Kalinga, aka: Kāliṅga, Kaliṅga; 16 Definition(s)
Kalinga means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Ayurveda (science of life)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग):—A Sanskrit word referring to the “Kurchi” plant and is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā. Its official botanical name is Holarrhena antidysenterica and is commonly referred to in English as the “coral swirl”, “tellincherry bark” or “white angel”Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
1) Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग).—Ṛtāyu, King of Kaliṅga was present at the svayaṃvara of Draupadī. (Śloka 13, Chapter 185 Ādi Parva). Rukmī played a game of dice with Balabhadra with the help of Kaliṅga (for details see under Rukmī). The sage Dīrghatamas begot a son of the wife of the aged and senile Kaliṅga and the boy was named Kakṣīvān (Sūkta 125, Anuvāka 18, Maṇḍala 1, Ṛgveda). (See full article at Story of Kaliṅga from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग).—A warrior of the god Skandha. (Mahābhārata Śalya Parva, Chapter 45, Verse 64).
3) Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग).—A Daitya who lived in Kṛtayuga. In Skanda Purāṇa there is a story that he conquered heaven, drove away the Dikpālakas, posted his own forces in their place and was finally killed by Devī.
4) Kāliṅga (कालिङ्ग).—Śrutāyus, King of Kaliṅga, and a member of Yudhiṣṭhira’s assembly. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 4).
5) Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग).—(M) (kāliṅga) An ancient place in the south of Bhārata. Other details.
Arjuna visited this place while he was on a pilgrimage. (Śloka 9, Chapter 214, Ādi Parva).
Kaliṅga was also included in the countries conquered by Sahadeva while he was on his victory march. (Chapter 31, Sabhā Parva).
People from Kaliṅga presented Yudhiṣṭhira with gifts for the Rājasūya. (Śloka 18, Chapter 52. Sabhā Parva).
Yudhiṣṭhira visited Kaliṅga while he was on a pilgrimage. (Śloka 4, Chapter 114, Vana Parva).
Karṇa conquered Kaliṅga while he was on a victory march. (Śloka 8, Chapter 254, Vana Parva).
Sahadeva defeated the King of Kaliṅga. (Śloka 24, Chapter 23, Udyoga Parva).
Śrī Kṛṣṇa slaughtered the people of Kaliṅga. (Śloka 76, Chapter 48, Udyoga Parva).
The people of Kaliṅga took part in the war between the Pāṇḍavas and Kauravas. (Śloka 6, Chapter 20, Droṇa Parva).
Paraśurāma conquered this place. (Śloka 12, Chapter 70, Dṛoṇa Parva).Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 28 & 87; Matsya-purāṇa 48. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 28; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 18. 13-14.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 50. 17; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 19. 18.
1b) (Mt.) a hill on the south of the Mānasa.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 36. 22; 42. 28.
1c) A southern kingdom of madhyadeśa unfit for śrāddha; a Janapada of the Dakṣiṇāpatha. Its king was stationed by Jarāsandha on the east gate of Mathurā, and on the same direction during the siege of Gomanta;1 present at Pradyumna's marriage. Advised Rukmin to vanquish Balarāma in dice, and laughed at the latter when he was defeated. His teeth were broken by Rāma.2 Its 32 kings.3 On its south flows the Narmadā where the hill Amarakaṇṭaka is.4 In the kṛtayuga, the first man appeared in this country5 under Guhas.6
- 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 42 & 57; III. 13. 13; 14. 33 & 80; 74. 198 & 213; Matsya-purāṇa 163. 72; Vāyu-purāṇa 77. 13; 78. 23; 99. 324, 386, 402.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 50. 11; 52. 11; 61. 27-29; 32 & 37; IV. 5. 21; Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 28. 10, 15, 24.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 272. 16.
- 4) Matsya-purāṇa 186. 12.
- 5) Vāyu-purāṇa 58. 110.
- 6) Viṣṇu-purāṇa III. 7. 36.
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 5; X. [50 (V) 3]; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 36 and 47; Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 125.
- 2) Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 125; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 3. 16.
2) Kāliṅga (कालिङ्ग).—The king of, present at the marriage of Anīruddha and advised Rukmin to invite Rāma for dice. Laughed aloud when Rāma failed, and supported Rukmin playing falsely. His teeth pulled out by Rāma.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 61. 27-37.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Śilparatna (32.6), the Mayamata (18.10), the Kamikāgama (57.8) and the Īśānaśiva (32-70).Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is the name of a country situated within the Dākṣiṇāpatha (Deccan) region. Countries within this region pertain to the Dākṣinātyā local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned this region lies between the Southern Ocean and the Vindhya mountains.
The Kaliṅgas are usually to be represented by a dark or deep blue (śyāma) color when painting the limbs (aṅgaracanā), according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. The painting is a component of nepathya (costumes and make-up) and is to be done in accordance with the science of āhāryābhinaya (extraneous representation).Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Katha (narrative stories)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is the name of a kingdom that was conquered by Udayana (king of Vatsa) during his campaign to obtain sovereignty over the whole earth, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 19. Accordingly, “Then the people of Kaliṅga submitted and paid tribute, and acted as the king’s guides, so that the renown of that renowned one ascended the mountain of Mahendra”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kaliṅga, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is usually described as extending from Orissa to Drāviḍa or below Madras, the coast of the Northern Circars. It appears, however, to be sometimes the Delta of the Ganges. It was known to the ancients as Regio Caliṅgarum, and is familiar to the natives of the Eastern Archipelago by the name of Kling (Wilson).Source: archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is the name of a Śāktapīṭha mentioned in the Kulārṇavatantra. The Kulārṇava-tantra is an important 11th century work for the Kaula school of Śāktism. It refers to eighteen such Śākta-pīṭhas (eg. Kaliṅga) which is defined as a sacred sanctuary of Devī located here on earth. According to legend, there are in total fifty-one such sanctuaries (pīṭha) on earth, created from the corresponding parts of Devī’s body,Source: Wisdom Library: Śāktism
Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—The northern Circārs, a place lying between Orissa in the north and Andhra in the south on bordering on the sea. In the Kāvyamīmāṃsā described this place amongst the countries situated in the southern and the eastern India.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.60) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kaliṅga) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Kalinga, Kalinga - An inhabitant of Natika. While staying in Natika, at the Ginjakavasatha, the Buddha tells Ananda that Kalinga was reborn after death in the Suddhavasa, and that there he would attain to nibbana. D.ii.92; S.v.358f
2. Kalinga - A country: the Kalingarattha. It is one of the seven political divisions mentioned in the time of the mythical king Renu and is given first in the list, its capital being Dantapura and its king Sattabhu. (D.ii.235f; see also Mtu.iii.208; the Mtu. also mentions a king Uggata of Dantapura, iii.364f).
It is not, however, included in the list of sixteen Janapadas appearing in the Anguttara Nikaya (A.i.213, etc.), but is found in the extended list of the Niddesa (CNid.ii.37). A later tradition (Bu.xviii.6) states that after the Buddhas death, a Tooth was taken from among his relics and placed at Kalinga, where it was worshipped. From Kalinga the Tooth was brought to Ceylon, in the time of King Sirimeghavanna, by Hemamala, daughter of Guhasiva, king of Kalinga, and her husband Dantakumara, a prince of the Ujjeni royal family. In Ceylon the Tooth became the Palladium of the Sinhalese kings. (Cv.xxxvii.92; see also Cv.Trs.i.7, n.4; the Dathadhatuvamsa gives details, J.P.T.S.1884, pp.108ff).
The Jatakas contain various references to Kalinga. There was once a great drought in Dantapura, and the king, acting on the advice of his ministers, sent brahmins to the king of Kuru to beg the loan of his state elephant, Anjanavasabha, credited with the power of producing rain. On this occasion, however, the elephant failed and the Kalinga king, hearing of the virtues practised by the king and people of Dantapura, offered them himself, upon which rain fell. See the Kurudhamma Jataka, J.ii.367ff, also DhA.iv.88f. A similar story is related in the Vessantara Jataka, vi.487, where the Kalinga brahmins ask for and obtain Vessantaras white elephant that he may stay the drought in Kalinga.
Another king of Kalinga was a contemporary of Aruna, the Assaka king of Potali. The Kalinga king, in his eagerness for a fight, picked a quarrel with Aruna, but was worsted in battle, and had to surrender his four daughters with their dowries to Aruna (J.iii.3f).
The Kalingabodhi Jataka relates the story of another ruler of Kalinga while, according to the Sarabhanga Jataka, a certain king of Kalinga (J.v.135f) went with two other kings, Atthaka and Bhimaratta, to ask Sarabhanga questions referring to the fate of Dandaki. There they heard the sage preach, and all three kings became ascetics. Another king of Kalinga was Nalikira, who, having ill treated a holy man, was swallowed up in the Sunakha niraya, while his country was laid waste by the gods and turned into a wilderness (Kalingaranna). The Kalinga aranna is referred to in the Upali Sutta (M.i.378);Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) is the name of a sacred site (pīṭha) presided over by Śyāmā (or Śyāmādevī), according to the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala. Śyāmādevī is a deity situated in one of the six petals of the western lotus, of which the presiding deity is kuleśvarī (presiding lady) named Tārā. The central deity of the vārāhyabhyudaya-maṇḍala is the twelve-armed Vajravarāhī.
Kaliṅga is one of the twenty-four pīṭhas, or ‘sacred-site’ (six lotuses each having six petals), each corresponding with a part of the human body. Kaliṅga is to be contemplated as situated in the mouth. Besides being associated with a bodily spot, each pīṭha represents an actual place of ancient India frequented particularly by advanced tantric practitioners
The Vārāhyabhyudayatantra is an explanatory tantra on the Laghuśaṃvara, but its verses are largerly extracted from the 10th century Abhidhānottaratantra, a scriputre describing various sādhanas (path towards spiritual realization).Source: Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geogprahy
Kalinga was an ancient kingdom of Eastern India. Duryodhana eloped with the daughter of Kalinga king Chitrangada of Rajapura and married her. Kalinga King Shrutāyudha or Shrutāyush (probably, from the city of Dantapura) participated in the Mahabharata war in support of Kauravas but got killed by Bhima. Kalinga was only a Janapada during Mahabharata period, probably, part of Ashmaka Mahajanapada. It appears that Kalinga became Mahajanapada around 2000 BCE because early Buddhist texts mention Kalinga as Mahajanapada.Source: academia.edu: The Date of Kharavela, a Great King of Kalinga
Kaliṅga (कलिङ्ग) or Kaliṅgaraṭṭha is the name of a locality situated in Dakkhiṇāpatha (Deccan) or “southern district” of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—The inscriptions of Asoka tell us that Asoka in the 13th year of his reign conquered the kindom of Kaliṅga and incorporated in into his own empire. From the Kaliṅga Edict I, it appears that a Kumāra was in charge of Kaliṅga with his headquarters at Tosali (Tosala) or Samāpa. According to the Mahābhārata the ancient Kaliṅga country seems to have comprised modern Orissa to the south of the Vaitaraṇī and the sea coast southward as far as Vizagapatam and its capital was Rājapura (Śāntiparva, IV).
The Hāthigumphā inscription clearly shows that the capital of Kaliṅga during the reign of Khāravela was Kaliṅganagara which has been satisfactorily identified with Mukhalingaṃ on the Vaṃśadharā and the adjacent ruins in Ganjam district, Madras Presidency. According to the Mahāvastu Dantapura which is mentioned by Yuan Chwang as a city of the Kaliṅga country was a capital city. Evidently it was the capital of the Kaliṅga kingdom (according to Mahāvastu), and existed ages before the Buddha.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
kāliṅga : (m.) name of a country in East India.Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
-gāḥ (pl.) Name of a country and its inhabitants; (a district on the Coromandel coast); नो खण्डिकाञ्जगाम नो कलिङ्गाञ्जगाम (no khaṇḍikāñjagāma no kaliṅgāñjagāma) Mbh. on P.III.2.115. उत्कलादर्शितपथः कलिङ्गाभिमुखो ययौ (utkalādarśitapathaḥ kaliṅgābhimukho yayau) R.4. 38; (its position is thus described in Tantras :-- jagannāthātsamārabhya kṛṣṇātīrāntagaḥ priye | kaliṅgadeśaḥ saṃprokto vāma- mārgaparāyaṇaḥ ||).
-ṅgaḥ 1 The fork-tailed shrike.
2) Name of several plants; (as śirīṣa, plakṣa &c.)
-ṅgā A beautiful woman.
-ṅgam Indra grain (indrayava).
--- OR ---
Kāliṅga (कालिङ्ग).—a. (-ṅgī f.) [कलिङ्ग-अण् (kaliṅga-aṇ)] Produced in, or belonging to, the Kaliṅga country.
-ṅgaḥ 1 A king of that country; प्रतिजग्राह कालिङ्गस्तमस्त्रैर्गजसाधनः (pratijagrāha kāliṅgastamastrairgajasādhanaḥ) R.4.4.
2) A snake of that country.
3) An elephant.
4) A species of cucumber.
5) A poisonous plant.
6) A sort of iron.
-ṅgāḥ (pl.) Name of a country; see कलिङ्ग (kaliṅga).
-ṅgam A water-melon.Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Kaliṅgaraṭṭha (कलिङ्गरट्ठ) or simply Kaliṅga is the name of a locality situated in Dakkhiṇāpath...
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Search found 51 books and stories containing Kalinga, Kāliṅga or Kaliṅga. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Appendix 1 - Destruction of the forests of Daṇḍaka, Kāliṅga, Mejjha and Mātaṅga < [Chapter XXIV - The Virtue of Patience]
Appendix 6 - Division of the great earth of Jambudvīpa into seven parts < [Chapter VIII - The Bodhisattvas]
Buddhist records of the Western world (Xuanzang) (by Samuel Beal)
Chapter 11 - Country of Kie-ling-kia (Kalinga) < [Book X - Seventeen Countries]
Chapter 10 - Country of Kong-u-t’o (Konyodha) < [Book X - Seventeen Countries]
Chapter 12 - Country of Kiao-sa-lo (Kosala) < [Book X - Seventeen Countries]
The Jataka tales [English], Volume 1-6 (by Robert Chalmers)
Jataka 479: Kāliṅga-Bodhi-jātaka < [Volume 4]
Jataka 301: Cullakāliṅga-jātaka < [Volume 3]
Jataka 261: Paduma-jātaka < [Book III - Tika-Nipāta]
The history of Andhra country (1000 AD - 1500 AD) (by Yashoda Devi)
Part 1 - Bhima (11th Century) < [Chapter X - The Saronathas (A.D. 950-1260)]
Part 6 - Arjuna II alias Virarjuna (A.D. 1356-1399) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Introduction (Southern Kalinga) < [Chapter XIII - The Dynasties in South Kalinga]
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
Kalinga < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
Temples in Siddhalingamadam < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
Sikhara < [Chapter XIII - Prasada: Component Parts]
The Brahma Purana (by G. P. Bhatt)