Kharjura, Kharjūra: 17 definitions

Introduction:

Kharjura means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

In Hinduism

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) is a Sanskrit word identified with “date” (probably Phoenix dactylifera) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as kharjūra) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

According to the Carakasaṃhitā (sūtrasthāna 27), Kharjūra forms part of the Śākavarga (vegetables) group of medicinal plants.

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Natyashastra (theatrics and dramaturgy)

Source: Wisdom Library: Nāṭya-śāstra

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) refers to a type of ornament (ābharaṇa) for the fore-arm (bāhu) to be worn by females, according to Nāṭyaśāstra chapter 23. Such ornaments for females should be used in cases of human females and celestial beings (gods and goddesses).

Ābharaṇa (‘ornaments’, eg., kharjūra) is a category of alaṃkāra, or “decorations”, which in turn is a category of nepathya, or “costumes and make-up”, the perfection of which forms the main concern of the Āhāryābhinaya, or “extraneous representation”, a critical component for a successful dramatic play.

Natyashastra book cover
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Natyashastra (नाट्यशास्त्र, nāṭyaśāstra) refers to both the ancient Indian tradition (shastra) of performing arts, (natya—theatrics, drama, dance, music), as well as the name of a Sanskrit work dealing with these subjects. It also teaches the rules for composing Dramatic plays (nataka), construction and performance of Theater, and Poetic works (kavya).

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Ayurveda (science of life)

Dietetics and Culinary Art (such as household cooking)

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) refers to a type of fruit-bearing plant, according to the Yajurveda, and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—We can see the description of flowering and fruit bearing plants in Ṛgveda. But we come across the specific names of them only in the later Saṃhita and Brāhmaṇa literature. Badara, kuvala, karkandhu, the varieties of jujube, bilva and kharjūra can be seen referred to in Yajurveda.

Kharjūra or “dates” is mentioned as being beneficial (hita) to the body according to the 17th century Bhojanakutūhala in the dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana, which contains the discussions on different food articles and their dietetic effects according to the prominent Ayurvedic treatises. Here In the phala (fruits) group kharjūra (dates) is mentioned as beneficial to the body (hita).

Kharjūra or “dates” is mentioned in a list of potential causes for indigestion.—A complete section in Bhojanakutūhala is devoted for the description of agents that cause indigestion [viz., kharjūra (dates)]. These agents consumed on a large scale can cause indigestion for certain people. The remedies [viz., picumandabīja (nimb tree) and bhadramusta (a kind of cyperus)] for these types of indigestions are also explained therewith.

Unclassified Ayurveda definitions

Source: eJournal of Indian Medicine: Jajjaṭa’s Nirantarapadavyākhyā and Other Commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) refers to (the fruit of) Phoenix dactylifera Linn., and is a medicinal plant mentioned in the 7th-century Nirantarapadavyākhyā by Jejjaṭa (or Jajjaṭa): one of the earliest extant and, therefore, one of the most important commentaries on the Carakasaṃhitā.—(Cf. Indian Medicinal Plants 4:240 , Arya Vaidya Sala, 1993-96.).—Note: “Kharjūra is the name of the fruit, Kharjūri of the source plant, … Different kinds of kharjūrī belong to different species of Phoenix, i.e., Phoenix sylvestris Roxb., P. dactylifera Linn. (the true Arabian Date Palm), Phoenix  humilis Royle and Phoenix acaulis Buch.-Ham. which are generally called kharjūra, but the fruits of the former two only are used.”.—(Cf. Glossary of Vegetable Drugs in Bṛhattrayī 131, Singh and Chunekar, 1999)

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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In Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) refers to one of the various types of cakes mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “Offer [viz., kharjūra cakes], [...]. Cakes such as the above are either made with granular sugar or made by mixing in ghee or sesamum oil. As before, take them in accordance with the family in question and use them as offerings; if you offer them up as prescribed, you will quickly gain success. [...]”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., kharjūra cakes], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., kharjūra]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
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Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Kharjura is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Kharjura refers to the “Date-palm tree” and is known for its sweet fruits. Maces (khadiradanda) made from its wood are mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Kharjura), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Kharjura, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Wisdom Library: Local Names of Plants and Drugs

Kharjura [ಖರ್ಜೂರ] in the Kannada language is the name of a plant identified with Phoenix sylvestris from the Arecaceae (Palm) family having the following synonyms: Elate sylvestris. For the possible medicinal usage of kharjura, you can check this page for potential sources and references, although be aware that any some or none of the side-effects may not be mentioned here, wether they be harmful or beneficial to health.

Kharjura [খর্জূর] in the Bengali language, ibid. previous identification.

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

1) Kharjura in India is the name of a plant defined with Phoenix dactylifera in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Palma major Garsault (among others).

2) Kharjura is also identified with Phoenix sylvestris It has the synonym Elate versicolor Salisb. (etc.).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Historia Naturalis Palmarum (1838)
· Flora Indica (1832)
· J. Investig. Allergol. Clin. Immunol. (2006)
· Species Plantarum
· Ann. Agric. Environ. Med. (2003)
· Hortus Bengalensis, or ‘a Catalogue of the Plants Growing in the Hounourable East India Company's Botanical Garden at Calcutta’ (1814)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Kharjura, for example health benefits, extract dosage, chemical composition, side effects, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
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This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

kharjūra (खर्जूर).—m S The date tree, and n Its fruit, Phœnix dactylifera or sylvestris.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Kharjura (खर्जुर).—Silver.

Derivable forms: kharjuram (खर्जुरम्).

--- OR ---

Kharjūra (खर्जूर).—[Uṇādi-sūtra 4.9]

1) Date-tree.

2) A scorpion.

-ram 1 Silver; विषं सुधांशोरपि चूर्णपूर्णं जानामि खर्जूरमयं करण्डम् (viṣaṃ sudhāṃśorapi cūrṇapūrṇaṃ jānāmi kharjūramayaṃ karaṇḍam) Rām. Ch.6.6.

2) Yellow orpiment.

3) The fruit of the date-tree.

-rī The date-tree; R.4.57.

Derivable forms: kharjūraḥ (खर्जूरः).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kharjūra (खर्जूर).—m. and f. , A tree, Phœnix sylvestris.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Kharjūra (खर्जूर).—[masculine] ī [feminine] the date tree; [neuter] its fruit.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Kharjura (खर्जुर):—[from kharj] m. a kind of date, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

2) [v.s. ...] n. silver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

3) Kharjūra (खर्जूर):—[from kharj] m. Phoenix sylvestris, [Taittirīya-saṃhitā ii, 4, 9, 2; Kāṭhaka; Mahābhārata] etc.

4) [v.s. ...] a scorpion, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of a man [gana] aśvādi

6) [from kharj] n. the fruit of Phoenix sylvestris, [Kathāsaritsāgara lxi]

7) [v.s. ...] (= kharjura) silver, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] yellow orpiment, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) [v.s. ...] = khala, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

10) [v.s. ...] the interior part of a cocoa-nut, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

11) Khārjūra (खार्जूर):—[from khārjurakarṇa] mfn. ([from] kharj), coming from or made of Phoenix sylvestris, [Suśruta; Manu-smṛti xi, 96 [Scholiast or Commentator]]

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Kharjūra (खर्जूर) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit word: Khajjūra.

[Sanskrit to German]

Kharjura in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Kharjura (ಖರ್ಜುರ):—

1) [noun] a precious metal which is characterised by its lustrous white colour and great malleability and ductility, and is a chemical element of the transition series, atomic no. 47 (symbol Ag); silver.

2) [noun] a soft, silver-white, crystalline, metallic chemical element, malleable at ordinary temperatures, capable of a high polish, and used as an alloy in tinfoils, solders, utensils, type metals, superconducting magnets, etc. and in making plates; tin.

--- OR ---

Kharjūra (ಖರ್ಜೂರ):—

1) [noun] = ಖರ್ಜುರ [kharjura].

2) [noun] the palm tree Phoenix dactylifera of Arecaceae family; date palm.

3) [noun] its sweet, fleshy fruit.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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