Hema, Hemā, Heman: 38 definitions

Introduction:

Hema means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Hem.

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Hema (हेम) refers to “Gold”, representing the material for Kubera’s liṅga according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Indra took a liṅga made of Ruby. The son of Viśravas (Naiśravaṇa or Kubera) took a liṅga of gold (Hema-linga). [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Hemā (हेमा).—A lover (wife) of Maya, the asura. (For details see Maya, Indra, Para 61 and sub para 3 of Para, 24, Rāma and Svayamprabhā.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Hema (हेम).—A son of Ruśadratha (Uśadratha, Vāyu-purāṇa) and father of Sutapas.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 23. 4; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 25; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 25; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 18. 12.

2) Hemā (हेमा).—An Apsaras; daughter of Yama, of golden mien and excellent eyes.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 69. 7, 61.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: archive.org: Illustrations of Indian Music and Dance in Western Indian Style

Hemā (हेमा) refers to a type of mūrchanā (melodic mode), and its illustration as a Goddess (according to 15th-century Indian art) is as follows.—The colour of her body is golden. She holds a conch with both hands. She wears a bodice of dark-rosy colour and a scarf of light-green colour with red dots and white design. Her trouser is og yellow colour with a black design and a golden border.

The illustrations (of, for example Hemā) are found scattered throughout ancient Jain manuscripts from Gujarat. The descriptions of these illustrations of this citrāvalī are based on the ślokas of Vācanācārya Gaṇi Sudhākalaśa’s Saṅgītopaniṣatsāroddhāra (14th century) and Śārṅgadeva’s Saṅgītaratnākara (13th century).

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Hema [हेमा] in the Sanskrit language is the name of a plant identified with Marsdenia volubilis (L. fil.) Cooke from the Apocynaceae (Oleander) family having the following synonyms: Asclepias volubilis, Dregea volubilis, Wattakaka volubilis. For the possible medicinal usage of hema, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Hemā (हेमा) is another name for Svarṇajīvantī, a plant similar to Jīvantī, a medicinal plant identified with Leptadenia reticulata (cork swallow-wort) from the Apocynaceae, or “dogbane family” of flowering plants, according to verse 3.42-44 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu. The third chapter (guḍūcyādi-varga) of this book contains climbers and creepers (vīrudh). Together with the names Hemā and Svarṇajīvantī, there are a total of fourteen Sanskrit synonyms identified for this plant.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Heman (हेमन्) refers to the Dhattūra plant, and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 21.34.—(“hemanāmakataruprasavena”).—Cf. Unmatta (“mad flower”).—Words signifying “gold” have also this meaning. Kṣīrasvāmin and Hemacandra attribute this to the belief that a man who partakes of the fruit of the Dhattūra plant (Datura stramonium) sees everything golden before him, and obviously refer to the intoxicating properties of the fruit. The fact is also mentioned by Jaina writer Jinadatta Sūri in his Kālasvarūpakulaka (verse 12) composed in Apabhraṃśa (cf. commentary). Apabhraṃśakāvyatrayī (G.O.S.), p. 71. Bṛhannāradīyapurāṇa (verse 8.110) has a fanciful explanation.

Kavya book cover
context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Hema (हेम) or Hemagiri refers to a country belonging to “Nairṛtī (south-western division)” classified under the constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā, according to the system of Kūrmavibhāga, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 14), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “The countries of the Earth beginning from the centre of Bhāratavarṣa and going round the east, south-east, south, etc., are divided into 9 divisions corresponding to the 27 lunar asterisms at the rate of 3 for each division and beginning from Kṛttikā. The constellations of Svāti, Viśākhā and Anurādhā represent the south-western division consisting of [i.e., Hema-giri] [...]”.

Source: Google Books: Studies in the History of the Exact Sciences (Astronomy)

1) Hema (हेम) refers to “gold” and represents one of the items offered to the priests, according to the grahaśānti (cf. grahayajña) section of the Yājñavalkyasmṛti (1.295-309), preceded by the section called vināyakakalpa (1.271-294), prescribing a rite to be offered to Vināyaka.—[verse 306: Gifts to priests]—It seems that when a specific graha was chosen as the object of appeasement, the gift (dakṣiṇā) [i.e., hema] prescribed for each graha was to be given to the priest(s) who performed the śānti ritual.

2) Hema (हेम) or “gold” represents a material used for making certain astronomical instruments, according to Lalla’s Śiṣyadhīvṛddhidatantra (Part I, 21, Yantrādhikāra, 34-35).—(Cf. Astronomical instruments in Bhāskarācārya’s Siddhāntaśiromaṇi).—Accordingly, “The bowl, which resembles half a pot (i.e. hemispherical), which is made of ten palas of copper, which is half a cubit (i.e. twelve aṅgulas) in diameter at the mouth and half (i.e. six aṅgulas) as high, which is evenly circular, and which is bored by a uniformly circular needle, made of three and one-third māṣas of gold [i.e., hemanhemnaḥ] and of four aṅgulas in length, sinks into clear water in one ghaṭikā (nāḍī)”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Heman (हेमन्) (Cf. Kanaka) refers to “golden (ornaments)”, according to the Halāyudhastotra verse 34-35.—Accordingly, “The visitation of the wives of the distinguished sages in the Pine Park, the oblation with seed in Fire, the twilight dance: Your behaviour is not reprehensible. O Three-eyed one! The doctrines of the world do not touch those who have left worldly life, having passed far beyond the path of those whose minds are afflicted by false knowledge. The gods all wear gold and jewels (heman-ratna) as an ornament on their body. You do not even wear gold (kanaka) the size of a berry on your ear or on your hand. The one whose natural beauty, surpassing the path [of the world], flashes on his own body, has no regard for the extraneous ornaments of ordinary men”.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (philosophy)

Heman (हेमन्) refers to a “gold”, according to Somānanda’s Śivadṛṣṭi verse 3.42cd–47.—Accordingly, “[...] How can there be something pure, something diminished, etc., when his nature is undivided? The fact of being gold simply exists in gold (heman), (be it) in (the form of) a golden spittoon, etc., or in (the form of) a tiara, etc. The (fact of being) gold (heman) is in no way divided [i.e., differentiated] whatsoever. If you argue that a fire installed in an outcaste’s house is not (properly) called a fire [i.e., it is not a proper, ritually-purified fire], we reply: that may be so [i.e., this does not contradict our notion of the uniformity of the nature of fire as such]. [...]”.

Shaivism book cover
context information

Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Google Books: Himalayan Glaciers

Sanskrit translation of the word snow and ice is ‘Hema’. The snow covered Himalayas were called the ‘Haemvant’. In most parts of the Himalayas even local dialects do not hae a word to denote glaciers, though they have local names for important glaciers.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A class of elephants having the strength of one hundred million men. UdA.403; AA.ii.832; BuA.37, etc.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: academia.edu: A Critical Sanskrit Edition and a Translation of Kambala’s Sādhananidhi, Chapter 8

Hemā (हेमा) is the name of a deity associated with the syllable “he” of the Heart Mantra of Heruka (hṛdayamantra): one of the four major mantras in the Cakrasaṃvara tradition, as taught in the eighth chapter of the 9th-century Herukābhidhāna and its commentary, the Sādhananidhi.  The Hṛdaya-mantra consists of twenty-two letters. [...] A practitioner in meditation visualizes that twenty-two deities [viz., Hemā] are developed from the twenty-two letters constituting the mantra. Each letter of the mantra is used as the initial letter of each deity’s name except for the first and second deities, who are the chief couple deities and located at the center of the maṇḍala.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (tantric Buddhism)

Hema (हेम) refers to “gold”, according to the Bhūśalyasūtrapātananimittavidhi section of Jagaddarpaṇa’s Ācāryakriyāsamuccaya, a text within Tantric Buddhism dealing with construction manual for monasteries etc.—Accordingly, “[...] If a cow comes and drops dung, then there is the same amount of gold (hema) as the [dung beneath the site]. Alternatively, if a young girl [comes and] urinates, then there must be the same amount of silver as [the urine beneath the site]”.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

Hemā (हेमा) is the name of an Apsaras, instructed by Śakra to help in the preparations of Ṛṣabha’s wedding-preparations, according to chapter 1.2 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.

Accordingly,

“[...] Then having ascertained the Lord’s purpose, Purandara at once summoned gods for the tasks of the wedding-preparations.—‘[...] Why are you playing elsewhere, Rāmā? Hemā, why do you look at gold? Kratusthalā, why are you confused, as if drunk?  [...]’. From the bustling of the Apsarases instructing each other in this way, and frequently calling names, a mighty tumult arose”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Hema.—(IE 8-1), abbreviation of hemanta. See also hema- dhānyaka. Note: hema is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Hema.—same as māṣa; cf. hema-dhānyaka. Note: hema is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

hema : (nt.) gold.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Hema, (nt.) (cp. Epic Sk. heman) gold D.II, 187; J.VI, 574.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

hēma (हेम).—n S Gold.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

hēma (हेम).—n Gold.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Hema (हेम).—[hi-man]

1) Gold.

2) The thorn-apple.

-maḥ 1 A dark or brown-coloured horse.

2) A particular weight of gold.

3) The planet Mercury.

-mā 1 The earth.

2) A handsome woman.

Derivable forms: hemam (हेमम्).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Heman (हेमन्).—n. [hi-manin]

1) Gold; हेम्नः संलक्ष्यते ह्यग्नौ विशुद्धि श्यामिकापि वा (hemnaḥ saṃlakṣyate hyagnau viśuddhi śyāmikāpi vā) R.1.1.

2) Water.

3) Snow.

4) The thorn-apple.

5) The Keśara flower.

6) Winter, the cold season.

7) The planet Mercury.

8) The Dhattūra plant.; हेमनामकतरुप्रसवेन त्र्यम्बकस्तदुपकल्पितपूजः (hemanāmakataruprasavena tryambakastadupakalpitapūjaḥ) N.21.34.

 

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hema (हेम).—m.

(-maḥ) 1. A horse of a dark colour. 2. The planet Mercury. 3. A weight of gold, equal to a Masha. n.

(-maṃ) 1. Gold. 2. The Nagakeśara flower. 3. The Dhattura. f.

(-mā) 1. An Apsarasas or courtezan of heaven. 2. A handsome woman. E. hi to go, man aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Heman (हेमन्).—n. (-ma) 1. Gold. 2. Dhattura. 3. The Nagakeśara flower. 4. Snow. m.

(-mā) 1. The planet Mercury. 2. Winter. E. hi to go, manin aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hema (हेम).—I. m. A horse of dark colour. Ii. n. Gold (cf. heman).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Heman (हेमन्).—I. m. Winter (ŚKd.). Ii. n. Gold, [Raghuvaṃśa, (ed. Stenzler.)] 1, 10, Naiṣ. 52; [Vikramorvaśī, (ed. Bollensen.)] [distich] 140 (or hema).

— Cf. with for

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Heman (हेमन्).—1. [neuter] impulse.

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Heman (हेमन्).—2. [neuter] gold.

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Heman (हेमन्).—3. ([locative]) in winter (cf. seq.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Heman (हेमन्):—[from him] a etc. See 2. heman p.1304, [column] 1.

2) [from heti] 1. heman n. impulse, [Ṛg-veda ix, 97, 1] ([Sāyaṇa] ‘gold’)

3) [v.s. ...] water, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 12.]

4) 2. heman (See hima and next), winter (only used in [locative case], ‘in the winter’), [Taittirīya-saṃhitā; Kāṭhaka; Śatapatha-brāhmaṇa]

5) 3. heman n. (of doubtful derivation) gold, [Naighaṇṭuka, commented on by Yāska i, 2; Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

6) a gold piece, [Kathāsaritsāgara]

7) ([plural]) golden ornaments, [Kuvalayānanda]

8) Mesua Roxburghii, [Caraka]

9) the thorn-apple, [Monier-Williams’ Sanskrit-English Dictionary]

10) 4. heman m. the planet Mercury, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Hema (हेम):—[from heman] 1. hema in [compound] for 3. heman.

2) [from heman] 2. hema m. a [particular] weight of gold (= māṣaka), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) [v.s. ...] a horse of a dark or brownish colour, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) [v.s. ...] Name of Buddha, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] of a son of Ruśad-ratha, [Purāṇa]

6) [v.s. ...] of the father of Su-tapas, [ib.]

7) [v.s. ...] = hema-candra, [Catalogue(s)]

8) Hemā (हेमा):—[from hema > heman] f. Hoya Viridiflora, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] the earth, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] a handsome woman, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) [v.s. ...] Name of an Apsaras, [Harivaṃśa; Rāmāyaṇa]

12) [v.s. ...] of a river, [Mahābhārata]

13) Hema (हेम):—[from heman] n. gold, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Hema (हेम):—(maḥ) 1. m. A horse of a dark colour. 1. f. A celestial courtezan; fine woman. n. Gold.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Heman (हेमन्):—(ma) 5. n. Gold. 1. f. Planet Mercury; winter.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Hema (हेम) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Hema.

[Sanskrit to German]

Hema in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Hema (हेम) [Also spelled hem]:—(nm) gold; ~[kāṃti] glittering like gold.

context information

...

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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

Hema (हेम) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Hema.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Hēma (ಹೇಮ):—

1) [noun] gold.

2) [noun] a particular weight, equal to 1.2 grm. (used in weighment of gold).

3) [noun] a brown or dark horse.

4) [noun] the small thorny plant Datura stramonium of Solanaceae family.

5) [noun] the large-sized, evergreen tree Mesua ferrea of Guttiferae family.

6) [noun] its flower.

7) [noun] the coldest season of the year; winter.

8) [noun] the glassy, brittle, crystalline form of water made solid by cold; ice.

9) [noun] water.

10) [noun] the planet Mercury.

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Hēma (ಹೇಮ):—[noun] a shrinking from disgust; intense dislike or hatred; loathing; abhorrence.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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