Sarshapa, Sārṣapa, Sarṣapa: 15 definitions



Sarshapa means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit terms Sārṣapa and Sarṣapa can be transliterated into English as Sarsapa or Sarshapa, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Sārṣapa (अम्लिका) is a Sanskrit word probably referring to Brassica rapa, a plant species in the Brassicaceae family. Certain plant parts of Sārṣapa are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.

According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 7.147), the leaves of the Sāṛsapa (sārṣapapatra) are very hot and cause vitiation of rakta and pitta. This śāka is pungent, tasty and causes burning sensation. It though improves appetite yet causes loss of semen production.

Properties according to Caraka-saṃhitā: The vegetable of mustard aggravates three doṣas, is constipating and antidiuretic (similar is that of ratkanāla (raktanāla?) which is particularly rough and sour).

2) Sarṣapa (सर्षप) is a Sanskrit word referring to the Brassica juncea (“Indian mustard”), a species of mustard plant from the Brassicaceae (cabbage) family. It is also known as Rājikā, or as Kaṭaku in the Malayalam language. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The leaves, seeds and the stem of this plant are edible.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

1) Sarṣapa (सर्षप) refers to a type of spices according to Arthaśāstra II.15.21, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Arthaśāstra refers to the spices like śṛṅgibera, ajāji, kirītatikta, gaura, sarṣapa, kustumaburu, coraka, damanaka, maruvaka, śigru, harītakī and meṣaśṛṅga.

Sarṣapa or “mustard” is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on śimbīdhānya (grains with pods) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana).—In śimbīdhānya-prakaraṇa the properties of grains with pods such as mudga (green gram), māṣa (black-gram), caṇaka (bengal gram), kalāya (field pea), tila (sesame), atasī (linseed), sarṣapa (mustard) and masūra (lentils) are explained.

Sarṣapa or “mustard” is used to prepare oils (taila) from according to the same work.—Taila-prakaraṇa describes the properties of the oil prepared from [viz., sarṣapa (mustard), etc.].

2) Sārṣapa (सार्षप) refers to the “vegetable of mustard plant” and is mentioned as being harmful (ahita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The dravyaguṇāguṇa section contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here in the śāka (ghee) group sārṣapa (the vegetable of mustard plant).

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Sarṣapa (सर्षप) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Brassica juncea Czern. & Coss.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning sarṣapa] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

[«previous next»] — Sarshapa in Purana glossary
Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Sarṣapa (सर्षप) refers to “mustard”, forming part of a common diet in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Sarṣapa (mustard) is mentioned as an unguent and as a gift for the Brāhmaṇas (verse 472). Most of the references to the articles of diet occur in the Nīlamata in connection with the offerings made to the gods but it is not difficult to infer from them the food and drink of the common people because “what a man eats his gods eat”.

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Sarṣapa (सर्षप) refers to “big mustard” and is used in the worship of Śiva, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.14:—“worship with Rājikā (small mustard) of Śiva shall bring about the death of enemies (śatrumṛtyu). Twenty palas of Sarṣapa (big mustard) constitute a hundred thousand in number. Worshipping with them also brings about the death of enemies (śatrumṛtyu). The Śivaliṅga shall be decorated with the leaves of Āḍhakī and then worshipped”.

Sarṣapa can also be used in the Tailadhārā ceremony: “Oil-Dhārā [viz., tailadhārā] shall be performed on Śivaliṅga for harassing enemies. Success in the enterprise is certain. If scented oil is used, worldly pleasures will be increased. If mustard oil (sarṣapa) is used, enemies will be exterminated undoubtedly. If honey (madhu) is used, the devotee will become Kubera (God of wealth). The Dhārā of sugarcane juice (ikṣurasa) is conducive to all pleasures. [...] In all these Dhārās Mṛtyuñjaya-mantra shall be muttered ten thousand times. Eleven Brahmins shall be fed”.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Sarṣapa (सर्षप) denoting ‘mustard’ or ‘mustard seed’, occurs only a few times in later Vedic texts.

India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Sarṣapa.—a small unit of measurement; sometimes specified as ‘red’ (JNSI, Vol. XVI, p. 48). Note: sarṣapa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

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Sarṣapa.—sometimes called ‘red sarṣapa’; a small unit of measurement. Note: sarṣapa is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

sarṣapa (सर्षप).—m S A sort of mustard, Sinapis dichotoma. 2 A mustard seed as a measure of weight.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Sarṣapa (सर्षप).—[Uṇ.3.141]

1) Mustard; खलः सर्षपमात्राणि परच्छिद्राणि पश्यति (khalaḥ sarṣapamātrāṇi paracchidrāṇi paśyati) Subhāṣ.; Māl.1.6.

2) A small measure of weight.

3) A sort of poison.

Derivable forms: sarṣapaḥ (सर्षपः).

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Sārṣapa (सार्षप).—a. (- f.) Made of mustard.

-pam Mustard-oil.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sarṣapa (सर्षप).—m.

(-paḥ) 1. A sort of mustard, (Sinapis dichotoma.) 2. A kind of poison. 3. A small measure of weight, a mustard seed so considered. f. (-pī) A small bird. E. sṛ to go, ap Unadi aff, suk aug.

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Sārṣapa (सार्षप).—mfn.

(-paḥ-pī-paṃ) Mustard, made of or from mustard. n.

(-paṃ) Mustard-oil. E. sarṣapa, and aṇ aff.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sarṣapa (सर्षप).—I. m. 1. sort of mustard, Sinapis dichotoma, Windischmann, Sankara, 165. 2. A small measure of weight, a mustard seed so considered. 3. A sort of poison. Ii. f. , A small bird.

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Sārṣapa (सार्षप).—i. e. sarṣapa + a, I. adj. Made of or from mustard. Ii. n. Mustard oil.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Sarṣapa (सर्षप).—[masculine] mustard or mustard-seed, also a small weight; mātra [adjective] having the measure or weight of a mustard-seed.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Sarṣapa (सर्षप):—m. mustard, mustard-seed, [ṢaḍvBr.] etc. etc.

2) a mustard-seed used as a weight, any minute weight, [Manu-smṛti; Śārṅgadhara-saṃhitā]

3) a kind of poison, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

4) Sārṣapa (सार्षप):—mf(ī)n. ([from] sarṣapa) made of or derived from mustard, [Kauśika-sūtra]

5) n. (with or [scilicet] taila) mustard oil, [Suśruta]

[Sanskrit to German] (Deutsch Wörterbuch)

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch

Sarṣapa (सर्षप):—[Uṇādisūtra 3, 141.]

1) m. Senf, Senfkorn [Amarakoṣa 2, 9, 17.] [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 9, 3.] [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1180.] [Halāyudha 2, 426.] [Ratnamālā 113.] [Śāṅkhāyana’s Śrautasūtrāṇi 4, 15, 8.] [GṚHY. 3, 1.] [Ṣaḍviṃśabrāhmaṇa 5, 2.] [Chāndogyopaniṣad 3, 14, 3.] [Suśruta 1, 139, 4. 182, 16.] āvayorantaraṃ paśya merusarṣapayoriva [Mahābhārata 1, 3071.] [Rāmāyaṇa 2, 25, 26.] [Spr. (II) 334.] khalaḥ sarṣapamātrāṇi paracchidrāṇi paśyati . ātmano bilvamātrāṇi paśyannapi na paśyati .. [2045.] [Varāhamihira’s Bṛhajjātaka S. 29, 5. 41, 5. 46, 24.] [Kathāsaritsāgara 18, 154. fg. 177. 179. 181. 32, 118. 121. 68, 53. 73, 311. fgg.] [Mārkāṇḍeyapurāṇa 51, 105.] viśvaṃ sarṣapavacchūrpasyaikadeśe yathā [PAÑCAR. 2, 2, 33.] śūrpe ca sarṣapo yathā 99. mastakasyaikadeśe ca ḍimbhaḥ sarṣapavat 42. kaṇa [morgenländischen Gesellschaft 27, 31.] taila [Rājanirghaṇṭa im Śabdakalpadruma] sneha [Suśruta 2, 9, 6. 174, 20.] kanda giftig [252, 6] (vgl. sarṣapa [Hemacandra’s Abhidhānacintāmaṇi 1198] als ein best. Gift). śāka (das ungesundeste Gemüse) [CARAKA 1, 15.] tilasarṣapāḥ [Suśruta 1, 132, 5.] [Spr. (II) 2296.] yathā cālpena mālyena vāsitaṃ tilasarṣapam [Mahābhārata 12, 10038.] asita [Suśruta 1, 199, 16.] — b) ein Senfkorn als Gewicht: trayastrihāyanīvālāḥ sarṣapārdhaṃ pracakṣate . dviguṇaṃ sarṣapaṃ vidyādyavaḥ pañca tu sarṣapāḥ .. [Weber’s Indische Studien 8, 436.] sarṣapāḥ ṣaḍyavo madhyaḥ [Manu’s Gesetzbuch 8, 134.] = 3 Rājikā, (1/8) oder (1/12) Yava [Śārṅgadhara SAṂH. 1, 1, 14. 30.] sapta likṣāḥ sarṣapaḥ . sapta sarṣapā yavaḥ [Rgva tch’er rol pa ed. Calc. 170, 2.] —

2) f. ī a) ein best. Ausschlag: piḍakā nātimahatī kṣiprapākātivedanā sarṣapī [CARAKA 1, 17.] [Suśruta 1, 273, 15. 2, 123, 11.] — b) eine Bachstelzenart [Trikāṇḍaśeṣa 2, 5, 29.] — Vgl. gaura (auch [Pāraskara’s Gṛhyasūtrāṇi 1, 16.] [Suśruta 1, 273, 15]), tridaśa, deva, rakta ( [Suśruta 1, 108, 8]), rakṣā, rāja, śveta ( [Suśruta 2, 40, 1]), sita und sārṣapa .

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Sārṣapa (सार्षप):—(von sarṣapa) adj. vom Senf kommend: taila, sneha Senföl [Kauśika’s Sūtra zum Atuarvaveda 30.] [Yājñavalkya’s Gesetzbuch 1, 283.] [Sāhityadarpana 14, 7.] [Suśruta 1, 183, 1.] śāka [218, 19.]

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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