Citraka: 30 definitions


Citraka means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chitraka.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Citraka (चित्रक) is a Sanskrit word referring to Plumbago zeylanica (Ceylon leadwort), a plant species in the Plumbaginaceae family. Certain plant parts of Citraka are eaten as a vegetable (śāka), according to Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. The plant is therefore part of the Śākavarga group of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of vegetables/pot-herbs”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant. Other commonly used English names include “doctorbush”. It grows throughout India. The literal translation of citraka is “painter”. It is also known as Dahana.

This plant (Citraka) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant is also known by the name Vahni.

Source: Vagbhata’s Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita (first 5 chapters)

Citraka (चित्रक) refers to “plumbago” and is one of the pañcakola (“five spices”), mentioned in verse 3.46 of the Aṣṭāṅgahṛdayasaṃhitā (Sūtrasthāna) by Vāgbhaṭa.—By pañcakola (“the five spices”) are meant long pepper (pippalī), long-pepper roots (pippalīmūla) , elephant pepper (cavya), plumbago (citraka), and dry ginger (nāgara). Instead of lṅai CD offer lṅa ni, which is probably corrupt for lṅa-yi.

Source: Science And Technology In Medievel India (Ayurveda)

Citraka (चित्रक) or Citrakakalpa refers to Kalpa (medicinal preparation) described in the Auṣadhikalpa, as mentioned in A. Rahman’s Science and Technology in Medievel India: A bibliography of source materials in Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian.—Ancient and medieval India produced a wide range of scientific manuscripts and major contributions lie in the field of medicine, astronomy and mathematics, besides covering encyclopedic glossaries and technical dictionaries.—The Auṣadhikalpa is a medical work of the type of Materia Medica giving twenty-six medical preparations [e.g., Citraka-kalpa] to be used as patent medicines against various diseases.

Source: Advances in Zoology and Botany: Ethnomedicinal List of Plants Treating Fever in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra, India

Citraka in the Marathi language refers to the medicinal herb “Plumbago zeylanica L. P. indica L. Syn. P. rosea L.”, and is used for ethnomedicine treatment of Fever in Ahmednagar district, India. The parts used are: “Dried mature roots”. Instructions for using the herb named Citraka: A tincture made from the bark of dried mature roots—orally 2-3 drops twice a day.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci

Citraka (चित्रक) refers to a medicinal plant known as Plumbago zeylanica Linn., and is mentioned in the 10th century Yogaśataka written by Pandita Vararuci.—The Yogaśataka of Pandita Vararuci is an example of this category. This book attracts reader by its very easy language and formulations which can be easily prepared and have small number of herbs (viz., Citraka). It describes only those formulations which are the most common and can be used in majority conditions of diseases.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Citraka (चित्रक) refers to the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Citraka] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Note: Plumbago indica L. Syn. Pityriasis rosea L. is the red flowered variety (Raktacitraka) while Phygelius capensis Thunb. Syn. Plumbago auriculata Lamk. is the blue flowered variety (Nīlacitraka).

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Śodhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification

Citraka (चित्रक) refers to the medicinal plant known Plumbago zeylanica Linn.—Citraka is commonly used as appetizer, digestive, in irritable bowel disease, pain and piles. Plumbagin at higher doses has been reported to be highly cytotoxic.

For śodhana (purification process), Citraka is soaked in lime mixed with water for 24 h. The same procedure is repeated for another 24 h. It has been reported that Śodhana of Citraka, removed 50% of plumbagin. In another comparative study it has been reported that after the Śodhana, plumbagin content is comparatively reduced in the roots of Plumbago zeylanica significantly as compared to roots of Plumbago indica.

(cf. Rasataraṅgiṇī)

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Citraka (चित्रक) is another name for “Agni” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning citraka] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Source: Asian Agri-History: Paśu Āyurvēda (Veterinary Medicine) in Garuḍapurāṇa

Citraka (चित्रक) refers to Plumbago zeylanica, and is used in the Viśodhana (“washing off the wound’s impurities”) of wounds (vraṇa), according to Āyurveda sections in the Garuḍapurāṇa.—[...] After Viśodhana (wash off the ulcer's/wound's impurities by medicated decoction), the following formulations can be used for śodhana (purification) and ropaṇa (healing) externally:—[... e.g.,] The eraṇḍa-mūla (Castor root), two types of haridrā (Turmeric), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Viśvabheṣaja (Zingiber officinale), Rasona (Allium sativum) and saindhava (rock salt) are ground well with takra (butter milk) or kāñjī (sour gruel). [...]

Source: WorldCat: Rāj nighaṇṭu

Citraka (चित्रक) is the Sanskrit name for a medicinal plant identified with (1) [white variety] Plumbago zeylanica Linn.; (2) [red variety] Plumbago rosea Linn. syn. or Plumbago indica Linn., both from the Plumbaginaceae or “leadwort” family of flowering plants, according to verse 6.43-45 of the 13th-century Raj Nighantu or Rājanighaṇṭu.—Citraka is commonly known in Hindi as Cītā; in Bengali as Citā; in Gujarati as Citro; in Telugu as Telchitra; in Tamil as Citter; and in Marathi as Citramūlā.

Citraka is mentioned as having nineteen synonyms: Agni, Śārdūla, Citrapālī, Kaṭu, Śikhī, Kṛśānu, Dahana, Vyāla, Jyotiṣka, Pālaka, Anala, Dāruṇa, Vanhi, Pāvaka, Śabala, Pāṭhī, Dvīpī, Citrāṅga and Śūra.

Properties and characteristics: “Citraka is hot (uṣṇa) like fire and its metabolic end product is pungent (kaṭu). It controls oedema and kaphaja disorders. It cures vātic ailments, abdominal diseases, piles, chronic colitis, worms, and itching”.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Citraka (चित्रक) is the Sanskrit name of one of Bharata’s sons, mentioned in the Nāṭyaśāstra 1.26-33. After Brahmā created the Nāṭyaveda (nāṭyaśāstra), he ordered Bharata to teach the science to his (one hundred) sons. Bharata thus learned the Nāṭyaveda from Brahmā, and then made his sons study and learn its proper application. After their study, Bharata assigned his sons (eg., Citraka) various roles suitable to them.

Natyashastra book cover
context information

Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Citraka (चित्रक).—(CITRA, CITRABĀI.A). A son of Dhṛtarāṣṭra. Bhīma killed him in the great war. (Mahābhārata Droṇa Parva, Chapter 137).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

Citraka (चित्रक).—A son of Vṛṣṇi; (Pṛṣṇi, Vāyu-purāṇa); father of a number of sons and daughters; brother of Svaphalka.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 102, 114; Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 101, 113-14; Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 14. 5-6, 11.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Citraka (चित्रक) is a name mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. II.46.21) and represents one of the many proper names used for people and places. Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Citraka) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Ganitashastra (Mathematics and Algebra)

Source: Hindu Mathematics

Citraka (चित्रक) or Citra refers to the “variegated color” which were used as symbols for the unknowns, according to the principles of Bījagaṇita (“algebra” or ‘science of calculation’), according to Gaṇita-śāstra, ancient Indian mathematics and astronomy.—Āryabhaṭa I (499) very probably used coloured shots to represent unknowns. Brahmagupta (628) in the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta mentions varṇa as the symbols of unknowns. As he has not attempted in any way to explain this method of symbolism, it appears that the method was already very familiar. [...] In the case of more unknowns, it is usual to denote the first yāvattāvat and the remaining ones by alphabets or colours [e.g., citraka].—Cf. Pṛthūdakasvāmī (860) in his commentary on the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta by Brahmagupta (628) and Bhāskara II in the Bījagaṇita.

Ganitashastra book cover
context information

Ganitashastra (शिल्पशास्त्र, gaṇitaśāstra) refers to the ancient Indian science of mathematics, algebra, number theory, arithmetic, etc. Closely allied with astronomy, both were commonly taught and studied in universities, even since the 1st millennium BCE. Ganita-shastra also includes ritualistic math-books such as the Shulba-sutras.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Citraka (चित्रक) is the name of a Vīra (hero) who, together with the Ḍākinī named Citriṇī forms one of the 36 pairs situated in the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. The 36 pairs of Ḍākinīs and Vīras [viz., Citraka] are white in color; the shapes of their faces are in accordance with their names; they have four arms; they hold a skull bowl, a skull staff, a small drum, and a knife.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Indian Epigraphical Glossary

Citraka.—(IA 8), ‘a painter’; epithet of the engraver of an inscription. Note: citraka is defined in the “Indian epigraphical glossary” as it can be found on ancient inscriptions commonly written in Sanskrit, Prakrit or Dravidian languages.

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Citraka in India is the name of a plant defined with Plumbago indica in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Thela coccinea Loureiro (among others).

2) Citraka is also identified with Plumbago zeylanica It has the synonym Plumbago scandens L. (etc.).

3) Citraka is also identified with Ricinus communis It has the synonym Cataputia minor Ludw. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Taxon (1979)
· Herbarium Amboinense
· FBI (1882)
· Recent Res. Pl. Sci. (1979)
· Flora of Southern Africa (1963)
· Davidsonia (1981)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Citraka, for example pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, health benefits, side effects, chemical composition, extract dosage, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

citraka (चित्रक).—m (S) Ceylon leadwort, Plumbago Zeylanica. 2 A leopard. See cittā.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

citraka (चित्रक).—m A leopard.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक).—a.

1) Bright, lovely, agreeable.

2) Brave, powerful.

-kaḥ 1 A painter.

2) A tiger in general.

3) A small hunting leopard; खरोष्ट्रमहिषाः सिंहा व्याघ्राः सृमरचित्रकाः (kharoṣṭramahiṣāḥ siṃhā vyāghrāḥ sṛmaracitrakāḥ) Mahābhārata (Bombay) 7.3.19.

4) Name of a tree.

-kam 1 A sectarial mark on the forehead. (tanute) कस्तूरिकाचित्रक- मङ्कशङ्काम् (kastūrikācitraka- maṅkaśaṅkām) Rām. Ch.6.69.

2) A particular manner of fighting.

3) Name of a wood near the mountain Raivataka.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक).—[, see cintaka.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक).—m.

(-kaḥ) 1. The Chita or small hunting leopard. 2. A painter. 3. The castor oil plant. 4. A medical plant, (Plumbago zeylanica.) n.

(-kaṃ) 1. A mark made with Sandal, &c. on the forehead. E. kan added to the preceding. citramiva kāyati kai-ka; citra-svārthe ka vā .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक).—[citra + ka], I. m. The Cheeta, or small hunting leopard, [Pañcatantra] 72, 11. Ii. n. 1. A sectarial mark, made on the forehead, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 7074. 2. A mode of fighting, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 15979. 3. The name of a forest, [Harivaṃśa, (ed. Calc.)] 8952.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक).—[masculine] tiger or panther, a kind of snake, [Name] of [several] plants, also of [several] men, [plural] of a people; [neuter] mark, sign (adj. —° marked by), picture.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Citraka (चित्रक):—[from cit] m. a painter, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] = tra-kāya, [Mahābhārata vii, 1320] (cillaka, C), [Pañcatantra]

3) [v.s. ...] a kind of snake, [Suśruta v, 4, 33]

4) [v.s. ...] (in [algebra]) the 8th unknown quantity

5) [v.s. ...] Plumbago zeylanica, [i, 38; iv]

6) [v.s. ...] Ricinus communis, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of a son (of Vṛṣṇi or Pṛśni, [Harivaṃśa]; of Dhṛta-rāṣṭra, [Mahābhārata i, 2740])

8) [v.s. ...] of a Nāga, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc. [Scholiast or Commentator]]

9) [v.s. ...] ([plural]) of a people, [ii, 1804]

10) [v.s. ...] n. a mark (only ifc. ‘marked or characterised by’ [Taittirīya-brāhmaṇa i, 1, 9, 5 [Scholiast or Commentator]; .])

11) [v.s. ...] a sectarial mark on the forehead, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

12) [v.s. ...] a painting, [Harivaṃśa 7074]

13) [v.s. ...] a particular manner of fighting (cf. tra-hasta), 15979 ([varia lectio] cakraka)

14) [v.s. ...] Name of a wood near the mountain Raivataka, 8952.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Citraka (चित्रक):—(kaṃ) 1. n. A mark made with sandal, &c. on the forehead; a hunting leopard; a painter.

[Sanskrit to German]

Citraka in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Citraka (ಚಿತ್ರಕ):—

1) [noun] one who draws or paints pictures.

2) [noun] the large feline mammal, Panthera pardus, with a black-spotted yellowish-fawn; a panther; a leopard.

3) [noun] the large flesh-eating feline, Panthera tigris, having a yellow-brown coat with black stripes; a tiger.

4) [noun] a sectarian or decorative mark on the forehead.

5) [noun] the herbaceous plant Plumbago zeylanica of Plumbaginaceae family.

6) [noun] the plant, Ricinus communis, of the Euphorbiaceae family, cultivated for its oil yielding seeds; castor plant.

7) [noun] one of the four types of men according to erotic science.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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