Pura, aka: Pūra, Purā; 13 Definition(s)

Introduction

Pura means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Pura (पुर) refers to “city area” It is used throughout Dharmaśāstra literature such as the Manusmṛti and the Baudhāyana-dharmasūtra.

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Pura (पुर).—A demon.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopaedia

1a) Pura (पुर).—Killed by Śiva.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 55. 16.

1b) City; began with Pṛthu;1 its evacuation by the people for the woods during periods of anarchy.2

  • 1) Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 36. 197; III. 50. 9; 56. 24; 63. 165; 69. 40; IV. 38. 44; Viṣṇu-purāṇa I. 6. 18-19; V. 36. 6; Vāyu-purāṇa 34. 10; 48. 7.
  • 2) Matsya-purāṇa 6. 13, 10. 32; 47. 257; 143. 3.

2) Purā (पुरा).—Towns; triangular, round, short or long, condensed; but a square type is celebrated; the chief house, (Palace) measuring 800 Kiṣku.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa I. 5. 99; 7. 93 and 105; Vāyu-purāṇa 8. 99, 113ff.
Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Vastushastra (architecture)

Pura (पुर).—The Samarāṅgaṇasūtradhāra 10.2 describes puras as being of three kinds—Big, middle and small which have different measurements for their ditches, buildings, streets and road-ways. The big pura one possesses a circumference of four thousand arcs, the middle pura of two thousand arcs and the small pura of one thousand arcs.

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions (vastu)
Vastushastra book cover
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Vastushastra (वास्तुशास्त्र, vāstuśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science (shastra) of architecture (vastu), dealing with topics such architecture, sculpture, town-building, fort building and various other constructions. Vastu also deals with the philosophy of the architectural relation with the cosmic universe.

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India history and geogprahy

Pura (पुर) or Pur refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Also see Pāṇini IV.2.122. In the later Vedic literature the word Pur meant “rampart”, “fort”, or “stronghold”. The meaning of pura as “city” developed later and was not at all in vogue in the Vedic literature. Lexicons define pura as a place containing large buildings surrounded by a ditch and extending not less than one kośa in length, if it extends for half that distance it is called a kheṭa; if less than that, a karvaṭa or small market town, any smaller cluster of houses is called a grāma or village.

T. Burrow derives pura from √pri to fill; Piparti ‘fills’: pur ‘city’: Lithuanian pilis (l becomes r). We find the word being spelt in two ways pur and pura. Pur (city), from puru (much) and pūrṇa (full) means “plentitude” or multitude of settlers. Similarly Greek polis (city) from poly (much): Latin populus (population, people) from plenus (full), and English folk from full. Pur is the city and puruṣa the citizen. Greek polites (citizens), is preserved in politics (civic concerns), police (city administration), and cosmopolitan (citizen of the world): Lithuanian pilis (fort, castle).

Pura, where it does not retain the original from pur, is changed into the following:

  1. war, as Puruṣapura, Peshawar; Nalapura, Narwar; Matipura, Madwār; Śalvapura, Alwar; Candrapura, Candwar.
  2. urs or ur, as Māyāpura, Mayura; Siṃhapura, Siṅgur; Juṣkapura, Zukur.
  3. or, as Traipura, Teor; Candrādityapura, Caindor.
  4. ora, as Ilbalapura, Ellora.
  5. ore, as Lavapura, Lahore.
  6. ola, as Āryapura, Aihole.
  7. ar, as Kusumapura, Kumrar.
  8. aur, as Siddhapura, Siddhaur.
  9. own, as Hiraṇyapura, Hindoun or Herdoun
Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Pura.—a temple (Ep. Ind., Vol. XXXV, p. 184). See bhavana. Note: pura is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

pura : (nt.) a town or city. || purā (ind.) formerly; in the past. pūra (adj.) full; full of.

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Pūra, (adj.) (cp. Class. Sk. pūra; fr. pṛ, see pūreti) full; full of (with Gen.) D. I, 244 (nadī); M. I, 215; III, 90, 96; A. IV, 230; Sn. 195, 721; Ud. 90 (nadī); J. I, 146; Pv IV. 313 (=pānīyena puṇṇa PvA. 251); Pug. 45, 46; PvA. 29.—dup° difficult to fill J. V, 425.—pūraṃ (-°) nt. as adv. in kucchi-pūraṃ to his belly’s fill J. III, 268; Vism. 108 (udara-pūra-mattaṃ). (Page 471)

— or —

Purā, (indecl.) (Vedic purā; to Idg. *per, cp. Goth. faúr= Ags. for=E. (be-) fore; also Lat. prae=Gr. parai/=Sk. pare) prep. c. Abl. “before” (only temporal) Vin. IV, 17 (purāruṇā=purā aruṇā before dawn); Sn. 849 (purā bhedā before dissolution (of the body), after which the Suttanta is named Purābhedasutta, cp. Nd1 210 sq.; expld by sarīra-bhedā pubbaṃ at SnA 549). (Page 469)

— or —

Pura, (nt.) (Vedic pur. f. , later Sk. puraṃ nt. & purī f. ) 1. a town, fortress, city Vin. I, 8=M. I, 171 (Kāsinaṃ puraṃ); J. I, 196, 215; Sn. 976, 991, 1012 (°uttama), 1013; J. VI, 276 (=nagara C); Mhvs 14, 29.—avapure below the fortress M. I, 68.—devapura city of the Gods S. IV, 202; Vv 6430 (=Sudassana-mahā-nagara VvA. 285). See also purindada.—2. dwelling, house or (divided) part of a house (=antepura), a meaning restricted to the Jātakas, e.g. V, 65 (=nivesana C.); VI, 251, 492 (=antepura). Cp. thīpura lady’s room, harem, also “lady” J. V, 296, and antepura.—3. the body (cp. Sk. pura body as given by Halāyudha 2, 355, see Aufrecht p. 273) Th. 1, 279 1150 (so read for pūra, cp. Kern, Toev. s. v. & under sarīradeha).—Cp. porin. (Page 468)

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

pura (पुर).—n S A town or city.

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purā (पुरा).—a (pūra S To fill.) Complete or entire; free from deficiency whether of quantity, part, or appendages. 2 Completed, finished, accomplished. 3 Perfect, adept, well versed and skilled in. 4 Sufficient or sufficing. 5 Used as ad Fully, thoroughly, perfectly: also adequately, sufficiently. purā karaṇēṃ To execute (a decree or a process of a court).

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purā (पुरा).—m (pura S) A ward or quarter of a town: also a supplemental or suburban district.

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pūra (पूर).—m (pūra or pūrṇa S) A filling or swelling of rivers; a sudden fresh. v . 2 fig. Exuberance, any overflowing plenty. 3 (pura S) A town or city. Usually in comp. as kōlhāpūra, paṇḍharapūra.

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

pura (पुर).—n A town or city.

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purā (पुरा).—a Complete. Finished. Perfect, adept. Sufficient. ad Fully, thoroughly.

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purā (पुरा).—m A ward or quarter of a town: a suburban district.

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pūra (पूर).—m A Flood. Exuberance. A town or city. Usually in com. as kōlhāpūra, paṇḍharapūra.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Pura (पुर).—a. [pṛ-ka] Full of, filled with.

-ram 1 A town, city (containing large buildings, surrounded by a ditch, and not less than one Krośa in extent); पुरे तावन्तमेवास्य तनोति रविरातपम् (pure tāvantamevāsya tanoti ravirātapam) Ku.2.33; R.1.59.

2) A castle, fortress, stronghold.

3) A house, residence, abode.

4) The body; नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन् न कारयन् (navadvāre pure dehī naiva kurvan na kārayan) Bg.5.13.

5) The female apartments.

6) Name of the town पाटलिपुत्र (pāṭaliputra); q. v.

7) The calyx of a flower, or any cup formed of leaves.

8) A brothel.

9) The skin.

1) Bdellium.

11) An upper story.

12) A store-house.

13) A fragrant grass (nāgaramustā).

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Purā (पुरा).—ind.

1) In former times, formerly, of yore, in the olden time; पुरा शक्रमुपस्थाय (purā śakramupasthāya) R.1.75; पुरा सरसि मानसे (purā sarasi mānase) ...यस्य यातं वयः (yasya yātaṃ vayaḥ) Bv.1.3; Ms.1.119;5.22.

2) Before, hitherto, upto the present time

3) At first, in the first place; रामं दर्शय मे शीघ्रं पुरा मेऽर्थोऽतिवर्तते (rāmaṃ darśaya me śīghraṃ purā me'rtho'tivartate) Rām.7.15.2.

4) In a short time, soon, ere-long, shortly (in this sense usually with a present tense to which it gives a future sense); पुरा सप्तद्वीपां जयति वसुधामप्रतिरथः (purā saptadvīpāṃ jayati vasudhāmapratirathaḥ) Ś. 7.33; पुरा दूषयति स्थलीम् (purā dūṣayati sthalīm) R.12.3; आलोके ते निपतति पुरा सा बलिव्याकुला वा (āloke te nipatati purā sā balivyākulā vā) Me.87; N.1.18, Śi.1.56; Ki.1. 5;11.36.

5) Ved. For the defence of.

6) Securely from.

7) Except, besides.

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Purā (पुरा).—

1) An epithet of the Ganges.

2) A kind of perfume.

3) The east.

4) A castle. See पुरम् (puram).

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Pūra (पूर).—[pūr-ka]

1) Filling, making full; तमहमुपसृतानां कामपूरं नतोऽस्मि (tamahamupasṛtānāṃ kāmapūraṃ nato'smi) Bhāg.8.13.47.

2) Satisfying, pleasing, making content.

3) Pouring in, supplying; अतैलपूराः सुरतप्रदीपाः (atailapūrāḥ suratapradīpāḥ) Ku.1.1.

4) The swelling or rising of a river or of the sea, flood; महोदधेः पूर इवन्दुदर्शनात् (mahodadheḥ pūra ivandudarśanāt) R.3.17.

5) A stream or flood in general; अम्बु°, बाष्प°, शोणित° (ambu°, bāṣpa°, śoṇita°) &c.

6) A piece of water, lake, pond.

7) The healing or cleansing of wounds.

8) A kind of cake.

9) Drawing in breath slowly through the nose; प्राणापानौ संनिरुन्ध्यात् पूर- कुम्भकरेचकैः (prāṇāpānau saṃnirundhyāt pūra- kumbhakarecakaiḥ)

1) The citron tree.

-ram A kind of incense.

Derivable forms: pūraḥ (पूरः).

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Relevant definitions

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