Madira, Madirā: 22 definitions
Madira means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Madir.
Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra
Madirā (मदिरा, “intoxicated”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses a ‘transitory state’ (saṃcāribhāva). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)
A type of glance (or facial expression): Madira: indirect, ranging, centred, imsteady, crooked; it is used to indicate the early stage of intoxication.Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra
Madirā (मदिरा).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a transitory state (saṃcāribhāva);—The Glance in which the middle of the eye is rolling, the ends of the eyes are thin, the eyes are bent, and the corners of the eyes are fully widened, is called Madirā (intoxicated). It is to be used in representing light intoxication.
Uses of Madirā (intoxicated)—in intoxication. In medium intoxication this Glance should have its eyelids slightly contracted, the eyeballs and and the eyelashes slightly mobile. In excessive (lit. the worst) intoxication the Glance should have [either too] much winking or no winking at all, and the eyeballs in it should be slightly visible, and it (the look) should be turned downwards.
Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia
Madirā (मदिरा).—Wife of Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Vasudeva had seven wives named Rohiṇī, Bhadramāninī, Madirā, Ilā, Rocanā, Pauravī and Devakī (9th Skandha, Bhāgavata). Of these Devakī, Rohiṇī, and Bhadrā abandoned their lives by jumping into the funeral pyre of Vasudeva. (Śloka 18, Chapter 7, Mausala Parva).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Madirā (मदिरा).—One of Vasudeva's wives and mother of Nanda and other sons.*
- * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 45, 48. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 161, 171-2. Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 160, Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 18, 23.
1c) An epithet of Vāruṇi.*
- * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 25. 3.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature
1) Madirā (मदिरा) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Madirā corresponds to Latākusuma. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.
2) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Madirā) in 20 verses.
3) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., madirā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.
Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India
Madira (मदिर) refers to a type of wine, according to the Raghuvaṃśa IV.42, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Kavya (poetry)Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa
Madira (मदिर) refers to “maddening” (in madirākṣi, voc.), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 9.113. [...] Malli in his gloss on Raghu 8.68 also refers to the Rāmāyaṇa passage. It should, however be noted that madira is the technical name of a kind of mildly frenzied look (see Nāṭyaśāstra [K.S.S.] 8.79). This verse is quoted anonymously by Alaka in his gloss on Haravijaya 26.44 in connection with the expression “madirekṣaṇā”. Appayadīkṣita in his commentary on Yādavābhyudaya 10.31 quotes the above verse.
The word madira, though it literally means “maddening” or “frenzied”, thus refers to rolling and graceful eyes, and denotes like mukula etc., a particular look described in the Nāṭyaśāstra. The expression madirekṣaṇā, however, often means simply “fair-eyed”. Cāṇḍūpaṇḍita says “madirākṣi nirmalanetre”. The expression madiradṛś occurs in Viddhaśālabhañjikā 1.17.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra
Madira (मदिर) is the name of a Vidyādhara-city, situated on mount Vaitāḍhya (in the northern row), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra (“lives of the 63 illustrious persons”): a Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three important persons in Jainism.
“[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. [...] Ten yojanas above the earth, King Vinami made at once sixty cities in a northern row at the command of the Nāga-king. [viz., Madira]. Vinami himself, who had resorted to Dharaṇendra, inhabited the city Gaganavallabha, the capital of these. [...] The two rows of Vidyādhara-cities looked very magnificent, as if the Vyantara rows above were reflected below. After making many villages [viz., Madira] and suburbs, they established communities according to the suitability of place. The communities there were called by the same name as the community from which the men had been brought and put there. [...]”.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1
Madira (“liquor or heap of earth”) is one of the many exogamous septs (division) among the Telugu section of the Devangas (a caste of weavers). The Devangas, speaking Telugu or Canarese, are found all over the Madras Presidency. Devanga is composed of Deva and angam, “limb of god”.
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
madirā : (f.) liquor made from cereals.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Madirā, (f.) (of adj. Vedic madira intoxicating) intoxicating drink, spirit J. V, 425; DhsA. 48. (Page 518)
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
madirā (मदिरा).—f S Spirituous or vinous liquor.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
madirā (मदिरा).—f Spirituous or vinous liquor.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Madira (मदिर).—a. [mādyati anena, mad karaṇe kirac]
1) Intoxicating, maddening.
2) Delighting, fascinating, gladdening (eyes &c.); as in सद्यः षाण्मासिकानां मम मदिरदृशा दत्तचन्द्रो- दयश्रीः (sadyaḥ ṣāṇmāsikānāṃ mama madiradṛśā dattacandro- dayaśrīḥ) Vb.1.17; see comps. below.
-raḥ A kind of Khadira tree (red-flowered).
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1) Spirituous liquor; काङ्क्षत्यन्यो वदनमदिरां दोहदच्छद्मनास्याः (kāṅkṣatyanyo vadanamadirāṃ dohadacchadmanāsyāḥ) Me.8 (v. l.); Śi.11.49.
2) A kind of wagtail.
3) Name of Durgā.
4) N of a metre; सप्तभकारकृताबसितौ च गुरुः कविभिः कथिता मदिरा (saptabhakārakṛtābasitau ca guruḥ kavibhiḥ kathitā madirā) V. Ratna. (com.).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-raḥ) A red species of Khayer, (Mimosa catechu.) f.
(-rā) 1. Wine, spirits, spirituous or vinous liquor. 2. A wagtail. 3. A species of the Akriti metre. E. mad to be delighted, &c., Unadi aff. kirac, fem. aff. ṭāp .Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Madira (मदिर).—[mad + ira] 1., I. m. A red species of Khayar, Mimosa catechu. Ii. f. rā. 1. Spirituous liquor, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 148; wine, nectar, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 76. 2. The wagtail.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Madira (मदिर).—[adjective] = madin; [feminine] madirā any inebriating drink.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
1) Madira (मदिर):—[from mad] mfn. = [preceding] [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.
2) [v.s. ...] m. a species of red-flowering Khadiri, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
3) Madirā (मदिरा):—[from madira > mad] a f. See below.
4) [from mad] b f. spirituous liquor, any inebriating drink, wine, nectar, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.
5) [v.s. ...] a wagtail ([especially] in the pairing season = matta-khañjana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]
6) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]
7) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Harivaṃśa]
8) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Varuṇa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]
9) [v.s. ...] of one of the wives of Vasu-deva, [ib.; Purāṇa]
10) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Kādambarī, [Kādambarī]Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary
Madira (मदिर):—(raḥ) 1. m. The Mimosa catechu. f. (rā) Wine; wagtail.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+3): Madiradrish, Madiragriha, Madirajayya, Madiraksha, Madirakshi, Madiralocana, Madiralochana, Madiramadandha, Madiramaya, Madiranayana, Madirapana, Madirarnava, Madirasakha, Madirasava, Madirashala, Madirashva, Madirasindhu, Madiravashaga, Madiravati, Madirayatanayana.
Full-text (+25): Madirasakha, Madiragriha, Madirekshana, Madirakshi, Madiramadandha, Madirashala, Madirasava, Madiranayana, Madirotkata, Madironmatta, Madiradrish, Madirayatanayana, Madiramaya, Madiravashaga, Upacitra, Kadambari, Madiravati, Madirekshanavallabha, Surambudhi, Madirarnava.
Search found 14 books and stories containing Madira, Madirā; (plurals include: Madiras, Madirās). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
The Vishnu Purana (by Horace Hayman Wilson)
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
The Practice Manual of Noble Tārā Kurukullā (by Dharmachakra Translation Committee)
The Mirror of Gesture (abhinaya-darpana) (by Ananda Coomaraswamy)
Puranic encyclopaedia (by Vettam Mani)
The Natyashastra (by Bharata-muni)