Kuru: 19 definitions
Kuru means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
1) Kuru (कुरु).—the founder of the dynasty in which the Pāṇḍavas, as well as their archrivals, the sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra, took birth.
2) Kuru (कुरु).—All of the descendants of King Kuru, but specifically the 100 sons of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. The Pāṇḍavas were also descendants of King Kuru, but Dhṛtarāṣṭra wished to exclude them from the family tradition; enemies of the Pāṇḍavas.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: Wisdom Library: Bhagavata Purana
Kuru (कुरु):—Son of Saṃvaraṇa (son of Ṛkṣa) and his wife Tapatī (the daughter of Sūrya, the sun-god). He was the king of Kurukṣetra and had four sons named Parīkṣi, Sudhanu, Jahnu and Niṣadha. (see Bhāgavata Purāṇa 9.22.4-5)Source: Wisdom Library: Varāha-purāṇa
Kuru (कुरु) is the name of a region situated on the northern side of mount Meru, according to the Varāhapurāṇa chapter 75. Meru is one of the seven mountains located in Jambūdvīpa, which is ruled over by Āgnīdhra, a grandson of Svāyambhuva Manu, who was created by Brahmā, who was in turn created by Nārāyaṇa, the unknowable all-pervasive primordial being.
The Varāhapurāṇa is categorised as a Mahāpurāṇa, and was originally composed of 24,000 metrical verses, possibly originating from before the 10th century. It is composed of two parts and Sūta is the main narrator.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
1) Kuru (कुरु).—A King called Kuru was born in Dhruva’s dynasty. Genealogy. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā—Svāyambhuva Manu—Uttānapāda—Dhruva—Śiṣṭi—Ripu—Cākṣuṣa (Cākṣuṣa Manu)—Kuru.
King Kuru was the grandfather of the reputed Vena and the great grandfather of emperor Pṛthu. Aṅga was the father of Vena. Not much is said about this Kuru in the Purāṇas. Kuru had ten brothers called Puru, Ūru, Śatadyumna, Tapasvī, Satyavāk, Śuci, Agniṣṭhu, Adhiratha, Sudyumna and Abhimanyu. Kuru had by his wife Ātreyī seven sons called Aṅga, Sumanas Svāti, Kratu, Aṅgiras, Gaya and Śibi, and to Aṅga was born by his wife Sunīthā the son, who became reputed as Vena. Pṛthu was Vena’s son. Pṛthu had five sons called Antardhāna, Vādī, Sūta, Māgadha, Pālita. To Antardhāna was born of his wife Śikhaṇḍinī a son called Havirdhāna, to whom were born by his wife Dhiṣaṇā six sons called Prācīnabarhis, Śukra, Gaya, Kṛṣṇa, Vṛaja and Ajina. The above is the only information available about this Kuru dynasty in the Purāṇas. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa, Part 1, Chapter 13), (See full article at Story of Kuru from the Puranic encyclopaedia by Vettam Mani)
2) Kuru (कुरु).—Two sons, i.e. Uttānapāda and Priyavrata were born to Svāyambhuva Manu of his wife Śatarūpā. One King Kuru born in the dynasty of Uttānapāda has been referred to above, i.e. Kuru I. Another King Kuru is noticed in Priyavrata’s dynasty. To Priyavrata were born of his wife Barhiṣmatī fourteen sons called Agnīdhra, Idhmajihva, Yajñabāhu, Mahāvīra, Ghṛtapṛṣṭha, Sava, Hiraṇyaretā, Medhātithi, Vītihotra, Kavi, Ūrjaspati, Uttama, Tāmasa and Raivata. To Agnīdhra by his wife Pūrvacitti were born nine sons called Nābhi, Kimpuruṣa, Hari, Ilāvṛta, Ramyaka, Hiraṇmaya, Kuru, Bhadrāsva and Ketumāla. One King Kuru appears among them; but nothing more than the fact that he married a woman called Nārī is known about him. (Viṣṇu Purāṇa).
3) Kuru (कुरु).—A King, the brother of Rantideva. (See under Rantideva).
4) Kuru (कुरु).—Genealogy and birth. The very famous King Kuru was born in the Puru dynasty. His genealogy is given hereunder. Descended from Viṣṇu thus: Brahmā-Atri-Candra-Budha-Purūravas-Āyus-Nahuṣa-Yayāti-Puru-Janamejaya-Prācinvān-Pravīra-Namasyu-Vītabhaya-Śuṇḍu-Bahuvidha-Saṃyāti-Rahovādī-Raudrāśva-Matināra-Santurodha-Duṣyanta-Bharata-Suhotra-Suhotā-Gala-Garda-Suketu-Bṛhatkṣatra-Hasti-Ajamīḍha-Ṛkṣa-Saṃvaraṇa-Kuru.
To Kuru were born four sons called Parīkṣit, Sudhanus, Jahnu and Niṣadhāśva. The genealogy of the Kuru Kings is as follows: Sudhanus-Cyavana-Kṛti-Uparicaravasu-Bṛhadratha-Kuśāgraja-Ṛṣabha-Puṣpavān-Juhu.
Jarāsandha was another son of Bṛhadratha. Jarāsandha had four sons called Soma, Sahadeva, Turya and Śrutaśru. From Jahnu, the following sons were born:—Suratha-Viḍūratha-Sārvabhauma-Jayatsena,-Ravīya-Bhāvuka-Cakroddhata-Devātithi-Ṛkṣa-Bhīma and Pratīca. Pratīca had three sons called Devāpi, Śantanu and Bālhīka. Śantanu is known as Mahābhiṣak also. Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu were the successors of Śantanu, and they came to be known as Kauravas also as they belonged to the dynasty of Kuru. But, since the sons of Pāṇḍu were born of Devas they may not be called Kauravas. Other Information. (1) Kurukṣetra became holy and sanctified on account of Kuru’s tapas. (Ādi Parva, Chapter 94, Verse 80).
(ii) While Kuru was once ploughing a land in Kurukṣetra Indra appeared there, and they had a talk. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 53 Verse 6).
(iii) While Kuru was once performing a yajña at Kurukṣetra, the river Sarasvatī went there under the name Sureṇu (Oghavatī) and watered the land. (Śalya Parva, Chapter 38, Verses 26 and 27).
5) Kuru (कुरु).—One of the sages who visited Bhīṣma on his bed of arrows. (Śānti Parva, Chapter 47, Verse 8).
6) Kuru (कुरु).—A son born to Saṃvaraṇa of Tapatī. The boy, following his naming and other consecratory rites, grew up like fire in which was offered havis (ghee). At the age of ten he became omniscient. At the age of sixteen he married Saudāminī, daughter of Sudāman. (Vāmana Purāṇa, Chapter 21).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 2. 19; Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 40; Viṣṇu-purāṇa II. 1. 17 and 22.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 47.
- 3) Vāyu-purāṇa 33. 44; Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 14. 51.
1b) A son of Samvarna and Tapaṭī; occupied Prayāga and established Kurukṣetra; Lord of Kurukṣetra. Had four (several, Viṣṇu-purāṇa) sons—Parīkṣit and others.1 Parīkṣit's son Janamejaya was his grandson? At Kurukṣetra he performed tapas and2 pleased Indra. Family members were known as Kauravas.3
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 22. 4; Vāyu-purāṇa 99. 214-7;; Viṣṇu-purāṇa 19. 76-8.
- 2) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 68. 21.
- 3) Matsya-purāṇa 50. 20-2.
1c) A son of Manu and Naḍvalā; wife Āgneyī; gave birth to six sons, Aṅga and others.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 13. 5, 6.
1d) (Uttara) country of the; famous for a forest śaḍvala.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 84. 23, 48.
1e) A continent bounded by Śṛngavan on one side. Here Hari is worshipped in his Boar incarnation by Pṛthvi (Earth) with the Kurus.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa V. 16. 8; 18. 34-9.
1f) An eastern kingdom watered by the Ganges. Its king was enlisted by Jarāsandha, against Yadus, but was vanquished by Kṛṣṇa.1 He took part in the festivities connected with the marriage of Rukminī and Kṛṣṇa.2 He praised Kṛṣṇa's heroism and welcomed him.3 Took part in the rājasūya of Yudhiṣṭhira.4 He went to Syamantapañcaka for solar eclipse;5 migration of Yadus to.6
- 1) Bhāgavata-purāṇa I. 10. 34. X. [50 (V) 2]; II. 7. 35. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 18. 50; III. 59. 3 and 46.
- 2) Bhāgavata-purāṇa X. 54. 58.
- 3) Ib. X. 71. 29; 72. 5; IX. 24. 63.
- 4) Ib. X. 75. 12.
- 5) Ib. X. 82. 13; 84. 55.
- 6) Ib. X. 2.
Kuru (कुरु) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. I.70.1) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kuru) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Kuru (कुरु) refers to one of the seven regions (navakhaṇḍa) situated within Jambūdvīpa, according to Parākhyatantra 5.61. It is also known as Kurukhaṇḍa. Jambūdvīpa is one of the seven continents situated within the world of the earth (pṛthivī). These continents are located above the seven pātālas and may contain even more sub-continents within them, are round in shape, and are encircled within seven concentric oceans.
According to the Parākhyatantra, “like Ramya there is beyond that the landmass Kuru, where Hara told Upamanyu ‘Do (kuru) thus; drink the milk’, and so it is called Kuru”.
In the middle of these nine regions (eg., Kuru) is situated the golden mountain named Meru which rises above the surface of the earth by 84,000 yojanas while it penetrates the circle of the earth to a depth of sixteen yojanas.
The Parākhyatantra is an old Śaiva-siddhānta tantra dating from before the 10th century.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha
Kuru refers to “boil” [in the Malayalam language] and represents one of the various diseases mentioned in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kuru] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: Wisdom Library: Hinduism
Ancient Indian kingdom; The Kurus were the rulers of the Kuru kingdom, with their capital at Hastinapur. Kuru was the son of Samvarana (descendant of the Pururavas Aila) and Tapati, daughter of Surya.
Kuru’s wife Vahini gave birth to five sons:
- Muni and
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A country, one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (D.ii.200; A.i.213 etc.). Frequent references to it are found in the Pali Canon. It is said that Kuru was originally the name of the chieftains (rajakumara) of the country and that their territory was later named after them. Buddhaghosa records a tradition (DA.ii.481f; MA.i.184 etc.) which states that, when Mandhata returned to Jambudipa from his sojourn in the four Mahadipas and in the devalokas, there were in his retinue a large number of the people of Uttarakuru. They settled down in Jambudipa, and their settlement was known as Kururattha. It had many towns and villages.
The country seems to have had very little political influence in the Buddhas time, though, in the past, Pancala, Kuru and Kekaka were evidently three of the most powerful kingdoms (See, e.g., J.ii.214). According to the Jatakas (E.g., J.v.57, 484; vi.255. Also Mtu.i.34; ii.419), the kingdom of Kuru was three hundred leagues in extent and its capital, Indapatta, seven leagues in circumference. The ruling dynasty at Indapatta belonged to the Yudhitthila gotta (J.iii.400; iv.361). Among the kings of the past, Dhananjaya Koravya is mentioned several times (J.ii.366; iii.400; iv.450; vi.260 etc.) and reference is also made to a king called Koravya (J.iv.361; v.457) whose son was the Bodhisatta Sutasoma. During the Buddhas time, also, the chieftain of Kuru was called Koravya, and his discussion with the Elder Ratthapala, who was himself the scion of a noble family of the Kurus, is recounted in the Ratthapala Sutta (M.ii.65ff). Perhaps at one time the Kuru kingdom extended as far as Uttarapancala, for in the Somanassa Jataka (J.iv.444), Uttarapancala is mentioned as a town in the Kururattha, with Renu as its king.
Koravya had a park called Migacira where Ratthapala took up his residence when he visited his parents (MA.ii.725). The people of Kuru had a reputation for deep wisdom and good health, and this reputation is mentioned (MA.i.184f; AA.ii.820; they were also probably reputed to be virtuous; see the Kurudhamma Jataka) as the reason for the Buddha having delivered some of his most profound discourses to the Kurus, for example, the Mahanidana, and the Mahasatipatthana Suttas. Among other discourses delivered in the Kuru country are the Magandiya Sutta, the Ananjasappaya Sutta, the Sammosa Sutta and the Ariyavasa Sutta. All these were preached at Kammassadhamma, which is described as a nigama of the Kurus, where the Buddha resided from time to time. Another town of the Kurus, which we find mentioned, is Thullakotthika, the birthplace of Ratthapala, and here the Buddha stayed during a tour (M.ii.54; ThagA.ii.30). Udenas queen, Magandiya, came from Kuru (DhA.i.199), and Aggidatta, chaplain to the Kosala king, lived on the boundary between Kuru and Ariga and Magadha,
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Wisdom Library: Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra
Kuru (कुरु) is a country rather than a city. It is one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas listed in Dīgha, II, p. 200; Aṅguttara, I, p. 213, etc. The country corresponds to the district of Thānasar, capital of Indraprastha, near the present city of Delhi. In one of its villages, Kalmāṣadamya, the Buddha preached some of his most important sermons, such as the Mahānidāna and the Mahāsatipatthānasutta.
Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.
India history and geogprahySource: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions
Kuru (कुरु) is the name of a tribe mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions. The Gupta empire (r. 3rd-century CE), founded by Śrī Gupta, covered much of ancient India and embraced the Dharmic religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The Kurus had two branches, the northern and the southern. Uttarakuru or the country of the Northern Kurus, is supposed to be a region beyond the most northern range of the Himālaya mountains, and is described as a country of everlasing happiness. We have discussed in details, the Kurus, in the section on tribes. The Bṛhatsaṃhitā mentions it as a country situated in the North. In the later period the Uttarakurus had only a mythical or legendary existence.Source: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Kuru (कुरु) refers to one of the sixteen Mahājanapadas of the Majjhimadesa (Middle Country) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—In the ancient literature mention is made of two Kuru countries, Uttarākuru and Dakkhiṇakuru. The Kuru country mentioned in the Ṛg-veda is probably the Uttarākuru of later times which is alluded to in Pāli literature as a mythical region. Its extent is, however, given as 8,000 yojanas. References to the southern Kuru country are frequent in Buddhist literature. The Papañcasūdanī says that there was a Janapada named Kuru and its kings used to be called Kurus.
The Papañcasūdanī gives us a story of the origin of the Kurus. It is stated that King Mandhātā, a Cakkavattī king of Jambudīpa, conquered Pubbavideha, Aparagoyāna, and Uttarākuru besides the devalokas. While returning from Uttarākuru a large number of the inhabitants of that country followed Mandhātā to Jambudīpa, and the place in Jambudīpa where they settled became known as Kururaṭṭham including provinces, villages, towns, etc. This explains the word ‘Kurusu’ occurring in Pāli Buddhist literature. The Buddha is said to have delivered a number of religious discourses in the Kuru country and a large number of people embraced Buddhism.
The ancient Kuru country may be said to have comprised the Kurukshetra or Thaneswar. The district included Sonapat, Amin, Karnal, and Pānipat, and was situated between the Saraswatī on the north and Drishadvatī on the south. According to the Mahā-sutasoma Jātaka (No. 537), the Kuru country was three hundred leagues in extent, and the capital city of Indapatta extended over seven leagues. It is stated in the Jātakas (Nos. 413 and 495) that the ruling dynasty belonged to the Yudhiṭṭhila gotta (i.e., the famity of Yudhiṣṭhira).
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kurū (कुरू).—m A fit or gust of haughty anger. v yē.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
1) Name of a country situated in the north of India about the site of the modern Delhi; श्रियः कुरूणा- मधिपस्य पालनीम् (śriyaḥ kurūṇā- madhipasya pālanīm) Ki.1.1; चिराय तस्मिन् कुरवश्चकासति (cirāya tasmin kuravaścakāsati) 1.17.
2) The kings of this country.
-ruḥ 1 A priest.
2) Boiled rice.
Derivable forms: kuruḥ (कुरुः).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kuru (कुरु).—m. = Uttara-kuru; see s.v. dvīpa.
--- OR ---
Kuru (कुरु).—nt. (= Sanskrit Lex. id.), boiled rice: Mv i.28.10 (prose) asti kuru (v.l. kuruṃ; n. sg.) asti yvāgū. Senart em. to kūraṃ, which is Sanskrit; in i.29.3 he reads kūro ti loke pretasmiṃ paśya yāva sudurlabhaṃ (note nt. adj.!), but mss. all kuro (except one karo); perh. read kurū, kuruṃ, or even kuro with mss. (o for final u, favored by meter).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-ruḥ) 1. Kuru or Uttara Kuru, the most northerly of the four Maha Dwipas, or principal divisions of the known world, by other systems it is considered as one of nine divisions of Varshas of the same; in both cases it is the country beyond the northern-most range of mountains, extending to the frozen ocean. 2. A proper name, son of Agnidhra, and grandson of Priyavrata. 3. A proper name, a prince of the lunar race, son of Samvarana by Tapati; sovereign of the north-west of India or the country about Dehli, and ancestor of both Pandu and Dhritarashtra; the patronymic however derived from his name is most usually applied to the sons of the latter. 4. A holy place: see kurukṣetra. 5. Boiled rice. 6. Pricklynightshade: see kaṇṭakārikā. E. kṛ to make, ku affix, and ṛ becomes. u.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+91): Karumbulatta, Kurenjiyaphaladayaka, Kuruba, Kurubahu, Kurubaka, Kurubilva, Kurucandra, Kurucara, Kuruchandra, Kuruchilla, Kurucilla, Kurucimuruci, Kurudeva, Kurudhamma, Kurudhamma Jataka, Kurudipa, Kuruha, Kuruhara, Kurujangala, Kurujangalam.
Full-text (+391): Kaurava, Kurukshetra, Kauravya, Hastinapura, Korabya, Uttarakuru, Tapati, Kurujangala, Kururaj, Kurunandana, Kuruksheva, Vikarna, Kuruvista, Kurupancala, Tapatya, Dakshinakuru, Dakkhinakuru, Agnidhra, Kururajya, Pandu.
Search found 75 books and stories containing Kuru, Kurū; (plurals include: Kurus, Kurūs). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Mahabharata (English) (by Kisari Mohan Ganguli)
Section CXXI < [Bhagavat-Gita Parva]
Section CXIII < [Sambhava Parva]
Section CXLVIII < [Bhagavat-Yana Parva]
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita (by Narayana Gosvami)
Verse 4.31 < [Chapter 4 - Jñāna-Yoga (Yoga through Transcendental Knowledge)]
Verse 11.48 < [Chapter 11 - Viśvarūpa-darśana-yoga (beholding the Lord’s Universal Form)]
Verse 10.19 < [Chapter 10 - Vibhūti-yoga (appreciating the opulences of the Supreme Lord)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.5.1 < [Chapter 5 - Priya: The Beloved]
Verse 2.5.200 < [Chapter 5 - Prema: Love of God]
Verse 1.5.49 < [Chapter 5 - Priya: The Beloved]
The Bhagavata Purana (by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada)
Chapter 68 - The Marriage of Samba < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Chapter 10 - Departure of Lord Krishna for Dvaraka < [Canto I - The Creation]
Chapter 71 - The Lord Travels to Indraprastha < [Canto X - The Summum Bonum]
Chapter 11 - Tuition for Drona < [Adi Parva]
Chapter 4 - Arjuna Challenges the Kaurava Army < [Virata Parva]
Prashna Upanishad with Shankara’s Commentary (by S. Sitarama Sastri)