Kataka, Kaṭaka: 24 definitions



Kataka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Katak.

Images (photo gallery)

In Hinduism

Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1) Kaṭaka (कटक).—Viṣṇu.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 13.

2) Kataka (कतक).—A tribe conquered by Kalki.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 31. 84.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kaṭaka (कटक) refers to a kind of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the fingers (aṅguli) to be worn by males, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such ornaments for males should be used in cases of gods and kings.

Kaṭaka (कटक) also refers to an ornament (ābharaṇa) for the fore-arm (bāhu) to be worn by females.

Kaṭaka (कटक) also refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the ankles (gulpha) to be worn by females. Kaṭakas are hollow bangles within which small stone chips are lodged. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., kaṭaka) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Raj Nighantu

Kaṭaka (कटक) refers to the “middle part” of a mountain (giri) according to the second chapter (dharaṇyādi-varga) of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu (an Ayurvedic encyclopedia). The Dharaṇyādi-varga covers the lands, soil, mountains [viz., Kaṭaka], jungles and vegetation’s relations between trees and plants and substances, with their various kinds.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Kataka (कतक) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Strychnos potatorum Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning kataka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Shilpashastra (iconography)

Source: Shodhganga: The significance of the mūla-beras (śilpa)

Kaṭaka (कटक) or Kaṭakahasta refers to “crab-hold” and represents one of the twenty-four gestures with a single hand, as defined according to texts dealing with śilpa (arts and crafs), known as śilpaśāstras.—Accordingly, pratimā-lakṣaṇa (body postures of the icons) is comprised of hand gestures (hasta, mudrā or kai-amaiti), stances/poses (āsanas) and inflexions of the body (bhaṅgas). There are thirty-two types of hands [viz., kaṭaka-hasta] classified into two major groups known as tolirkai (functional and expressive gestures) and elirkai (graceful posture of the hand).

Source: Shodhganga: Vaisnava Agamas And Visnu Images

Kaṭaka (कटक) refers to a “chain with link” and represents a type of “hand-ornaments” (hastabhūṣaṇa), as defined in treatises such as the Pāñcarātra, Pādmasaṃhitā and Vaikhānasa-āgamas, extensively dealing with the technical features of temple art, iconography and architecture in Vaishnavism.—There are a number of ornaments for hand and arms. According to Bharata, [viz., kalāpī (string of pearls), kaṭaka (chain with link ), śaṅkha (bracelet of conches), hastapatra (bracelet with design of creepers), pūraka (a flat bracelet) are the ornament for hand fist and upper part of wrist; and rings are meant for fingers].

Shilpashastra book cover
context information

Shilpashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, śilpaśāstra) represents the ancient Indian science (shastra) of creative arts (shilpa) such as sculpture, iconography and painting. Closely related to Vastushastra (architecture), they often share the same literature.

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In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

A village in Ceylon granted by Aggabodhi IV. for the maintenance of the padhanaghara, which he built for the Elder Dathasiva. Cv.xlvi.12.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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India history and geography

Source: archive.org: Personal and geographical names in the Gupta inscriptions

Kaṭaka (कटक) refers to a name-ending for place-names mentioned in the Gupta inscriptions (reigned from 3rd century CE). Kaṭaka is formed from the root √kaṭ to surround, to encompass, to cover and means a “royal camp”.

There is only one such place-name with the suffix “Kaṭaka”: Gupta inscription No. 29, L. 12, but the first part is not clearly legible. Sircar takes it to be bhrātṛ but does not seem to be correct as it yields nosense with the word Kaṭaka. The donated land is mentioned to have been given to the Chandoga (Sāmavedin) brāhmaṇa Varāha-svāmin, an inhabitant of this Kaṭaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Kaṭaka.—(EI 8, 17), the camp or capital. (SITI), a fortified place; a cantonment; a military camp. Cf. kaṭakaṃ kartavyam (LP), ‘an army should be sent [against one]’. Note: kaṭaka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

kaṭaka : (nt.) 1. a bracelet; 2. a rocky cave.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Kaṭaka, (m. nt.) anything circular, a ring, a wheel (thus in kara° Vin. II, 122); a bracelet PvA. 134. (Page 176)

— or —

Kataka, (nt.) (fr. kantati2) a scrubber, used after a bath Vin. II, 129, 143; cp. Vin. Texts II. 318. (Page 182)

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kaṭaka (कटक).—n S An army. Ex. ēkā praharānta vīsa kōsa || nalēṃ ka0 dūra vanīṃ || 2 A bracelet of gold, shell &c.

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kataka (कतक).—m S Clearing nut plant, Strychnos potatorum.

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kāṭaka (काटक).—m A description of people or an individual of it in the Carnatic, very savage and blood-thirsty. Hence applied to cut-throat people gen.

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kāṭaka (काटक).—a Hardy; the body: also hardworking--a person.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

kaṭaka (कटक).—n An army. A bracelet of gold.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक).—1 A bracelet of gold; कटकाकृतिमुपमृद्य स्वस्तिकः क्रियन्ते (kaṭakākṛtimupamṛdya svastikaḥ kriyante) Mahābhārata on I.1.1. आबद्धहेमकटकां रहसि स्मरामि (ābaddhahemakaṭakāṃ rahasi smarāmi) Ch. P.15; Śi.16.77; कटकान्यूर्मिकाश्चापि चित्ररत्न- चयाङ्किताः (kaṭakānyūrmikāścāpi citraratna- cayāṅkitāḥ) Śiva. B.17.44.

2) A zone or girdle.

3) A string.

4) The link of a chain.

5) A mat.

6) seasalt.

7) The side or ridge of a mountain; प्रफुल्लवृक्षैः कटकैरिव स्वैः (praphullavṛkṣaiḥ kaṭakairiva svaiḥ) Ku.7.52; R.16.31.

8) Table-land; स्फटिककटकभूमिर्नाटयत्येष शैलः (sphaṭikakaṭakabhūmirnāṭayatyeṣa śailaḥ) Śi.4.65.

9) An army, a camp; आकुल्यकारि कटकस्तुरगेण तूर्णम् (ākulyakāri kaṭakasturageṇa tūrṇam) Śi.5.59; Mu.5.

1) A royal capital or metropolis (rājadhānī).

11) A house or dwelling.

12) A circle or wheel.

13) A ring placed as an ornament upon an elephant's tusk.

14) Name of the capital of Orissa.

Derivable forms: kaṭakaḥ (कटकः), kaṭakam (कटकम्).

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Kataka (कतक).—[kaṃ jalaṃ śuddhaṃ tanoti tan -ḍa Tv.] The clearing-nut plant, (Mar. nivaḷī) (the nut of which is said to clear muddy water); फलं कतकवृक्षस्य यद्यप्यम्वु- प्रसादनम् । न नामग्रहणादेव तस्य वारि प्रसीदति (phalaṃ katakavṛkṣasya yadyapyamvu- prasādanam | na nāmagrahaṇādeva tasya vāri prasīdati) || Ms.6.67.

-tam, -takam The nut of this tree, see अम्बुप्रसादन (ambuprasādana) also.

Derivable forms: katakaḥ (कतकः).

See also (synonyms): kata.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक).—(nt.? compare -kāṭaka, for which Mahāvyutpatti Index suggests reading kaṭaka), a kind of fetter or bond, pre- sumably in form of a ring: Gaṇḍavyūha 353.12 (sattvān nānā-haḍi-)- nigaḍa-kaṭaka-kuṇḍala-(q.v.)-śrṅkhalā-khalīna-bandhana- baddhān.

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Kāṭaka (काटक).—(-kāṭaka), nt., in pātra-kāṭakam Mahāvyutpatti 8952, ring or which the almsbowl is fastened, = Tibetan lhuṅ gzed (bzed gzhag paḥi gdu bu, ring for putting almsbowl. [Boehtlingk and Roth] cite the passage with kaṭaka (as in Sanskrit and Pali), but Mironov also kā°; no v.l. in either ed. (but Index to Kyoto ed. cites both forms). However a form found with the same meaning in Divyāvadāna and Avadāna-śataka is -karaka or -kara, qq.v. On the other hand, Divyāvadāna likewise has a form kaṇṭaka, q.v., clearly meaning the same thing, which raises doubts as to the [etymology] Cf. kaṭaka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक).—mn.

(-kaḥ-kaṃ) 1. The side or ridge of a hill or mountain. 2. Table land. 3. Sea-salt. 4. A ring placed as an ornament upon an elephant’s tusk. 5. A bracelet of gold, shell, &c. 6. A zone. 7. A royal metropolis. 8. A city or town. 9. A village. 10. A house or dwelling. 11. A camp. 12. An army. 13. A circle. 14. A wheel. E. kaṭa to encompass, kan Unadi aff.

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Kataka (कतक).—m.

(-kaḥ) The clearing nut plant, (Strychnos potatorum:) one of the seeds of this plant being rubbed upon the inside of the water jars used in Bengal, occasions a precipitation of the earthy particles diffused through the water.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक).—m. and n. 1. A bracelet, [Kathāsaritsāgara, (ed. Brockhaus.)] 9, 73. 2. The hill of a mountain. 3. An army.

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Kataka (कतक).—m. The nut plant, Strychnos potatorum, which clears water, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 6, 67.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक).—[masculine] a straw mat; [masculine] [neuter] cord, string, bracelet; valley; royal camp; caravan.

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Kataka (कतक).—[masculine] the Kataka tree; [neuter] the nut of it (used for clearing water).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Aufrecht Catalogus Catalogorum

1) Kataka (कतक) as mentioned in Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum:—See Vedāntakataka. Hall. p. 154.

2) Kataka (कतक):—Rāmāyaṇaṭīkā. Burnell. 178^b. Oppert. 1780. 1781. Ii, 7482. 7513. 7723. Often quoted by Rāma in his
—[commentary] on Rāmāyaṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭaka (कटक):—[from kaṭ] m. (Comm. on [Uṇādi-sūtra ii, 32 and v, 35]) a twist of straw, a straw mat [commentator or commentary] on [Kātyāyana-śrauta-sūtra]

2) [v.s. ...] mn. a string, [Kādambarī]

3) [v.s. ...] a bracelet of gold or shell etc., [Śakuntalā; Mṛcchakaṭikā] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a zone

5) [v.s. ...] the link of a chain

6) [v.s. ...] a ring serving for a bridle-bit, [Suśruta]

7) [v.s. ...] a ring placed as ornament upon an elephant’s tusk

8) [v.s. ...] the side or ridge of a hill or mountain

9) [v.s. ...] a valley, dale, [Raghuvaṃśa; Kathāsaritsāgara; Hitopadeśa]

10) [v.s. ...] a royal camp, [Kathāsaritsāgara; Hitopadeśa] etc.

11) [v.s. ...] an army, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a circle, wheel, [Horace H. Wilson]

13) [v.s. ...] a multitude, troop, caravan, [Daśakumāra-carita]

14) [v.s. ...] collection, compilation, [Kādambarī 40, 11]

15) [v.s. ...] sea-salt, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

16) [v.s. ...] Name of the capital of the Orissa (Cuttack)

17) Kataka (कतक):—[from kata] m. Strychnos Potatorum or the clearing nut plant (its seeds rubbed upon the inside of water-jars precipitate the earthy particles in the water, [Horace H. Wilson]), [Manu-smṛti vi, 67; Suśruta]

18) [v.s. ...] Name of a commentator on the Rāmāyaṇa.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kaṭaka (कटक):—[(kaḥ-kaṃ)] 1. m. n. The side of a hill; a bracelet; a circle.

2) Kataka (कतक):—(kaḥ) 1. m. A nut plant which clears water (strychnos).

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Kaṭaka (कटक):—[Die Uṇādi-Affixe 5, 35.] m. n. gaṇa ardharcādi zu [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher.2,4,31.] [Siddhāntakaumudī 249,a,1.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa.3,5,12.]

1) Strang: aśvakaṭaka [Suśruta 1, 25, 11.] aśvavaktrakaṭaka [101, 7.] Vgl. kaṭa 1,a. —

2) Ring, Reif; s. yūpakaṭaka . Als Schmuck über die Fangzähne des Elephanten gezogen [Medinīkoṣa k. 56] (kaṇṭaka st. kaṭaka). —

3) Armband [Amarakoṣa 2, 6, 3, 8. 3, 4, 1, 18.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 3, 3, 12.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 663.] [Anekārthasaṃgraha 3, 16.] [Medinīkoṣa] [Hārāvalī 156.] [Mṛcchakaṭikā 38, 24. 165, 3. 7.] [Chezy’s Ausgabe des Śākuntala 114, 5.] [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 5, 3, 4. 6, 4, 38.] [Devīmāhātmya 2, 25.] [Sāhityadarpana 4, 15.] kaṭakavalayinī [Pāṇini’s acht Bücher 5, 2, 128,] [Scholiast] sahasrānīkanāmāṅkaṃ cakāra kaṭakaṃ kare [Kathāsaritsāgara 9, 73. 83. 85.] Am Ende eines adj. comp. f. ā [Caurapañcāśikā 16.] —

4) Bergabhang [Amarakoṣa 2, 3, 5. 3, 4, 1, 18.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1033.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] = mekhalā (daraus bei [WILSON] die Bed. Gürtel) [Bharata] zu [Amarakoṣa] [Śabdakalpadruma] = sānu Tafelland [VIŚVA im Śabdakalpadruma] girikūṭeṣu durgeṣu nānājanapadeṣu ca . janākīrṇeṣu deśeṣu kaṭakeṣu pareṣu ca .. [Mahābhārata 4, 872.] sarovaraṃ divyaṃ tuṅgādrikaṭakāśritam [Kathāsaritsāgara 25, 247.] asti kalyāṇakaṭakavāstavyo bhairavo nāma vyādhaḥ [Hitopadeśa 34, 17.] tato sau (vyādhaḥ) kaṭakaṃ (Thal) praviṣṭaḥ [44, 3.] kaṭakāntareṣu vaindhyeṣu in den Vindhya-Thälern [Raghuvaṃśa 16, 31.] giricakravartī . pratyujjagāmāgamanapratītaḥ praphullavṛkṣaiḥ kaṭakairiva svaiḥ [Kumārasaṃbhava 7, 52.] Hier vielleicht doppelsinnig: Bergabhang und Armee. kaṭakabhūmi [Śiśupālavadha 4, 65.] Diese Bed. schliesst sich an kaṭa 1,b) an. —

5) Armee, Heer = cakra [?(COLEBR. und Loiseleur Deslongchamps:] Kreis; [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] : Kreis; Rad) [Amarakoṣa 3, 4, 1, 18.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 8, 2.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 746.] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Hārāvalī 262.] sa ca digvijayakrameṇāgatya candrabhāgātīre samāvāsitakaṭako vartate [Hitopadeśa 39, 5. 97, 15.] rājahaṃsasya kaṭakaṃ prasthāpitaḥ [133, 7.] agācca kaṭakaṃ sarvam [Kathāsaritsāgara 13, 45. fg.] [4, 97.] kaṭakaṃ bibhiduḥ [15, 101.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 218.] baṇikkaṭaka m. Handelskarawane [Daśakumāracarita 30, 19.] —

6) Residenz eines Königs, rājadhānī [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa] [Hemacandra’s Anekārthasaṃgraha] [Medinīkoṣa] Stadt [Śabdaratnāvalī im Śabdakalpadruma] a village; a house or dwelling; a camp [Wilson’s Wörterbuch] —

7) Seesalz [Medinīkoṣa]

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Kataka (कतक):—m. Name eines Baumes, Strychnos potatorum Lin., dessen Früchte sowohl medicinisch als auch zur Klärung trüben Wassers benutzt werden, indem man mit ihnen die innere Seite des Gefässes einreibt, in welches das Wasser gegossen wird, und dadurch den Niederschlag der Unreinigkeit bewirkt. [AINSLIE 2, 420.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 4, 7.] phalaṃ katakavṛkṣasya yadyapyambuprasādakam [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 6, 67.] [Suśruta 1, 141, 3. 157, 1. 19. 171, 17. 2, 13, 6. 53, 3. 328, 26. 350, 19. 418, 11.]

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Kaṭaka (कटक):—

3) [Bhāgavatapurāṇa 11, 14, 41.] n. [Kathāsaritsāgara 57, 9. 11. 13.] —

4) astīha kāñcābhākhyaṃ himādreḥ kaṭake puram [Kathāsaritsāgara 59, 86.] —


5) bhūbhṛtaḥ (Berge und zugleich Fürsten) kaṭakolbaṇāḥ Inschr. in Journ. of the Am. Or. [S. 7, 25, Śloka 8.] —

6) genauer Hoflager, das Lager eines Fürsten; vgl. [Kathāsaritsāgara 68,38. 40. 71,131. 103,78. fg. 103.] [Oxforder Handschriften 37,b,4 v. u. 38,a,8.] Hierher gehören auch die unter

5) stehenden Stellen [Hitopadeśa 39, 5. 97, 15. 133, 7.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 13, 45. fg.] (lies āgācca) . [4, 97. 15, 101.] [Rājataraṅgiṇī 5, 218.] —

8) m. = kaṭa

1) a) [Scholiast] zu [Kātyāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 8, 3, 27.] — Vgl. pādakaṭaka .

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Kataka (कतक):—m. Nomen proprium eines Scholiasten des Rāmāyaṇa [Rāmāyaṇa] ed. [SCHL. I, XXXI.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung

Kaṭaka (कटक):——

1) m. Geflecht , Matte.

2) m. n. (adj. Comp. f. ā) — a) Strang [Kād. (1872) 87,20.] — b) Armband. — c) Ring als Gebiss des Pferdes [Suśruta (rotrh) 1,25,11.101,7.] — d) Thal. — e) Hoflager , das Lager eines Fürsten. — f) *Armee , Heer. — g) Karawane [Daśakumāra 24,13.] — h) Sammlung , corpus. dharmaśāsana [Kād. (1872) 40,11.] — i) *Seesalz. — k) die Stadt Kuttak [Indian antiquary (Roth) 1876.55.] —

3) f. ṭikā (vgl. auch u. kaṭika) Matte.

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Kataka (कतक):—m.

1) Strychnos potatorum. Die Nuss wird zur Klärung trüben Wassers benutzt. —

2) Nomen proprium eines Commentators des Rāmāyaṇa.

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Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

Kaṭaka (कटक) [Also spelled katak]:—(nm) a cantonment; an army.

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