Atharvaveda and Charaka Samhita

by Laxmi Maji | 2021 | 143,541 words

This page relates ‘Classification of Drugs in the Caraka-Samhita’ found in the study on diseases and remedies found in the Atharvaveda and Charaka-samhita. These texts deal with Ayurveda—the ancient Indian Science of life—which lays down the principles for keeping a sound health involving the use of herbs, roots and leaves. The Atharvaveda refers to one of the four Vedas (ancient Sanskrit texts encompassing all kinds of knowledge and science) containing many details on Ayurveda, which is here taken up for study.

Classification of Drugs in the Caraka-Saṃhitā

The sweet-testing drugs are as follows: jīvaka, ṛṣabhaka, jīvantī, vīrā, tāalakī, kākolī, kṣīrakākolī, mudgaparṇī, māṣaparṇī, śālaparṇī, pṛśniparṇī, asanaparṇī, madhuparṇī, medā, mahamedā, karkaṭaśṛṅgī, śṛṅgātikā, chinnaruhā, chatrā, aticchatrā, śrāvaṇī, mahāśrāvaṇī, sahadevā, viśvadevā, śuklā, kṣīraśukla, balā, atibalā, vidārī, kṣīravidārī, kṣudrasahā, mahāsahā, ṛṣyagandhā, aśvagandhā, vṛścīra, punarnavā, bṛhatī, kaṇṭakārikā, urubūka, moraṭa, śvadaṃṣṭrā, saṃharṣā, śatāvarī, śatapuṣpā, madhūkapuṣpī, yaṣṭimadhu, madhūlikā, mṛdvīkā, kharjūra, parūṣka, ātmaguptā, seeds puṣkara, kaśeruka, rājakaśeruka, rājādana, kataka, kāśmarya, śītapākī, odanapākī, tāla, upper portion of kharjūra, ikṣu, ikṣuvālikā, darbha, kuśa, kāśa, śāli, gundrā, itkaṭaka, root of sara, rājakṣavaka, ṛṣyaproktā, dvāradā, bhāradvājī, vanatrapuṣī, abhīrupatrī, haṃsapādi, kākanāsikā, kuliṅgākṣī, kṣīravallī, kapotavallī, somavallī, gopaballī, madhauvallī.

The sour-flavour drugs are as follows: fruits of āmra, āmrātaka, lakuca, karamarda, vṛkṣāmla, amlavetasa, kuvala, badara, dāḍima, mātuluṅga, gaṇḍīra, āmalaka, nandītaka, śītaka, tintiḍīka, dantaśaṭha, airāvata, kośāmra, dhanvana. Leaves of āmrātaka, aśmantaka, cāṅgeri, four varieties of amlikā, dry and wet kola, wild and cultivated varieties of dried amlikā. Alcoholic preparations viz., surā, Sauvīraka, tuṣodaka, maireya, medaka, madirā, madhu, śukta, śīdhu, curd, dadhimaṇḍa, udaśvit and dhānyāmla.

The saline-testing drugs are as follows: saindhava, sauvarcala, kāla, viḍa, pākya, anūpa, kūpya, vālukaila, maulaka, sāmudra, romaka, audbhida, pāṭeyaka, pāṃśuja.

The pungent-test drugs are as follows: pippalī, root of pippalī, hastipippalī, cavya, citraka, śṛṅgavera, marica, ajamodā, ārdraka, viḍaṅga, kustumburu, pīlu, tejovatī, elā, 217 kuṣṭha, nuts of bhallātaka, resinous exudation of hiṅgu, kilima, mūlaka, sarṣapa, laśuna, karañja, śigruka, madhuśigruka, kharapuṣpā, bhūstṛṇa, various types of basils, viz. sumukha, surasa, kuṭheraka, arjaka, gaṇḍīraka, ālamālaka, parṇāsa, kṣavaka and phaṇijjhaka; alkalies, urines and Biles.

The bitter-flavour drugs are as follows: candana, nalada, kṛtamāla, naktamāla, nimbi, tumburu, kuṭaja, haridrā, dāruharidrā, mustā, mūrvā, kirātatiktaka, kaṭukarohinī, trāyamāṇā, kāravellikā, kārīra, karavīra, kebuka, kaṭhillaka, vṛṣa, maṇḍūkaparṇī, karkoṭaka, vārtāku, karkaśa, kākamācī, kāodumbarikā, suṣavī, ativiṣā, paṭla, kulaka, pāṭhā, guḍūcī, tender shoots of vetra, vetasa, vikaṅkata, bakula, somavalka, saptaparṇa, sumana, arka, avalguja, vacā, tagara, aguru, vālaka, uśīra.

The astringent-test drugs are as follows: priyaṅgu, anantā, stones of āmra, ambaṣṭhakī, kaṭvaṅga, lodhra, mocarasa, samaṅgā, flowers of dhātakī, padma, stamens of padma, jambu, āmra, plaṣa, vaṭa, kapītana, udumbara, aśvattha, nuts of bhallātaka, aśantaka, śirīṣa, śiṃśapā, somavalka, tinduka, priyāla, badara, khadira, saptaparṇa, aśvakarṇa, syandana, arjuna, arimeda, elavāluka, paripelava, kadamba, śallakī, jiṅginī, kāśa, kaśeruka, rajakaśeru, kaṭphala, vaṃśa, padmaka, aśoka, sāla, dhava, sarja, bhūrja, śaṇa, kharapuṣpā, pura, śamī, mācīka, varaka, tuṅga, ajakarṇa, sphūrjaka, bibhīaka, kumbhī, seed of lotus, rhizome of lotus, stalk of lotus’ sprouts of tāla, sprouts of kharjūra.

Anuvāsana type of enema is composed of fats. Fats are of two types, depending upon their sources, viz., vegetable and animal. Vegetable oils may be obtained from tila or from other such oil-bearing plants. Both these types of oil will be described by a single term ‘taila’. Because the oil extracted from tila is the most important of all oils.

Śirovirecana drugs are as follows: fruits of apāmārga, pippalī, marica, viḍaṅga, śigru, śirīṣa, tumburu, pīlu, ajāji, ajamoda, vārtakī, pṛthvikā, elā, hareṇuka. Leaves of various types of basils, viz., sumukha, surasa, kuṭheraka, gaṇḍīra, kālamālaka, parṇāsa, kṣavaka and phaṇijjhaka; haridrā, śṛṅgavera, mūlaka, laśuna, tarkārī, sarṣapa. Roots of arka, alarka, kuṣṭha, nāgadantī, vacā, apāmārga, śvetā, jyotiṣmatī, gavākṣī, gaṇḍīrapuṣpī, avākpuṣpī, vṛścīkāli, vayasthā, ativiṣā. Rhizoms etc. of haridrā, śṛṅgavera, mūlaka, laśuna. Flowers of lodhra, madana, saptaparṇa, nimbi, arka. Resinous exudations of devadāru, aguru, sarala, sallakī, jingini, asana, hiṅgu. Barks of tejovatī, varāṅga, ingudī, sobhāñjanaka, bṛhatī, kaṇṭakārikā[1].

Footnotes and references:

[1]:

C. Vimānasthāna–VIII.154-174; Baidyacharya Kalikinkar Sensarma & Ayurbedacharya Satyasekhar Bhattacharya (eds.), Caraka-Samhita–Vol. I, trans. Kabiraj Jasodanandan Sirkar, Kolkata, Deepayan Publication, 2013, pp. 83-91.

Help me keep this site Ad-Free

For over a decade, this site has never bothered you with ads. I want to keep it that way. But I humbly request your help to keep doing what I do best: provide the world with unbiased truth, wisdom and knowledge.

Let's make the world a better place together!

Like what you read? Consider supporting this website: