Shali, Sali, Sāli, Śāli: 22 definitions

Introduction

Shali means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

The Sanskrit term Śāli can be transliterated into English as Sali or Shali, using the IAST transliteration scheme (?).

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

1) Śāli (शालि) is a Sanskrit word for a group of species of rice (śāli), idintified by Caraka in his Carakasaṃhitā sūtrasthāna (chapter 27), a classical Ayurvedic work. Śāli forms a sub-group of the Śūkadhānyavarga collection of medicinal plants, referring to the “group of awned grains”. Caraka defined such groups (vargas) based on the dietic value of the plant.

Śāli is said to have to following species of rice being superior in quality:

  1. Raktaśāli,
  2. Mahāśāli,
  3. Kalama,
  4. Śakunāhṛta,
  5. Tūrṇaka,
  6. Dīrghaśūka,
  7. Pāṇḍuka,
  8. Lāṅgūla,
  9. Sugandhaka,
  10. Lohavāla,
  11. Sāriva,
  12. Pramoda,
  13. Paṭaṅga,
  14. Tapanīya.

And the following species of rice are to be inferior in quality:

  1. Yavaka,
  2. Hāyana,
  3. Pāṃśuvāpya,
  4. Naiṣadhaka.

2) Śāli (शालि) is a Sanskrit word referring to “rice”, a species of plant from the Poaceae/Gramineae (grasses) family. It is also known by its synonym names Dhānya and Vrīhi. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā and the Suśruta-saṃhitā. The official botanical name is Oryza sativa but is commonly referred to in English as “Asian rice”, “Paddy” or simply “rice”. The word Śāli can also refer to any grain of a similar character to rice

This plant (Oryza sativa) is possibly idintified with Raktaśālī, which is mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara). It is described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the plant has another synonym, known as Tuaṇḍula.

Source: Shodhganga: Dietetics and culinary art in ancient and medieval India

Śāli (शालि) refers to “rice” and is classified as a type of grain (dhānya) in the section on śūkadhānya (awned grains) in the Bhojanakutūhala (dravyaguṇāguṇa-kathana), and is commonly found in literature dealing with the topics of dietetics and culinary art, also known as Pākaśāstra or Pākakalā.—The author explains the characteristics and the properties of various food grains (dhānyas). [...] The section śūkadhānya includes the varieties and properties of rice (śāli), wheat (godhūma) and barley (yava).

In the Śāli or “rice varieties” group of foodstuffs, the following substances are beneficial (hita) to the body: Lohita-śāli and Ṣaṣṭikā-śāli.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

Śāli (शालि) or Taṇḍula refers to the medicinal plant Oryza sativa L., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Śāli] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

Ayurveda book cover
context information

Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation

Śāli (शालि) refers to a type of plant, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.2.21. Accordingly as Brahmā narrated to Nārada:—“[...] When Kāma (God of Love) reached the vicinity of Śiva, Spring spread all his splendour in accord with the inclination of the lord. [...] The mango trees and the Śāli plants shining like mild fire shone like the open couches for the flowery arrows of Kāma”.

Source: archive.org: Puranic Encyclopedia

Śāli (शालि).—A maharṣi in the lineage of Gurus (preceptors). See under Guruparamparā.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Śāli (शालि).—A pupil of Kṛta.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 35. 53.

1b) (śāleyataṇḍula): a kind of rice for śrāddha.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 15. 35; 55. 18; 70. 43.

1c) A sage.*

  • * Matsya-purāṇa 196. 27.
Purana book cover
context information

The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Rasashastra (chemistry and alchemy)

Source: archive.org: Rasa-Jala-Nidhi: Or Ocean of indian chemistry and alchemy

Shali rice—a kind of rice having a white coating. (see Bhudeb Mookerji and his Rasajalanidhi)

Rasashastra book cover
context information

Rasashastra (रसशास्त्र, rasaśāstra) is an important branch of Ayurveda, specialising in chemical interactions with herbs, metals and minerals. Some texts combine yogic and tantric practices with various alchemical operations. The ultimate goal of Rasashastra is not only to preserve and prolong life, but also to bestow wealth upon humankind.

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Pancaratra (worship of Nārāyaṇa)

Source: archive.org: Isvara Samhita Vol 5

Śāli (शालि) refers to “rice” and represents one of the seven village-corns that are fit for food-offerings according to verse 25.57 of the Īśvarasaṃhitā, dealing with the classification of the places for building the fire-pits (kuṇḍa). Accordingly, “rice (śāli), green gram (mudga), barley (yava), black gram (māṣa), wheat (godhūma), priyaṅgu (panic seed) and seasamum (tila)—these seven grown in the village are to be taken in the work of preparation of caru... Śāli is important among them. Others are to be taken in its absence or that of others”.

There are ten kinds of rice (śāli) defined in verses 60b-61:

  1. raktaśāli,
  2. mahāśākya,
  3. kalama or kalamaśāli,
  4. gandhaśāli,
  5. śvetaśāli,
  6. saśūka,
  7. hemābha,
  8. garbhaśāli,
  9. sukumāra,
  10. sūkṣma or sūkṣmaśāli,
Pancaratra book cover
context information

Pancaratra (पाञ्चरात्र, pāñcarātra) represents a tradition of Hinduism where Narayana is revered and worshipped. Closeley related to Vaishnavism, the Pancaratra literature includes various Agamas and tantras incorporating many Vaishnava philosophies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: archive.org: Vedic index of Names and Subjects

Śāli (शालि) a later word for ‘rice’, is conjectured by Roth to be the equivalent of Śāri in the word Śāriśākā in the Atharvaveda.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

Only son of Dutthagamani. He renounced the throne and married Asokamala, a Candala girl (Mv.xxxiii.1f). In his previous birth he had been a smith, named Tissa, in Mundaganga, and his wife was Naga (Sumana). The couple gave a meal with pork to eight arahants, (for their names see MT.606) led by Dhammadinna Thera of Talangatissapabbata. It is said that on the day of birth the whole of Ceylon was filled with paddy, hence his name.

Sali was very pious, and all the revenues given to him by his father he gave away in charity. He kept the fast days in the Issarasamana vihara and built the Salipabbata vihara (MT.606).

He will be the son of Metteyya Buddha in his next birth. MT.xxxii.83. See also Ras.ii.114f.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: BDK Tripiṭaka: The Susiddhikara-sūtra

Śāli (शालि) refers to “ordinary nonglutinous rice”, as mentioned in Chapter 12 (“offering food”) of the Susiddhikara-sūtra. Accordingly, “Dishes of [ordinary] nonglutinous rice (śāli), dishes of nonglutinous rice that ripens in sixty days (ṣaṣṭika), dishes of barley cooked with milk, dishes of self-sown nonglutinous rice, and dishes of Indian corn: offer as prescribed that which should be offered”.

When you wish to offer food [viz., śāli], first cleanse the ground, sprinkle scented water all around, spread out on the ground leaves that have been washed clean, such as lotus leaves, palāśa (dhak) leaves, and leaves from lactescent trees, or new cotton cloth, and then set down the oblatory dishes. [...] First smear and sprinkle the ground and then spread the leaves; wash your hands clean, rinse out your mouth several times, swallow some water, and then you should set down the food [viz., śāli]. [...]

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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General definition (in Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Buddhism

Sāli (सालि)—One of the field-crops mentioned in the Jātakas.

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: archive.org: Jaina Yoga

Śāli (शालि, “rice”) refers to one of the seventeen varieties of dhānya (“grain”) according to Śvetāmbara tradition and listed in Hemacandra’s 12th century Yogaśāstra (verse 3.95). Dhānya represents one of the classes of the external (bahya) division of attachment (parigraha) and is related to the Aparigraha-vrata (vow of non-attachment).

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

sāli : (m.) a good kind of rice.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Sāli, (cp. Sk. śāli) rice D. I, 105, 230; II, 293; Vin. IV, 264; M. I, 57; A. I, 32, 145; III, 49; IV, 108 (+yavaka), 231; S. V, 10, 48; J. I, 66, 178; IV, 276; V, 37; VI, 531; Miln. 251; Sn. 240 sq.; Vism. 418; pl. °-iyo J. I, 325; Gen. pl. °-inaṃ J. VI, 510.—lohitaka° red rice Miln. 252.

Pali book cover
context information

Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

śaḷī (शळी).—f Formed by rapid utterance from saḷaī. 2 A porcupine-quill.

--- OR ---

śāli (शालि).—m f S Rice (in the husk), Oryza sativa.

--- OR ---

śālī (शाली).—a (S) Shining, refulgent, or radiant with; conspicuous, distinguished, or eminent for; rich, strong, or abounding in. Only in comp. and thus copiously and elegantly. Ex. abhimānaśālī or mānaśālī Nobleminded, highminded, magnanimous, loftyspirited; ūrmiśālī & taraṅgaśālī Glowing or abounding with waves;--epithet of the ocean; audāryaśālī Generous, liberal, munificent; karuṇāśālī Compassionate, pitiful, merciful; gandhaśālī Richscented; highly fragrant or odoriferous;--epithet of the wind or air; jvālā- śālī Blazing or highflaming;--epithet of fire; kṛpā-kauśalya-guṇa-tapa-dāna-daiva-dharma-parākrama-pallava-puṇya -puṣpa-bala-bhāgya-bhōga-vidyā-vīrya-vairāgya-śaurya-jñāna -śālī.

--- OR ---

saḷī (सळी).—f Commonly and properly saḷaī.

--- OR ---

sālī (साली).—f (śyālī S through H) A wife's sister.

--- OR ---

sāḷī (साळी).—f (Or sāḷa. śāli S) Uncleaned rice. 2 A small gummous tree, Boswellia glabra. Rox.

--- OR ---

sāḷī (साळी).—m A class of weavers (in cotton or silk) or an individual of it. Pr. sāḷyācī gāya māḷyācēṃ vāsarūṃ Used where things wanted are gathered from all quarters.

--- OR ---

sāḷī (साळी).—f (sāḷā) A wife's sister.

--- OR ---

sāḷī (साळी).—f (śalya or sallakī S) A porcupine.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

śāli (शालि).—m f Rice.

--- OR ---

śālī (शाली).—a Shining with, distinguished or eminent for. Only in comp. abhimāna- śālī Nobleminded, lofty-spirited. audāryaśālī Generous, liberal. karuṇāśālī Compassionate, merciful &c.

--- OR ---

sāḷī (साळी).—m A class of weavers. f A wife's sister. A porcupine.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Śalī (शली).—f. A small porcupine.

--- OR ---

Śāli (शालि).—

1) Rice; न शालेः स्तम्बकरिता वप्तुर्गुणमपेक्षते (na śāleḥ stambakaritā vapturguṇamapekṣate) Mu.1.3; यवाः प्रकीर्णा न भवन्ति शालयः (yavāḥ prakīrṇā na bhavanti śālayaḥ) Mk.4.17.

2) The civet-cat.

Derivable forms: śāliḥ (शालिः).

--- OR ---

Śālī (शाली).—(from śyālī) A wife's sister.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāli (शालि).—n. (-li) 1. Rice in general, but especially in two classes; one like white rice growing in deep water, and the other a red sort, requiring only a moist soil; there are a great many varieties of this grain. 3. The civet or pole cat. E. śāḍ to float or swim, aff. in, and ḍa changed to la .

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Śāli (शालि).—[masculine] sgl. & [plural] rice.

--- OR ---

Salī (सली).—cling or stick close to ([accusative]), find room in ([locative]); hide, be concealed; stoop, cower, contract. — Cf. abhilīna, avalīna ([additions]), ālīna, ni/līna ([additions]), pralīna, vilīna, saṃlīna.

Salī is a Sanskrit compound consisting of the terms sa and (ली).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Śalī (शली):—[from śala > śal] f. See below.

2) Śāli (शालि):—[from śāla] 1. śāli (for 2. See p. 1068, col. 1), in [compound] for śālin.

3) Śālī (शाली):—[from śāla] a f. a kind of plant (= kṛṣṇa-jīraka), [Horace H. Wilson]

4) Śāli (शालि):—2. śāli m. ([according to] to some also f.; for 1. See p. 1067, col. 2) rice (often varieties), any grain of a similar character to rice, [Manu-smṛti; Mahābhārata] etc.

5) the civet-cat, pole-cat, [Harṣacarita] (?), [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

6) Name of a Yakṣa (who was transformed into a lion; cf. śāli-vāhana below)

7) [plural] grains of rice, rice, [Rāmāyaṇa]

8) Śālī (शाली):—1. śālī f. Nigella Indica, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

9) 2. śālī f. ([probably] Prākṛt for śyālī; cf. śyāla) a wife’s sister (See [compound])

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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