Kashmira, Kāsmīra, Kaśmīra, Kasmira, Kasmīra, Kāśmīra, Kāśmira: 28 definitions
Kashmira means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
The Sanskrit terms Kaśmīra and Kāśmīra and Kāśmira can be transliterated into English as Kasmira or Kashmira, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर) refers to a land once occupied by a vast lake according to the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Kaśmīra was occupied for six Manvantaras since the beginning of the Kalpa by a vast lake six yojanas long and three yojanas wide, called Satīsara. In the 7th Manvantara, the water of the lake was drained off through an outlet made with plough by Ananta at the order of Viṣṇu who along with other gods and goddesses had come there to kill the demon Jalodbhava—invincible in the waters. The story runs further informing how after the death of Jalodbhava, the Piśācas and the descendants of Manu were settled there by Kaśyapa to live in company of the Nagas, the original inhabitants of the valley.
The same legend about the draining of the lake occurs in Kalhaṇa’s Rājataraṅgiṇī and in a bit changed form, in the Mahāvaṃśa, the Chinese Vinaya of the Mūla-Sarvāstivādī sect and the account of the travels of Hiuen Tsang.
The very land of Kaśmīra is the mother goddess Kaśmīrā—a form of Umā.Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर).—(KAŚMĪRAKAM). A state in North India, Kaśmīra was famous during the Mahābhārata period also. Once Arjuna conquered this state (Sabhā Parva, Chapter 27). People from the state had attended Yudhiṣṭhira’s Rājasūya with many articles of presentation. Śrī Kṛṣṇa once defeated its ruler. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 11, Verse 16). Paraśurāma also once defeated its ruler. (Droṇa Parva, Chapter 70, Verse 11).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
2) Kāśmīra (काश्मीर).—A tribe.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 120.
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.24.16, II.31.12, II.48.13, VI.10.52, VI.10.66) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Kāśmīra) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)Source: Wisdom Library: Śaivism
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is a Sanskrit word referring to one of the sixty-eight places hosting a svāyambhuvaliṅga, one of the most sacred of liṅgas according to the Śaivāgamas. The presiding deity residing over the liṅga in this place (Kāśmīra) is named Vijaya. The list of sixty-eight svāyambhuvaliṅgas is found in the commentary of the Jirṇoddhāra-daśaka by Nigamajñānadeva. The word liṅga refers to a symbol used in the worship of Śiva and is used thoughout Śaiva literature, such as the sacred Āgamas.
Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.
Vastushastra (architecture)Source: Wisdom Library: Vāstu-śāstra
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) refers to a variety of prāsāda (upper storey of any building), according to the Śilparatna (32.7) and the Īśānaśiva (32.70).
Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is the name of a country pertaining to the Pāñcālī (Pāñcālamadhyamā) local usage (pravṛtti) according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 14. These pravṛttis provide information regarding costumes, languages, and manners in different countries of the world. It is mentioned that this local usage (adopted by these countries) depends on the grand style (sāttvatī) and the violent style (ārabhaṭī).
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kavya
Kāśmīra refers to an ancient district or cultural territory, as mentioned in the 7th-century Mudrārākṣasa written by Viśākhadeva. Kāśmīra corresponds to modern Kashmir.Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is the name of an ancient country, according to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 39. Accordingly, as king Vīrabhuja said to Surakṣita: “do not attempt to brazen it out, but go to Kashmir [Kāśmīra] to wash away your [Surakṣita’s] sin (where are those holy fields, Vijayakṣetra, and Nandikṣetra the purifying, and the kṣetra of the boar), the land which was hallowed by Viṣṇu, the bow-handed god, where the stream of the Ganges bears the name of Vitastā, where is the famous Maṇḍapakṣetra, and where is Uttaramānasa; when your sin has been washed away by a pilgrimage to these holy places you shall behold my [king Vīrabhuja] face again”.
According to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 63. Accordingly, “... there is a region in the south of the Himālaya, called Kaśmīra [Kāśmīra]; which Providence (vidhi) seems to have created in order to prevent mortals from hankering after Heaven; where Śiva and Viṣṇu, as self-existent deities, inhabit a hundred shrines, forgetting their happy homes in Kailāsa and Śvetadvīpa; which is laved by the waters of the Vitastā, and full of heroes and sages, and proof against treacherous crimes and enemies, though powerful”.
According to the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 73: “... There is here a region named Kaśmīra, the ornament of the earth, which the Creator made as a second heaven, after creating the first heaven, for men who have done righteous deeds. The difference between the two is that in heaven delights can only be seen, in Kaśmīra they can be actually enjoyed. The two glorious goddesses Srī and Sarasvatī both frequent it, as if they vied with one another, saying: ‘I have the pre-eminence here’. ‘No, it is I’. The Himālaya encircles it with its embrace, as if to prevent Kali, the adversary of virtue, from entering it. The Vitastā adorns it, and repels sin with its waves, as if they were hands, and seems to say: ‘Depart far from this land which is full of waters sacred to the gods’. In it the long lines of lofty palaces, whitened with silvery plaster, imitate the cliffs at the foot of the neighbouring Himālaya”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kāśmīra, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.Source: Shodhganga: The Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is the name a locality mentioned in Rājaśekhara’s 10th-century Kāvyamīmāṃsā.—Kāśmīra. It is the important place situated in the northern India. It is popularly known as the name „Haven of this Earth‟.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)Source: eScholarship: Chapters 1-14 of the Hayasirsa Pancaratra
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) is the name of an ancient region, being born from there represents an undesirable characteristic of an Ācārya, according to the 9th-century Hayaśīrṣa-pañcarātra Ādikāṇḍa chapter 3.—The Lord said:—“I will tell you about the Sthāpakas endowed with perverse qualities. He should not construct a temple with those who are avoided in this Tantra. [...] Nor originating in Kāmarūpa or Kaliṅga, or Kāñcī, Kāśmīra or Kośala, nor one having bad behavior, bad company or come from Mahārāṣṭra. [...] A god enshrined by any of these named above (viz., kāśmīra), is in no manner a giver of fruit. If a building for Viṣṇu is made anywhere by these excluded types (viz., kāśmīra) then that temple will not give rise to enjoyment and liberation and will yield no reward, of this there is no doubt”.
Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Kāśmīra (काश्मीर) refers to “saffron” and is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion in the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., kāśmīra (saffron)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., kāñjika gruel)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: archive.org: Indian Historical Quarterly Vol. 7
Kāśmira (काश्मिर) is the name of a country classified as both Hādi and Kādi (two types of Tantrik division), according to the 13th century Sammoha-tantra (fol. 7).—There are ample evidences to prove that the zone of heterodox Tantras went far beyond the natural limits of India. [...] The zones in the Sammoha-tantra [viz., Kāśmira] are here fixed according to two different Tantrik modes, known as Kādi and Hādi.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
A district in Northern India, the modern Kashmir. In the Pali texts it is always mentioned with Gandhara and probably once formed part of that kingdom. (See also PHAI., p.93. The Jatakas mention the countries separately as comprising two kingdoms ruled by a single king, e.g., J.iii.364, 378). At the end of the Third Council, Moggaliputta sent the thera Majjhantika to propagate the religion in Kasmira Gandhara. Majjhantika quelled the power of the Naga king Aravala (q.v.), who was a menace to the inhabitants, and converted him to the faith, while the yakkha Pandaka and his wife Harita, with their five hundred sons, became sotapannas. The thera preached the Asivisupama Sutta to the assembled multitude and won eighty thousand converts, while one hundred thousand persons entered the Order. We are told that from that time onwards the yellow robe was held in great esteem in Kasmira. (Mhv.xii.3, 9 ff; Dpv.viii.4; Sp.i.64ff; see also Beal, op. cit., i.134, n.39). There was evidently a large community of monks at Kasmira, till long after the coming of Majjhantika, for we are told that two hundred and eighty thousand monks, led by Uttinna, came from Kasmira to Anuradhapura on the occasion of the foundation ceremony of the Maha Thupa (Mhv.xxix.37).
In Hiouien Thsangs time Kasmira seems to have been an independent kingdom whose king was given to serpent worship while his queen was a follower of the Buddha. Near the capital was a stupa which enshrined a tooth of the Buddha. This tooth was soon after taken away by Harsavardhana of Kanoj. (CAGI.104ff; Beal, i.116f, etc.)
Sagala is mentioned as being twelve leagues from Kasmira (Mil.82).
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Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: A Critical Study of the Vajraḍākamahātantrarāja (II)
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर) refers to one of the twenty-four sacred districts mentioned in the 9th century Vajraḍākatantra (chapter 18). These districts are not divided into subgroups, nor are explained their internal locations. They [viz., Kaśmīra] are external holy places, where the Tantric meting is held with native women who are identified as a native goddess. A similar system appears in the tradition of Hindu Tantrims, i.e., in the Kubjikāmatatantra (chapter 22), which belongs to the Śākta sect or Śaivism.
Kaśmīra is presided over by the Goddess (Devī) named Gokarṇī accompanied by the Field-protector (Kṣetrapāla) named Nāḍījaṅgha. Their weapon possibly corresponds to the vajra and śṛṅkhala and their abode (residence) is mentioned as being the top of the mountain.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
India history and geographySource: Ancient Buddhist Texts: Geography of Early Buddhism
Kāsmīra (कास्मीर) is the name of a locality situated in Uttarāpatha (Northern District) of ancient India, as recorded in the Pāli Buddhist texts (detailing the geography of ancient India as it was known in to Early Buddhism).—According to a Jātaka story the kingdom of Kāsmīr was included in the Gandhāra Kingdom. It is stated in the Mahāvaṃsa that after the dissolution of the Third Buddhist Council, Moggaliputta Tissa thera sent Majjhantika thera to Kāsmīra-Gandhāra for propagation of the Buddhist faith. (See ante: Gandhāra). During the reign of Asoka, Kāsmīra was included in the Maurya dominion. This is proved by the testimony of Yuan Chwang.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
kasmīra : (m.) name of a country in Northern India.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
kāśmīra (काश्मीर).—n S Saffron.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर).—(pl.) Name of a country, the modern Kaṣmir. अभिजानासि देवदत्त यत्कश्मीरेषु वत्स्यामः (abhijānāsi devadatta yatkaśmīreṣu vatsyāmaḥ) Mahābhārata on I.1.44. also on III.2.114. (Its position is thus described in Tantras:śāradāmaṭhamārabhya kuṅkumādritaṭāntakaḥ | tāvatkaśmīradeśaḥ syāt pañcāśadyojanātmakaḥ)
Derivable forms: kaśmīraḥ (कश्मीरः).
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Kāśmīra (काश्मीर).—a. (-rī f.) Born in, belonging to, or coming from, Kāṣmīra.
-rāḥ (pl.) Name of a country or its inhabitants; see कश्मीर (kaśmīra) also.
-rāḥ A sort of grape; see कश्मीर (kaśmīra) also.
-ram 1 Saffron; काश्मीरगन्धमृगनाभिकृताङ्गरागाम् (kāśmīragandhamṛganābhikṛtāṅgarāgām) Ch. P.8; Bh.1.41, काश्मीरगौरवपुषामभिसारिकाणाम् (kāśmīragauravapuṣāmabhisārikāṇām) Gīt. 11; also 1; cf. also कस्तूरिकां च काश्मीरं पाटीरं हिमवालुकाम् (kastūrikāṃ ca kāśmīraṃ pāṭīraṃ himavālukām) Śiva. B.3.13. काश्मीरद्रवसान्द्रदिग्धवपुषः (kāśmīradravasāndradigdhavapuṣaḥ) Bhāg.
2) Root of a tree.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Kāśmīrā (काश्मीरा).—the capital city of Kashmir: Karmavibhaṅga (and Karmavibhaṅgopadeśa) 32.12 °rāyāṃ mahānagaryāṃ; 61.12; 62.1; 72.3. Cf. prec. Lévi translates the last three as if they referred to the country.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) The name of a country, Kashmir. E. kaś to go, īran Unadi affix, and mud inserted: see kāśmīra.
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(-raṃ) 1. A plant with a tuberous root, a sort of costus, (Custus speciosus.) 2. A country, Kashmir, or in the plu.
(-rāḥ) its inhabitants. f. (-rī) A tree, (Ficus elastica.) E. kaśmīra Kashmir, and aṇ affix; produced in that place.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर).—m. The name of a country, Cashmere, [Rājataraṅgiṇī] 1, 27.
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Kāśmīra (काश्मीर).—i. e. kaśmīra + a, I. adj., f. rī. 1. Trained in Cashmere, Mahābhārata 4, 254 (a horse). 2. An inhabitant of Cashmere, Mahābhārata 3, 5032. Ii. m. 1. A king of Cashmere, [Mudrārākshasa, (ed. Calc.)] 18, 17. 2. Cashmere, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 43, 32. Iii. n. Saffron, [Bhartṛhari, (ed. Bohlen.)] 1, 48.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Kaśmīra (कश्मीर).—[masculine] [Name] of a country, [plural] of a people.
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Kāśmīra (काश्मीर).—[feminine] ī pertaining to or coming from kacmira; [masculine] = kaśmīra.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kaśmīra (कश्मीर):—m. [plural] (ifc. f(ā). ; √kaś ? perhaps contraction of kaśyapa-mīra; cf. [Rājataraṅgiṇī i, 25; Rāmāyaṇa i, 70, 19]), Name of a country and of the people inhabiting it (cf. kāśmīra) [gana] bhargādi, [Pāṇini 4-1, 178]
2) saṅkāśādi, [iv, 2, 80]
3) kacchādi, [iv, 2, 133]
4) [sindhv-ādi], [iv, 3, 93; Rājataraṅgiṇī]
5) Kāśmīra (काश्मीर):—mf(ī)n. (gaṇas kacchādi and sindhv-ādi) born in or coming from Kaśmīra, [Mahābhārata iv, 254]
6) m. a king of Kaśmīra, [Mudrārākṣasa; Kathāsaritsāgara]
7) the country Kaśmīra, [Mahābhārata] etc.
8) m. [plural] the inhabitants of Kaśmīra, [ib.]
9) m. the country Kaśmīra, [ib.]
10) Kāśmīrā (काश्मीरा):—[from kāśmīra] f. a sort of grape, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
11) Kāśmīra (काश्मीर):—n. the tuberous root of the plant Costus speciosus, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
12) saffron, [Bhartṛhari; Gīta-govinda; cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
13) = ṭaṅka, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Kaśmīra (कश्मीर):—(raḥ) 1. m. Cāshmir.
2) Kāśmīra (काश्मीर):—(raṃ) 1. n. A plant with a tuberous root, (Costus speciosus;) a country, Kashmir; plu. the people of it. (rī) 3. f. A fig tree.Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)
[Sanskrit to German]
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with: Kashmiradesha, Kashmiraja, Kashmirajala, Kashmirajanman, Kashmirajiraka, Kashmiraka, Kashmiralinga, Kashmiramahatmya, Kashmiramandala, Kashmiramandalam, Kashmirapanka, Kashmirapura, Kashmirapushpanjali, Kashmirarajavamsha, Kashmirasambhava, Kashmirashaiva, Kashmiratirthasamgraha, Kashmiravanija, Kashmiravriksha.
Full-text (+496): Kashmiraja, Kashmirajanman, Kashmiraka, Kashmirika, Kashmirapura, Kashmiradesha, Lahara, Kashmiramandala, Kashmirikanivasa, Kashmiri, Kashmirya, Narendraditya, Kashmiravanija, Vajraditya, Didda, Shilhana, Gopaditya, Shastrashilpin, Sureshvari, Hiranyapura.
Search found 39 books and stories containing Kashmira, Kāsmīra, Kaśmīra, Kasmira, Kasmīra, Kāśmīra, Kāśmira, Kāśmīrā; (plurals include: Kashmiras, Kāsmīras, Kaśmīras, Kasmiras, Kasmīras, Kāśmīras, Kāśmiras, Kāśmīrās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Kavyamimamsa of Rajasekhara (Study) (by Debabrata Barai)
Part 2 - Life and Date of Rājaśekhara < [Chapter 1 - Introduction]
Part 3 - Synthesis of Rīti, Vṛtti and Pravṛitti < [Chapter 3 - Contribution of Rājaśekhara to Sanskrit Poetics]
Manusmriti with the Commentary of Medhatithi (by Ganganatha Jha)
Verse 7.32 < [Section IV - Duties of the King]
Verse 8.41 < [Section X - Knowledge of Law, Custom and Usage necessary for the King]
Verse 2.24 < [Section VI - Qualified Countries]
Blue Annals (deb-ther sngon-po) (by George N. Roerich)
Chapter 4 - Hierarchy of the teaching < [Book 1 - The beginning of the story of the Doctrine]
Chapter 10 - Origin of the Adamantine Garland (Vajrāvali) and other cycles < [Book 14 - Great Compassion Cycle]
Chapter 5 - The btsan System of Maitreya’s Doctrines < [Book 6 - The Origin of the Mādhyamika (middle way)]
The Nilamata Purana (by Dr. Ved Kumari)
Mahavamsa (by Wilhelm Geiger)
The backdrop of the Srikanthacarita and the Mankhakosa (by Dhrubajit Sarma)
Part 8a - Countries and cities (found in the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita) < [Chapter IV - Socio-cultural study of the Śrīkaṇṭhacarita]
Part 5 - Some prominent Kashmiri Sanskrit poets < [Chapter I - Introduction]