Madira, Madirā: 18 definitions

Introduction

Madira means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Madirā (मदिरा, “intoxicated”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses a ‘transitory state’ (saṃcāribhāva). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

Source: archive.org: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Madira: indirect, ranging, centred, imsteady, crooked; it is used to indicate the early stage of intoxication.

Source: archive.org: Natya Shastra

Madirā (मदिरा).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a transitory state (saṃcāribhāva);—The Glance in which the middle of the eye is rolling, the ends of the eyes are thin, the eyes are bent, and the corners of the eyes are fully widened, is called Madirā (intoxicated). It is to be used in representing light intoxication.

Uses of Madirā (intoxicated)—in intoxication. In medium intoxication this Glance should have its eyelids slightly contracted, the eyeballs and and the eyelashes slightly mobile. In excessive (lit. the worst) intoxication the Glance should have [either too] much winking or no winking at all, and the eyeballs in it should be slightly visible, and it (the look) should be turned downwards.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (śāstra) of performing arts, (nāṭya, e.g., theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing dramatic plays (nataka) and poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Madirā (मदिरा).—Wife of Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Vasudeva had seven wives named Rohiṇī, Bhadramāninī, Madirā, Ilā, Rocanā, Pauravī and Devakī (9th Skandha, Bhāgavata). Of these Devakī, Rohiṇī, and Bhadrā abandoned their lives by jumping into the funeral pyre of Vasudeva. (Śloka 18, Chapter 7, Mausala Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Madirā (मदिरा).—One of Vasudeva's wives and mother of Nanda and other sons.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 45, 48. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 161, 171-2. Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 160, Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 18, 23.

1b) Came out of the churning of the ocean of milk.1 Balarāma indulged in.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 251. 2.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 157.

1c) An epithet of Vāruṇi.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 25. 3.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Madirā (मदिरा) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Madirā corresponds to Latākusuma. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

2) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (eg., Madirā) in 20 verses.

3) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (eg., madirā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
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Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Madira (मदिर) refers to a type of wine, according to the Raghuvaṃśa IV.42, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.

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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: archive.org: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Madira (मदिर) refers to “maddening” (in madirākṣi, voc.), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 9.113. [...] Malli in his gloss on Raghu 8.68 also refers to the Rāmāyaṇa passage. It should, however be noted that madira is the technical name of a kind of mildly frenzied look (see Nāṭyaśāstra [K.S.S.] 8.79). This verse is quoted anonymously by Alaka in his gloss on Haravijaya 26.44 in connection with the expression “madirekṣaṇā”. Appayadīkṣita in his commentary on Yādavābhyudaya 10.31 quotes the above verse.

The word madira, though it literally means “maddening” or “frenzied”, thus refers to rolling and graceful eyes, and denotes like mukula etc., a particular look described in the Nāṭyaśāstra. The expression madirekṣaṇā, however, often means simply “fair-eyed”. Cāṇḍūpaṇḍita says “madirākṣi nirmalanetre”. The expression madiradṛś occurs in Viddhaśālabhañjikā 1.17.

context information

Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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India history and geogprahy

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Madira (“liquor or heap of earth”) is one of the many exogamous septs (division) among the Telugu section of the Devangas (a caste of weavers). The Devangas, speaking Telugu or Canarese, are found all over the Madras Presidency. Devanga is composed of Deva and angam, “limb of god”.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

madirā : (f.) liquor made from cereals.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Madirā, (f.) (of adj. Vedic madira intoxicating) intoxicating drink, spirit J. V, 425; DhsA. 48. (Page 518)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

madirā (मदिरा).—f S Spirituous or vinous liquor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

madirā (मदिरा).—f Spirituous or vinous liquor.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—a. [mādyati anena, mad karaṇe kirac]

1) Intoxicating, maddening.

2) Delighting, fascinating, gladdening (eyes &c.); as in सद्यः षाण्मासिकानां मम मदिरदृशा दत्तचन्द्रो- दयश्रीः (sadyaḥ ṣāṇmāsikānāṃ mama madiradṛśā dattacandro- dayaśrīḥ) Vb.1.17; see comps. below.

-raḥ A kind of Khadira tree (red-flowered).

--- OR ---

Madirā (मदिरा).—

1) Spirituous liquor; काङ्क्षत्यन्यो वदनमदिरां दोहदच्छद्मनास्याः (kāṅkṣatyanyo vadanamadirāṃ dohadacchadmanāsyāḥ) Me.8 (v. l.); Śi.11.49.

2) A kind of wagtail.

3) Name of Durgā.

4) N of a metre; सप्तभकारकृताबसितौ च गुरुः कविभिः कथिता मदिरा (saptabhakārakṛtābasitau ca guruḥ kavibhiḥ kathitā madirā) V. Ratna. (com.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—m.

(-raḥ) A red species of Khayer, (Mimosa catechu.) f.

(-rā) 1. Wine, spirits, spirituous or vinous liquor. 2. A wagtail. 3. A species of the Akriti metre. E. mad to be delighted, &c., Unadi aff. kirac, fem. aff. ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—[mad + ira] 1., I. m. A red species of Khayar, Mimosa catechu. Ii. f. . 1. Spirituous liquor, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 148; wine, nectar, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 76. 2. The wagtail.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—[adjective] = madin; [feminine] madirā any inebriating drink.

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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