as Sourasenoi and its capital as Methora. When Megasthenes wrote about the Sūrasenas, Mathurā must have formed a part of the Maurya Empire. During the Kushana supremacy, Mathurā again became important as a centre of Buddhist religion and culture. Numerous dated and undated images of Buddhas and Bodhisattwas as well as inscriptions have been unearthed here.
The Buddhist texts refer to Avantiputta, King of the Sūrasenas, in the time of Mahākaccāna who was the first among the chief disciples of Śākyamuni through whose agency Buddhism gained ground in the Mathurā region. In one of the Jātakas we are told that the Sūrasenas along with the Pañcālas, Matsyas and Maddas witnessed a dice-play between Dhanañjaya Korabba and Puṇṇaka Yakkha. The country had its capital at Madhurā or Mathurā, which like Kausāmbī stood on the river Yamunā.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—m. pl. Name of the country about Mathurā or the inhabitants of that country; सा शूरसेनाधिपतिं सुषेणम् (sā śūrasenādhipatiṃ suṣeṇam) (uddīśya) R.6.45.
Derivable forms: śūrasenaḥ (शूरसेनः).
Śūrasena is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms śūra and sena (सेन).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ) 1. The country about Mathura. 2. The name of a prince. E. śūra a hero, senā an army.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śūrasena (शूरसेन).—[masculine] [plural] [Name] of a people; sgl. the country or a prince ([feminine] ī princess) of the [Causative]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Śūrasena (शूरसेन):—[=śūra-sena] [from śūra > sūr] m. Name of the country about Mathurā, [Pañcarātra]
2) [v.s. ...] a king of Mathurā (and ruler of the Yadus, applied to Viṣṇu and Ugra-sena), [Mahābhārata; Harivaṃśa]
3) [v.s. ...] Name of a son of Kārtavīrya, [Harivaṃśa]
4) [v.s. ...] of a son of Śatru-ghna, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
5) [v.s. ...] of various other men, [Kathāsaritsāgara]
6) [v.s. ...] [plural] Name of the people inhabiting the above country (also naka and na-ja), [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
7) Śūrasenā (शूरसेना):—[=śūra-senā] [from śūra-sena > śūra > sūr] f. Name of the city of Mathurā, [Rāmāyaṇa]
8) Sūrasena (सूरसेन):—[=sūra-sena] [from sūra > sūr] m. [plural] Name of a people ([probably] [wrong reading] for śūra-s), [Atharva-veda.Pariś.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Śūrasena (शूरसेन):—[śūra-sena] (naḥ) 1. m. The country about Mathurā; name of a prince.
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Full-text (+91): Shaurasena, Mathura, Shuraseni, Kunti, Surasanadesha, Shurasenaka, Citraketu, Madhura, Shurasenaja, Shauri, Jayadhvaja, Kulabhata, Shaurasenya, Vaidehya, Matsya, Pancala, Mahajanapada, Brahmarshidesha, Shivaraja, Devamidha.
Search found 42 books and stories containing Shurasena, Śūrasena, Sūrasena, Surasena, Shura-sena, Sura-sena, Śūra-sena, Śūrasenā, Śūra-senā, Sūra-sena, Surasenā; (plurals include: Shurasenas, Śūrasenas, Sūrasenas, Surasenas, senas, Śūrasenās, senās, Surasenās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Harivamsha Purana (by Manmatha Nath Dutt)
Chapter 34 - Jarasandha Prepares to Attack Mathura < [Book 2 - Vishnu Parva]
Chapter 33 - An Account of Haihayas and Kartavirya < [Book 1 - Harivamsa Parva]
Chapter 102 - Narada Describes the Feat of Krishna < [Book 2 - Vishnu Parva]
Parama Samhita (English translation) (by Krishnaswami Aiyangar)
Garga Samhita (English) (by Danavir Goswami)
Verse 1.10.23 < [Chapter 10 - Description of the Birth of Lord Balarāma]
Verse 5.14.9 < [Chapter 14 - The Meeting of King Nanda and Uddhava]
Verse 8.13.114 < [Chapter 13 - A Thousand Names of Lord Balarāma]
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
Rasa Jala Nidhi, vol 3: Metals, Gems and other substances (by Bhudeb Mookerjee)