Ashoka, aka: Asoka, Aśoka, Aśokā, Asokā; 22 Definition(s)
Ashoka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Aśoka and Aśokā can be transliterated into English as Asoka or Ashoka, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)
One of the Hands indicating Trees.—Aśoka, the Patāka hands crossed, i.e., touching at the wrists and freely moving to and fro;(Source): archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Ayurveda (science of life)
Aśokā (अशोका) is another name for Śakulādanī (Picrorhiza kurroa) according to the Bhāvaprakāśa, which is a 16th century medicinal thesaurus authored by Bhāvamiśra. The term is used throughout Āyurvedic literature. Certain plant parts of Śakulādanī are eaten as vegetables.(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Aśoka (अशोक).—The Sanskrit name for an important Āyurvedic drug.—Aśoka is bitter, astringent and cold and is useful in menorrhagia, poisons and improves complexion.(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)
Aśoka (अशोक) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Jomesia asoka by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as aśoka) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Aśoka (अशोक).—One of the seven major mountains situated on the western side of mount Niṣadha, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 83. These mountains give rise to many other mountains and various settlements. Niṣadha is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.(Source): Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Aśoka (अशोक).—A kulaparvata of the Ketumāla.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 44. 4.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Aśoka (अशोक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.61.14) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Aśoka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Aśoka (अशोक).—In English, it is identified as either Saraca Asoca (or Saraca Indica) or Jonesia Asoca. The Aśoka trees that surround the imprisoned Sītā in Laṅkā are said to destroy grief (‘śoka-nāśana’) in the Rāmāyaṇa, but they are also seen–in the Haṃsasandeśa–as appropriate co-mourners for Sītā in her burning grief. In the Purāṇas it is said to have got its name from a certain evil and cruel Saśoka (‘with-grief’ or ‘he who brings grief’).
Rājaśekhara talks of three different types of Aśoka:
- the red (rakta or raktāśoka),
- the blue (nīla or nīlāśoka)
- and the golden (suvarṇa or hema-puṣpa).
The Aśoka has just one synonym, vañjula, according to the Amarakosa, which is often used for many other trees as well. Monier Williams gives raktapallava (‘of red flowers’), piṇḍīpuṣpa, vicitra (‘multicoloured’), aṅganā-priya (‘beloved of women’) and kaṅkeli as names that refer exclusively to the aśoka. Viśoka, a variation on Aśoka with the same meaning (‘griefless’), is also cited. Several other names can be used for the aśoka but are equally used for other trees: hemapuṣpa (‘of golden flowers’), madhupuṣpa (‘of sweet flowers’), piṇḍapusya, kiṅkīrāta, madhuka (‘the sweet one’), śiṃśapā and kaṅkeli.(Source): Sanskrit Literature: The Ashoka
(Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)
Aśoka (अशोक) is the name of the tree (vṛkṣa) associated with Karaṅkaka: the western cremation ground (śmaśāna) according to the Adbhutaśmaśānālaṃkāra and the Śmaśānavidhi verse 8. The tree associated with the west is sometimes given as Kaṅkeli. As a part of this sādhana, the practicioner is to visualize a suitable dwelling place for the goddess inside the circle of protection which takes the form of eight cremation grounds.
These trees (eg., Aśoka) that are associated with the cremation grounds are often equated with the eight bodhi-trees of the Buddhas (the current buddha plus the seven previous one). According to the Śmaśānavidhi each tree has a secondary tree (upavṛkṣa) that is depicted as lovely and covered in vaṅga flowers and fruit. In each tree lives a naked rākṣasa who is wrathful in form, who eats human flesh and who has the animal face or the mount of the dikpati in his cremation ground.(Source): Wisdomlib Libary: Vajrayogini
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
1. Asoka - King of Magadha. He was the son of Bindusara. Bindusara had sixteen wives who bore him 101 sons.
The chief Pali sources of information regarding Asoka are Dipavamsa (chaps. i., v., vi., vii., xi., etc.), Mahavamsa (v., xi., xx., etc.), Samantapasadika (pp. 35 ff. ). Other sources are the Divyavadana passim, and the Avadanasataka ii.200ff. For an exhaustive discussion of the sources and their contents see Prszlyski, La Legende de lEmpereur Asoka.
The Pali Chronicles (Dipavamsa and Mahavamsa) mention only three of the sons, viz. Sumana (Susima according to the northern legends) the eldest, Asoka, and Tissa (uterine brother of Asoka) the youngest. The Mahavamsa Tika (p.125; Mbv.98. In the northern tradition, e.g., Asokavadanamala, she is called Subhadrangi, daughter of a brahmin of Campa) gives the name of his mother as Dhamma and calls her Aggamahesi (Bindusaras chief queen); she belonged to the Moriyavamsa. The preceptor of Dhammas family was an Ajivaka called Janasana (which probably explains Asokas earlier patronage of the Ajivakas).
In his youth Asoka was appointed Governor of Avanti with his capital at Ujjeni. The Divy. says he was in Takkasila with headquarters in Uttarapatha, where he superseded Susima and quelled a rebellion. When Bindusara lay on his death bed, Asoka left Ujjeni and came to Pataliputta where he made himself master of the city and possessor of the throne. He is stated in the Mahavamsa (v.20; Mbv.98) to have killed all his brothers except Tissa that he might accomplish his purpose, and to have been called Candasoka on account of this outrage (Mhv.v.189). It is impossible to say how much truth there is in this account of the accession. Asokas Rock Edicts seem to indicate that he had numerous brothers, sisters and relations alive at the time they were written in Pataliputta and other towns (see Mookherji, Asoka, pp. 3-6). His brother Tissa he appointed as his uparaja (Mhv.v.33), but Tissa (q.v.) became a religious devotee attaining arahantship. The Theragatha Commentary refers to another younger brother of Asoka, Vitasoka, who also became an arahant (i.295f. The northern works give quite a different account of his brothers. See Mookherji, p.6).
Asoka had several wives. His first wife was the daughter of a merchant of Vedisagiri, whom he met when stopping at the merchants house on his way to Ujjeni (Mhv.xiii.8ff). Her name was Devi, also called Vedisa Mahadevi, and she was a Sakyan, descended from a Sakyan family who migrated to Vedisa to escape from Vidudabha (Mbv., pp.98, 116). Of Devi were born a son Mahinda, and a daughter Sanghamitta, who became the wife of Aggibrahma and mother of Sumana. Devi evidently did not follow Asoka to Pataliputta, for his aggamahesi there was Asandhamitta (Mhv.v.85).
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1. Asoka - A nun of Natika.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Buddhism)A Buddhist monarch of 300 B.C., the third emperor of the Mauryan Dynasty, who unified most of India under his rule and fostered the dissemination of Buddhism. It is said that the Third Council was held during his reign. Ashoka set the model for many other rulers who sought to govern in accordance with Buddhist philosophy.(Source): Buddhist Door: Glossary
Ashoka was an Indian emperor, of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from 273 BCE to 232 BCE. Often cited as one of Indias as well as worlds greatest emperors. Ashoka reigned over most of present day India after a number of military conquests.
His empire stretched from present day Pakistan, Afghanistan in the west, to the present day Bangladesh and the Indian state of Assam in the east, and as far south as the brahmagiri in Karnataka. He could conquer the kingdom named Kalinga,which no one in his dynasty could conquer starting from Chandragupt Maurya.
His reign was headquartered in Magadha (present day Bihar, India). He embraced Buddhism from the prevalent Vedic tradition after witnessing the mass deaths of the war of Kalinga, which he himself had waged out of a desire for conquest. He was later dedicated in the propagation of Buddhism across Asia and established monuments marking several significant sites in the life of Gautama Buddha. Ashoka in human history is often referred as the emperor of all ages.
Ashoka was a devotee of ahimsa (nonviolence), love, truth, tolerance and vegetarianism. Ashoka is remembered in history as a philanthropic administrator.In the history of India Ashoka is referred to as Samrath Chakravartin Ashoka- the Emperor of Emperors Ashoka.(Source): WikiPedia: Buddhism
Ashoka is the son of Bindusara and Subhadrangi.—Northern and Southern traditions of Buddhism agree that Ashoka or Kalashoka ascended the throne of Pataliputra ~100 years after Buddha nirvana. He conquered entire India from Takshashila in the west to Pragjyotisha in the east and from Kashmir in the north to Karnataka in the sou th. He was a ruthless dictator. Therefore, Buddhist sources call him “Chandāshoka”. He accepted Buddhism later and declared Buddhism to be the state religion. Kalhana, the author of Rajatarangini, also confirms that Ashoka reigned over Kashmir and established the rule of Buddhism (Jina- Shāsanam). Buddhist sources eulogized Ashoka as “Dharmāshoka” because he promoted Buddhism.
Kalhana mentions that Ashoka founded the city of Srinagar in Kashmir. Kunalavadana of Divyavadana records that Ashoka had a son named Kunala from his queen Padmavati. Ashoka’s chief queen Asandhimitrā raised Kunala because Padmavati died when Kunala was in his infancy. Ashoka had ten more sons named Bhadrasena, Korandavarna, Mangara, Sarvanjaha, Jaloka, Ubhaka, Sanjaya, Koravya, Nandivardhana and Panchamukha.(Source): academia.edu: The Chronological History of Buddhism
General definition (in Jainism)
1) Aśoka (अशोक) is the name of the caitya-tree under which the parents of Malli are often depicted in Jaina iconography, according to both the Śvetāmbara and Digambara tradition. The term caitya refers to “sacred shrine”, an important place of pelgrimage and meditation in Jainism. Sculptures with such caitya-trees generally shows a male and a female couple seated under a tree with the female having a child on her lap. Usually there is a seated Jina figure on top of the tree.
Malli is the nineteenth of twenty-four tīrthaṅkaras: enlightened beings who, having conquered saṃsāra (cycle of birth and death), leave a path behind for others to follow. His father is Kumbha and his mother is Prabhāvatī, according to the Ācāradinakara (14th century work on Jain conduct written by Vardhamāna Sūri).
2) Aśoka (अशोक) is the name of a big garden situated near big lotus-lakes in the vicinity of the four Añjana mountains, according to Jain cosmology.
The Añjana-mountains (and gardens such as Aśoka) are situated in the southern direction of the central part of Nandīśvaradvīpa, which is one of the continents (dvīpa) of the middle-world (madhyaloka) and is mentioned in ancient Jaina canonical texts dealing with cosmology and geography of the universe. Examples of such texts are the Saṃgrahaṇīratna in the Śvetāmbara tradition or the Tiloyapannatti and the Trilokasāra in the Digambara tradition.(Source): Wisdom Library: Jainism
Aśoka (अशोक) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.
Different kinds of trees (eg., the Aśoka tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.(Source): archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Ashoka or Simsapa is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—This was grown throughout Northern-India. An Ashoka tree on the bank of Godavari is also mentioned. Its another variety called as Lohitashoka or Raktashoka is mentioned.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Ashoka), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Ashoka, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).(Source): Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
asoka : (adj.) free from sorrow. (m.) the tree Jonesia Asoka.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
1) Asoka, 2 (Sk. aśoka) the Asoka tree, Jonesia Asoka J. V, 188; Vv 354, 359 (°rukkha); Vism. 625 (°aṅkura); VvA. 173 (°rukkha). (Page 89)
2) Asoka, 1 (adj.) (a + soka, cp. Sk. aśoka) free from sorrow Sn. 268 (= nissoka abbūḷha-soka-salla KhA 153); Dh. 412; Th. 2, 512. (Page 89)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
aśōka (अशोक).—m (S) pop. aśōga A shrub, Jonesia Asoca. 2 The name of another flowering shrub.
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asōka (असोक).—& asōga f (Corr. from aśōka S) A shrub, Jonesia Asoca.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Aśoka (अशोक).—a. Without sorrow, not feeling or causing sorrow.
-kaḥ Name of a tree having red flowers (Jonesia Asoka Roxb.); [said, according to the convention of poets, to put forth flowers when struck by ladies with the foot decked with jingling anklets and painted with lack-dye. Kālidāsa mentions the flowering of this tree in Spring (cf. Rs.6.5,16). The painted foot bears a striking resemblance in colour to the flowers of Asoka (cf. R.8.63). cf. असूत सद्यः कुसुमान्यशोकः (asūta sadyaḥ kusumānyaśokaḥ)... पादेन नापैक्षत सुन्दरीणां संपर्कमाशिञ्जितनूपुरेण (pādena nāpaikṣata sundarīṇāṃ saṃparkamāśiñjitanūpureṇa) Ku.3.26; Me.8; R.8.62; M.3.12.17; also पादाघातादशोकस्तिलककुरबकौ वीक्षणालिङ्गनाभ्याम् । स्त्रीणा स्पर्शात् प्रियङ्गुर्विकसति बकुलः सीधुगण्डूषसेकात् । मन्दारो नर्मवाक्यात् पटु- मृदुहसनाच्चम्पको वक्त्रवातात् चूतो गीतान्नमेरुर्विकसति च पुरो नर्तनात्- कर्णिकारः (pādāghātādaśokastilakakurabakau vīkṣaṇāliṅganābhyām | strīṇā sparśāt priyaṅgurvikasati bakulaḥ sīdhugaṇḍūṣasekāt | mandāro narmavākyāt paṭu- mṛduhasanāccampako vaktravātāt cūto gītānnamerurvikasati ca puro nartanāt- karṇikāraḥ) ||]
2) Name of Viṣṇu.
3) Name of a minister of king Dasaratha. (v. l. for akopa. Rām.1.7.3).
4) Name of a celebrated king of the Maurya dynasty, said to have reigned from 234-198 B. C.
5) Name of the बकुल (bakula). tree अशोको वञ्जुले माने द्रुमनिःशोकयोर्मतः । वर्तते कटुरोहिण्याम् (aśoko vañjule māne drumaniḥśokayormataḥ | vartate kaṭurohiṇyām)... Nm.
6) Joy, happiness; अशोकजैः प्रीतिमयैः कपिमालिङ्गय संभ्रमात् । सिषेच भरतः श्रीमान्विपुलैरश्रुबिन्दुभिः (aśokajaiḥ prītimayaiḥ kapimāliṅgaya saṃbhramāt | siṣeca bharataḥ śrīmānvipulairaśrubindubhiḥ) || Rām.6.125.42.
-kā 1 Name of a medical plant (kaṭuka; Mar. kuṭakī).
2) The sixth day in the first half of Chaitra.
3) One of the female domestic deities of the Jainas.
-kam 1 Quicksilver.
2) The blossom of the Asoka plant (forming one of the five arrows of Cupid).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
Search found 321 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:
Aśokatīrtha (अशोकतीर्थ).—A holy place near the temple of Śūrpāraka. (Mahābhārata, Vana Parva, C...
Aśokavanikā (अशोकवनिका).—A famous park in Laṅkā. It was in this park that Rāvaṇa kept Sītā havi...
Raktāśoka (रक्ताशोक).—the red-flowered Aśoka; रक्ताशोकरुचा विशेषितगुणो बिम्बाधरा- लक्तकः (raktā...
Lohinyaśoka (लोहिन्यशोक).—a variety of Aśoka (having red flowers). Derivable forms: lohinyaśoka...
Aśokataru (अशोकतरु).—the Asoka tree. Derivable forms: aśokataruḥ (अशोकतरुः).Aśokataru is a Sans...
Lohitāśoka (लोहिताशोक).—a variety of Aśoka (having red flowers). Derivable forms: lohitāśokaḥ (...
Aśokavṛkṣa (अशोकवृक्ष).—the Asoka tree. Derivable forms: aśokavṛkṣaḥ (अशोकवृक्षः).Aśokavṛkṣa is...
Aśokatrirātra (अशोकत्रिरात्र).—Name of a festival or व्रत (vrata) which lasts for three nights;...
Aśokāri (अशोकारि).—the कदम्ब (kadamba) tree (Mar. kaḷaṃba). Derivable forms: aśokāriḥ (अशोकारिः...
Aśokapūrṇimā (अशोकपूर्णिमा).—Name of a certain holiday, a ceremony to be observed on the 15th d...
Aśokarohiṇī (अशोकरोहिणी).—Name of a medical plant (kaṭukā). Aśokarohiṇī is a Sanskrit compound ...
Aśokaṣaṣṭhī (अशोकषष्ठी).—Name of a certain holiday; चैत्रे मास्य- सिते पक्षे षष्ठयां षष्ठीं प्र...
Aśokāṣṭamī (अशोकाष्टमी).—[nāsti śoko yasyāḥ karma° sa.] the eighth day in the first half of Cha...
Aśokavardhana (अशोकवर्धन).—Son of Bindusāra (Vārisāra).1 The Maurya king who ruled for 3...
|Edicts Of Ashoka|
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as b...
Search found 80 books and stories containing Ashoka, Asoka, Aśoka, Aśokā or Asokā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Indian Buddhist Iconography (by Benoytosh Bhattachacharyya)
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 11: Śītala’s messenger-deities (śāsanadevatās) < [Chapter VIII - Śītalanāthacaritra]
Part 7: Previous birth of Sudarśana < [Chapter V - Śrī Dharmanāthacaritra]
Part 3: Account of Nārada < [Chapter V - Birth of Rāma, Kṛṣṇa, and Ariṣṭanemi]
The Mahavastu (great story) (by J. J. Jones)
Chapter XVII - Rāhula in a former life < [Volume III]
Chapter XXIIV - The Buddha Maṅgala < [Volume I]
Chapter XIV - The Jātaka of Nalinī (the king’s daughter) < [Volume III]
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Act 10.8: The Sahā universe transforms into jewels < [Chapter XV - The Arrival of the Bodhisattvas of the Ten Directions]
The story of Vītaśoka < [Class 3: The four immeasurables]
Part 2 - Aśoka and the bhikṣu with the pleasant breath < [Chapter XX - The Virtue of Generosity and Generosity of the Dharma]
Sushruta Samhita, volume 4: Cikitsasthana (by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna)