Cola, aka: Coḷa, Cōḻa, Colā; 15 Definition(s)
Cola means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit term Coḷa can be transliterated into English as Cola or Colia, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Alternative spellings of this word include Chola.
Katha (narrative stories)
Cola (चोल) is the name of a kingdom that was conquered by Udayana (king of Vatsa) during his campaign to obtain sovereignty over the whole earth, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 19. Accordingly, “The Kāverī being crossed by him in his victorious onset, and the glory of the king of the Cola race being surpassed, were befouled at the same time”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Cola, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.(Source): Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Cola (चोल) was the sovereignty of the western part of the peninsula on the Carnatic, extending southwards to Tañjore, where it was bounded by the Pāṇḍyan kingdom. It appears to have been the Regio Soretanum of Ptolemy, and the Cola maṇdala, or district, furnishes the modern appellation of the Coromandel coast (Wilson, Essays, p. 241n).(Source): archive.org: The ocean of story, vol. 1
Katha (कथा, kathā) refers to narrative Sanskrit literature often inspired from epic legendry (itihasa) and poetry (mahākāvya). Some Kathas reflect socio-political instructions for the King while others remind the reader of important historical event and exploits of the Gods, Heroes and Sages.
1) Cola (चोल).—A very righteous emperor of Kāñcīpura. Because of the virtuous rule of this emperor his country got the name Cola. There is an interesting story in Padma Purāṇa of how the emperor attained Vaikuṇṭhaloka (The abode of Mahāviṣṇu).
Once Cola went to Vaikuṇṭha to worship Mahāviṣṇu. As he was worshipping him with pearls and flowers of gold a brahmin subject of his came there to worship him with water and Tulasī leaves. The simple offering of Tulasī leaves and flowers by this brahmaṛṣi, Viṣṇudāsa, eclipsed the expensive one by the King and the latter was greatly offended and he rebuked the Brahmin saying that he was a poor man who did not know what devotion to Viṣṇu was. But Viṣṇudāsa did not take the taunt unchallenged. He asked the king to wait and see who would merge with the glowing entity of the Lord earlier. (See full article at Story of Cola from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Cola (चोल).—The three celebrated kingdoms of South-India of old were Cola, Pāṇḍya and Cera. References to these will be found in many places in the Purāṇas and a few are given below:—
2) Among those present for the svayaṃvara of Rukmiṇī were the Kings of Cola, Pāṇḍya and Kerala.
2) Descending in order from Turvasu were Varga—Gobhānu—Traiśāni—Karandhama—Marutta—Duṣyanta—Varūtha—Gāṇḍīra. From Gāṇḍīra were born the people of Kerala, Pāṇḍya and Cola. (Chapter 277, Agni Purāṇa).
2) Arjuna conquered the army of the King of Cola. (Śloka 21, Chapter 27, Sabhā Parva).
2) The King of Cola gave gifts to Dharmaputra. (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 52, Śloka 35).
2) When during the great battle Dhṛṣṭadyumna formed the Krauñcavyūha the soldiers from Cola guarded the southern wing. (Śloka 60, Chapter 9, Bhīṣma Parva).
2) Śrī Kṛṣṇa once conquered the land of Cola. (Śloka 17, Chapter 11, Droṇa Parva).(Source): archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia
1a) Cola (चोल).—A son of Āṇḍira after whom was named the Co1ladeśa.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 74. 6; Matsya-purāṇa 48. 5.
1b) One of the four sons of Janāpīḍa; his kingdom Colāḥ.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 6.
1c) A degraded Kṣatriya clan.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 63. 140; Matsya-purāṇa 114. 46.
1d) (c) a southern country.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 16. 56.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Itihasa (narrative history)
Cola (चोल) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.24.20, III.48.18, VI.10.58, VI.46.50) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Cola) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).
General definition (in Hinduism)
Cōḻa: One of the great Tamil dynasties, at its height in South India (and briefly Sri Lanka) between the 9th and 13th centuries ce.(Source): Oxford Index: Hinduism
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)
A country whose people were called Cola. The country extended from the Coromandel coast of South India as far as the Penner River, its capital in mediaeval times being Tanjore. The Ceylon Chronicles mention frequent invasions of Ceylon by the Cola chiefly for purposes of plunder. These invasions were a constant menace to the peace and prosperity of Ceylon, and helped largely in the destruction and disappearance of that countrys literary and artistic works. For details see Mhv. and Cv. passim.
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The people of Cola.(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
General definition (in Jainism)
Cola (चोल) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Cola] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.(Source): archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahy
Cola (चोल) is the name of a country included within Dakṣiṇapatha which was situated to the south of the Vindhyas according to the Yādavaprakāśa. Dakṣiṇāpatha is a place-name ending is patha mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.(Source): Wisdom Library: India History
Cola Temples—With the coming of the age of the Imperial Colas who came to power in the 9th century with their capital initially at Tanjavur (Tamil Nadu), Dravidian temple architecture reached its pinnacle. The great temples of the Colas at Tanjavur, Gangaikondacholapuram, Darasuram and Tribhuvanam are standing examples of the height temple architecture of south India had reached. The vimānas are very tall in these four temples. In addition to these grand temples, the Colas constructed numerous others of varying sizes in almost every town and village across their vast empire.
The innumerable sculptures of stone and bronze in the Cola temples are outstanding examples of the skill and dexterity of the artisans of the period and also reflect the patronage given to them by the Cola emperors. It(Source): Knowledge Traditions & Practices of India: Architecture (1): Early and Classical Architecture (h)
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
coḷa : (m.) cloth.(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
Cola, (& coḷa) (Cp. Sk. coḍa) a piece of cloth, a rag S.I, 34; J.IV, 380; Miln.169; PvA.73; Sdhp.396. —bhisi a mat spread with a piece of cloth (as a seat) Vin.IV, 40. ‹-› duccola clad in rags, badly dressed Vin.I, 109; III, 263. (Page 273)(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
cōlā (चोला).—m (Or cōḷā) The body (opp. to the skirts) of a garment.
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cōḷa (चोळ).—f (cōḷaṇēṃ To rub &c.) Loss by rubbing (as of grain carried in sacks on bullocks). 2 Wastage by use; wear and tear (of things gen.) 3 Inflammation or increase (of a sore) by rubbing and squeezing. v bhara. 4 Laxly. Beaten or frequented state (as of a road or town): the treading and trampling (as of cattle among standing corn): also trodden and trampled state (of the corn).
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cōḷā (चोळा).—m (cōla S) The body (opp. to the skirts) of a garment.(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
cōlā (चोला).—m The body of a garment.
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cōḷa (चोळ).—f Loss by rubbing. Wastage by use. Inflammation by rubbing. Beaten state.(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Cola (चोल).—m. (pl.) [cul karmaṇi ghañ]
1) Name of a country in southern India, the modern Tanjore.
-laḥ, -lī 1 A short jacket, a bodice.
2) A garment reaching to the feet.
-lam A garment.
Derivable forms: colaḥ (चोलः).(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
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Search found 17 books and stories containing Cola, Coḷa, Cōḻa or Colā. You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Early Chola Temples (by S. R. Balasubrahmanyam)
*Three phases of Early Chola Style?* < [Chapter X - Historical Survey]
Temples in Kilappaluvur < [Chapter II - Temples of Parantaka I’s Time]
Inscriptional References < [Chapter I - Parantaka I (Madirai-Konda Parakesari)]
A History of Indian Philosophy Volume 3 (by Surendranath Dasgupta)
Part 1 - The Chronology of the Āḻvārs < [Chapter XVII - The Āḻvārs]
Part 2 - Rāmānuja < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]
Part 1 - The Aḻagiyas from Nāthamuni to Rāmānuja < [Chapter XVIII - An Historical and Literary Survey of the Viśiṣṭādvaita School of Thought]
Brihat Samhita (by N. Chidambaram Iyer)
Gratitude to Parents (by Ajahn Sumedho)
List of Mahabharata tribes (by Laxman Burdak)
List of Mahabharata people and places (by Laxman Burdak)