Madira, Madirā: 31 definitions


Madira means something in Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Buddhism, Pali, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Madir.

In Hinduism

Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Madirā (मदिरा, “intoxicated”) refers to a specific “glance” (dṛṣṭi), according to the Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 8. This is a type of glance that expresses a ‘transitory state’ (saṃcāribhāva). There are a total thirty-six glances defined.

Source: The mirror of gesture (abhinaya-darpana)

A type of glance (or facial expression): Madira: indirect, ranging, centred, imsteady, crooked; it is used to indicate the early stage of intoxication.

Source: Natya Shastra

Madirā (मदिरा).—A type of glance (dṛṣṭi) expressing a transitory state (saṃcāribhāva);—The Glance in which the middle of the eye is rolling, the ends of the eyes are thin, the eyes are bent, and the corners of the eyes are fully widened, is called Madirā (intoxicated). It is to be used in representing light intoxication.

Uses of Madirā (intoxicated)—in intoxication. In medium intoxication this Glance should have its eyelids slightly contracted, the eyeballs and and the eyelashes slightly mobile. In excessive (lit. the worst) intoxication the Glance should have [either too] much winking or no winking at all, and the eyeballs in it should be slightly visible, and it (the look) should be turned downwards.

Source: Shodhganga: Elements of Art and Architecture in the Trtiyakhanda of the Visnudharmottarapurana (natya)

Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the Thirty six kinds of Glances (dṛṣṭi) or “proper accomplishment of glances” (in Indian Dramas), according to the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, an ancient Sanskrit text which (being encyclopedic in nature) deals with a variety of cultural topics such as arts, architecture, music, grammar and astronomy.—Dṛṣṭi is very important in a dance form. The appropriate movements of eyes, eyeballs and eyebrows of an artist make the performance more charming. There are thirty six kinds of glances (dṛṣṭi) accepted in the Viṣṇudharmottarapurāṇa, for example madirā, belonging to the sañcāriṇadṛṣṭi division.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Puranic Encyclopedia

Madirā (मदिरा).—Wife of Vasudeva, father of Śrī Kṛṣṇa. Vasudeva had seven wives named Rohiṇī, Bhadramāninī, Madirā, Ilā, Rocanā, Pauravī and Devakī (9th Skandha, Bhāgavata). Of these Devakī, Rohiṇī, and Bhadrā abandoned their lives by jumping into the funeral pyre of Vasudeva. (Śloka 18, Chapter 7, Mausala Parva).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Madirā (मदिरा).—One of Vasudeva's wives and mother of Nanda and other sons.*

  • * Bhāgavata-purāṇa IX. 24. 45, 48. Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa III. 71. 161, 171-2. Vāyu-purāṇa 96. 160, Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 15. 18, 23.

1b) Came out of the churning of the ocean of milk.1 Balarāma indulged in.2

  • 1) Matsya-purāṇa 251. 2.
  • 2) Viṣṇu-purāṇa IV. 13. 157.

1c) An epithet of Vāruṇi.*

  • * Viṣṇu-purāṇa V. 25. 3.
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Chandas (prosody, study of Sanskrit metres)

Source: Shodhganga: a concise history of Sanskrit Chanda literature

1) Madirā (मदिरा) is the alternative name of a Sanskrit metre (chandas) mentioned by Hemacandra (1088-1173 C.E.) in his auto-commentary on the second chapter of the Chandonuśāsana. Madirā corresponds to Latākusuma. Hemacandra gives these alternative names for the metres by other authorities (like Bharata), even though the number of gaṇas or letters do not differ.

2) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 135 metres (chandas) mentioned by Nañjuṇḍa (1794-1868 C.E.) in his Vṛttaratnāvalī. Nañjuṇḍa was a poet of both Kannada and Sanskrit literature flourished in the court of the famous Kṛṣṇarāja Woḍeyar of Mysore. He introduces the names of these metres (e.g., Madirā) in 20 verses.

3) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to one of the 130 varṇavṛttas (syllabo-quantitative verse) dealt with in the second chapter of the Vṛttamuktāvalī, ascribed to Durgādatta (19th century), author of eight Sanskrit work and patronised by Hindupati: an ancient king of the Bundela tribe (presently Bundelkhand of Uttar Pradesh). A Varṇavṛtta (e.g., madirā) refers to a type of classical Sanskrit metre depending on syllable count where the light-heavy patterns are fixed.

Chandas book cover
context information

Chandas (छन्दस्) refers to Sanskrit prosody and represents one of the six Vedangas (auxiliary disciplines belonging to the study of the Vedas). The science of prosody (chandas-shastra) focusses on the study of the poetic meters such as the commonly known twenty-six metres mentioned by Pingalas.

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Madira (मदिर) refers to a type of wine, according to the Raghuvaṃśa IV.42, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—Different types of wines are described in the works of Kālidāsa. Madya and madira are described in Ṛtusamhāra, āsava, madhu and śīdhu in Raghuvaṃśa, vāruṇī in Kumārasaṃbhava and kādambarī in Abhijñānaśākuntala.

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Kavya (poetry)

Source: Naisadhacarita of Sriharsa

Madira (मदिर) refers to “maddening” (in madirākṣi, voc.), and is mentioned in the Naiṣadha-carita 9.113. [...] Malli in his gloss on Raghu 8.68 also refers to the Rāmāyaṇa passage. It should, however be noted that madira is the technical name of a kind of mildly frenzied look (see Nāṭyaśāstra [K.S.S.] 8.79). This verse is quoted anonymously by Alaka in his gloss on Haravijaya 26.44 in connection with the expression “madirekṣaṇā”. Appayadīkṣita in his commentary on Yādavābhyudaya 10.31 quotes the above verse.

The word madira, though it literally means “maddening” or “frenzied”, thus refers to rolling and graceful eyes, and denotes like mukula etc., a particular look described in the Nāṭyaśāstra. The expression madirekṣaṇā, however, often means simply “fair-eyed”. Cāṇḍūpaṇḍita says “madirākṣi nirmalanetre”. The expression madiradṛś occurs in Viddhaśālabhañjikā 1.17.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

Madira (मदिर) refers to “(spiritual) wine”, according to the Śrīmatottara-tantra, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, [while describing the visualized form of Navātman Bhairava]: “[...] Navātman’s mind is blissful with his own energy and he is delighted by the bliss of (spiritual) wine (madira). He has nine faces (each of which) has three eyes, a crown and earrings. On his ears is a sacred snake and a garland of gems hangs down (from his neck). [...]”.

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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

1) Madirā (मदिरा) (Cf. Surā) refers to “alcoholic drinks”, according to the Brahmayāmala-tantra.—(Cf. pañcāmṛtākarṣaṇa—“extraction of the five nectars”).—The extraction of the five nectars (pañcāmṛtākarṣaṇa), as well as other, Kāpālika-type cremation ground practices, also figure in the Brahmayāmala, as Hatley (2007, 143ff.) points out. [...] Now in chapter 46 of the Brahmayāmala, much like the Kāpālikas, the practitioner makes ritual use of human flesh, hair (keśa), bones (asthi), body fluids (picu), particularly blood (rakta), and intestines (antra); moreover, he offers and drinks alcohol (madirā).

2) Madirā (मदिरा) refers to “wine”, according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Devī spoke]:—O God, what kind of a woman is a Yoginī? Who is Māyā and who is Pāśavī? Tell me, O Bhairava, the pros and cons of having sex with them. [Bhairava spoke]:—A woman who is on the Kula Path [of the Yoginī clans], who avoids the path of bound souls [i.e. the path of the uninitiated], who is elevated by intoxication induced by liquor, and is free of the bonds that fetter the soul, and whose mind is filled with the bliss of wine (madirā-ānanda), is [called] a Yoginī in Śiva’s teaching”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Madirā (मदिरा) refers to “wine”, according to the Svacchanda-tantra.—Accordingly, [verse 4.3-6, while describing the interpretation of dreams]—“In [auspicious] dreams [the dreamer] drinks wine (madirā-pāna), eats raw flesh, smears insect feces and sprinkles blood. He eats food of sour milk and smears a white garment. [He holds] a white umbrella over his head, decorates [himself] with a white garland or ribbon. [He sees] a throne, chariot or vehicle, the flag of royal initiation. He decorates [these things] with a coral, betel leaf fruit. [He also] sees Śrī or Sarasvatī”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Sports, Arts and Entertainment (wordly enjoyments)

Source: Syainika Sastra of Rudradeva with English Translation (art)

Madirā (मदिरा) refers to “wine”, and represents one of the eighteen Addictions or Vices (vyasana) which are to be practised within proper bounds for the delight of the enjoyments of the world, according to the Śyainika-śāstra: a Sanskrit treatise dealing with the divisions and benefits of Hunting and Hawking, written by Rājā Rudradeva (or Candradeva) in possibly the 13th century.—Accordingly, “[...] It has been said that there are eighteen addictions. These are the outcome of the desire for earthly enjovments. [...] Wine (madirā) is that drinking by which people get intoxicated. It is often highly recommended by physicians in incurable distempers. [...]”.

Arts book cover
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This section covers the skills and profiencies of the Kalas (“performing arts”) and Shastras (“sciences”) involving ancient Indian traditions of sports, games, arts, entertainment, love-making and other means of wordly enjoyments. Traditionally these topics were dealt with in Sanskrit treatises explaing the philosophy and the justification of enjoying the pleasures of the senses.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Trisastisalakapurusacaritra

1) Madira (मदिर) is the name of a Vidyādhara-city, situated on mount Vaitāḍhya (in the northern row), according to chapter 1.3 [ādīśvara-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

Accordingly, “[...] Taking their families and all their retinue and ascending the best of cars, they went to Vaitāḍhya. [...] Ten yojanas above the earth, King Vinami made at once sixty cities in a northern row at the command of the Nāga-king. [viz., Madira]. Vinami himself, who had resorted to Dharaṇendra, inhabited the city Gaganavallabha, the capital of these. [...] The two rows of Vidyādhara-cities looked very magnificent, as if the Vyantara rows above were reflected below. After making many villages [viz., Madira] and suburbs, they established communities according to the suitability of place. The communities there were called by the same name as the community from which the men had been brought and put there. [...]”.

2a) Madirā (मदिरा) is the wife of Vidyādhara-king Damitāri, according to chapter 5.2 [śāntinātha-caritra] of Hemacandra’s 11th century Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra: an ancient Sanskrit epic poem narrating the history and legends of sixty-three illustrious persons in Jainism.

2b) Madirā (मदिरा) is an incarnation of the merchant Dhanapati, according to chapter 5.4 [śāntinātha-caritra].—Accordingly, as Śānti-nātha narrated to king Kurucandra:—“In this very Jambūdvīpa in this same zone Bhārata in the country Kosala in the city Śrīpura there were four merchants’ sons of the same age, like full brothers, Sudhana, Dhanapati, Dhanada, Dhaneśvara. [...] In course of time Dhanapati and Dhaneśvara died. Both of them became merchants’ daughters, Madirā and Kesarā, one in Śaṅkhapura and the other in Jayantī. [...]”.

General definition book cover
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Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Project Gutenberg: Castes and Tribes of Southern India, Volume 1

Madira (“liquor or heap of earth”) is one of the many exogamous septs (division) among the Telugu section of the Devangas (a caste of weavers). The Devangas, speaking Telugu or Canarese, are found all over the Madras Presidency. Devanga is composed of Deva and angam, “limb of god”.

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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

madirā : (f.) liquor made from cereals.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Madirā, (f.) (of adj. Vedic madira intoxicating) intoxicating drink, spirit J. V, 425; DhsA. 48. (Page 518)

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

madirā (मदिरा).—f S Spirituous or vinous liquor.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

madirā (मदिरा).—f Spirituous or vinous liquor.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—a. [mādyati anena, mad karaṇe kirac]

1) Intoxicating, maddening.

2) Delighting, fascinating, gladdening (eyes &c.); as in सद्यः षाण्मासिकानां मम मदिरदृशा दत्तचन्द्रो- दयश्रीः (sadyaḥ ṣāṇmāsikānāṃ mama madiradṛśā dattacandro- dayaśrīḥ) Vb.1.17; see comps. below.

-raḥ A kind of Khadira tree (red-flowered).

--- OR ---

Madirā (मदिरा).—

1) Spirituous liquor; काङ्क्षत्यन्यो वदनमदिरां दोहदच्छद्मनास्याः (kāṅkṣatyanyo vadanamadirāṃ dohadacchadmanāsyāḥ) Meghadūta 8 (v. l.); Śiśupālavadha 11.49.

2) A kind of wagtail.

3) Name of Durgā.

4) N of a metre; सप्तभकारकृताबसितौ च गुरुः कविभिः कथिता मदिरा (saptabhakārakṛtābasitau ca guruḥ kavibhiḥ kathitā madirā) V. Ratna. (com.).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—m.

(-raḥ) A red species of Khayer, (Mimosa catechu.) f.

(-rā) 1. Wine, spirits, spirituous or vinous liquor. 2. A wagtail. 3. A species of the Akriti metre. E. mad to be delighted, &c., Unadi aff. kirac, fem. aff. ṭāp .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—[mad + ira] 1., I. m. A red species of Khayar, Mimosa catechu. Ii. f. . 1. Spirituous liquor, [Mānavadharmaśāstra] 11, 148; wine, nectar, [Meghadūta, (ed. Gildemeister.)] 76. 2. The wagtail.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर).—[adjective] = madin; [feminine] madirā any inebriating drink.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Madira (मदिर):—[from mad] mfn. = [preceding] [Ṛg-veda] etc. etc.

2) [v.s. ...] m. a species of red-flowering Khadiri, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Madirā (मदिरा):—[from madira > mad] a f. See below.

4) [from mad] b f. spirituous liquor, any inebriating drink, wine, nectar, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) [v.s. ...] a wagtail ([especially] in the pairing season = matta-khañjana), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) [v.s. ...] a kind of metre, [Colebrooke]

7) [v.s. ...] Name of Durgā, [Harivaṃśa]

8) [v.s. ...] of the wife of Varuṇa, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa]

9) [v.s. ...] of one of the wives of Vasu-deva, [ib.; Purāṇa]

10) [v.s. ...] of the mother of Kādambarī, [Kādambarī]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Madira (मदिर):—(raḥ) 1. m. The Mimosa catechu. f. () Wine; wagtail.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Madirā (मदिरा) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Mairā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Madira in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Madira (मदिर) [Also spelled madir]:—(a) intoxicating, intoxicative; hence ~[] (nf).

2) Madirā (मदिरा):—(nf) liquor, wine, spirit; ~[gṛha/laya] a bar.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Madira (ಮದಿರ):—[noun] (dance.) a look or an eye-gesture, expressing arrogance, conceitedness or enacting not noticing of an object that is or person who is, around.

--- OR ---

Madira (ಮದಿರ):—

1) [adjective] causing inebriation; intoxicating; intoxicant.

2) [adjective] exciting with joy.

--- OR ---

Madira (ಮದಿರ):—[noun] a kind of catechu tree, with red flowers.

--- OR ---

Mādira (ಮಾದಿರ):—[noun] = ಮಾದಿಗ [madiga].

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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Nepali dictionary

Source: unoes: Nepali-English Dictionary

1) Madira (मदिर):—n. 1. intoxicating; maddening; 2. pleasing; delighting; fascinating; 3. → नयनाभिराम [nayanābhirāma]

2) Madirā (मदिरा):—n. 1. intoxicating drink; wine; alcohol; 2. a kind of meter;

context information

Nepali is the primary language of the Nepalese people counting almost 20 million native speakers. The country of Nepal is situated in the Himalaya mountain range to the north of India.

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