Candana, Candanā, Camdana: 50 definitions


Candana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi, Hindi, biology. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chandana.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word referring to Santalum album (Indian sandalwood), a tropical tree from the Santalaceae (sandalwoods) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Śrīkhaṇḍa. In English, the tree is known as “Sandal tree”, “Indian sandalwood” or “White sandal tree”. It is used throughout Ayurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā.

This plant (Candana) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the tree is also known as Malaya.

Botanical description: It is an evergreen, semi-parasitic and glabrous tree, growing in dry areas throughout India, up to 1200 meters altitude. Its leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic-lanceolate and glabrous. The flowers are brownish-purple to reddish-purple or violet in color. The fruits resemble globose drupes and are purple-black in color. The heartwood is light yellowish when fresh but turns dark and is highly scented.

Synonyms: According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.6-8), Indian sandalwood (candana) has 18 synonyms:

  1. Śrīkhaṇḍa,
  2. Mahārha,
  3. Śvetacandana,
  4. Gośīrṣa,
  5. Tilaparṇa,
  6. Maṅgalya,
  7. Malayodbhava,
  8. Gandharāja,
  9. Sugandha,
  10. Sarpāvāsa,
  11. Śītala,
  12. Gandhāḍhya,
  13. Gandhasāra,
  14. Bhadraśrī,
  15. Bhogivallabha,
  16. Śītagandha,
  17. Malayaja,
  18. Pāvana.

It is also classified as having 2 different varietes: Veṭṭa and Sukkaḍi.

Properties according to the Rājanighaṇṭu: Candana is pungent, bitter and sweet in taste. It is slightly astringent. It provides relief in pittaja ailments, illusion, vomiting, fevers, worm infestations, morbid thirst and burning sensations. It is considered aphrodisiac and alleviates mouth diseases. It gives lustre to the body. Its paste applied on the body evokes the hidden libido.

Usage: The heart-wood taken from the nodular part of the Candana tree, which is heavy, red and on rubbing yields a clear, white-yellowish paste, is considered the best Candana. It is pungent and bitter in taste, cooling and very fragrant. The Candana which is slightly less in the above properties or even half of the aforesaid properties, is considered as medium.

Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda

Candana (चन्दन).—The Sanskrit name for an important Ayurvedic drug.—Candana is famous all over the world for its fragrance and coldness. It is a good pitta-pacifying drug.

Source: Advances in Zoology and Botany: Ethnomedicinal List of Plants Treating Fever in Ahmednagar District of Maharashtra, India

Candana (or Caṃdana) in the Marathi language refers to the medicinal tree “Santalum album L.”, and is used for ethnomedicine treatment of Fever in Ahmednagar district, India. The parts used are: “Dried heart wood”. Instructions for using the tree named Candana: The powder of dried heart wood 2 g mixed in coconut water—twice a day.

Source: Ancient Science of Life: Botanical identification of plants described in Mādhava Cikitsā

1) Candana (चन्दन) refers to the medicinal plant Pterocarpus santalinus L. F., and is used in the treatment of atisāra (diarrhoea), according to the 7th century Mādhavacikitsā chapter 2. Atisāra refers to a condition where there are three or more loose or liquid stools (bowel movements) per day or more stool than normal.  The second chapter of the Mādhavacikitsā explains several preparations [including Candana] through 60 Sanskrit verses about treating this problem.

The plant Pterocarpus santalinus L. F. (Candana) is also known as Raktacandana according to both the Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

2) Candana (चन्दन) can also be identified as Santalum album L.

The plant Santalum album L. (Candana) is also known as Śvetacandana according to both the Ayurvedic Formulary and the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India.

Source: Shodhganga: Edition translation and critical study of yogasarasamgraha

Candana (चन्दन) refers to the medicinal plant known as “Santalum album Linn.” and is dealt with in the 15th-century Yogasārasaṅgraha (Yogasara-saṅgraha) by Vāsudeva: an unpublished Keralite work representing an Ayurvedic compendium of medicinal recipes. The Yogasārasaṃgraha [mentioning candana] deals with entire recipes in the route of administration, and thus deals with the knowledge of pharmacy (bhaiṣajya-kalpanā) which is a branch of pharmacology (dravyaguṇa).

Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

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Dharmashastra (religious law)

Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra

Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Sirium myrtifolium (sandal) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. Note that Sirium myrtifolium is a synonym of Santalum album. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as candana) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

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Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)

Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary

Candana (चन्दन).—A cosmetic paste made from sandalwood; used in Deity worship.

Source: Pure Bhakti: Arcana-dipika - 3rd Edition

Candana (चन्दन) refers to:—Sandalwood paste, known for its cooling properties, offered when the weather is hot. (cf. Glossary page from Arcana-dīpikā).

Vaishnavism book cover
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Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).

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Purana and Itihasa (epic history)

Source: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandalwood” and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Candan has three varieties, namely, Rakta, Sita and Kāleyaka which have been referred to (verses 417, 423, 787).

Source: Shiva Purana - English Translation

1) Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal-paste”, which is used in ritualistic worship, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11, while explaining the mode of worshipping Śiva:—“[...] fragrant root of the plant Uśīra and sandal-paste shall be put in the water for washing feet. Fine powders of Jātī, Kaṃkola, Karpūra, root of Vaṭa and Tamālaka should be put in the water intended for sipping. Sandal powder shall be put in all these nine vessels. Nandīśa, the divine Bull of Śiva shall be worshipped beside the lord Śiva. The latter shall be worshipped with scents, incense and different. [...]”.

2) Cāndana (चान्दन) or Candana refers to “sandalwood”, representing the material of Maya’s liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Great Brahmins and their wives chose liṅgas of earth. Maya took a liṅga of sandalwood (Cāndana-liṅga) and Śeṣa nāga took a coral-made liṅga. [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index

1a) Candana (चन्दन).—A group of nāḍis of fire (with sun) emitting rain.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 27.

1b) A group of 33 Devas who drink the moon's kalas in the dark half of the month.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 28. 26.

2) Candanā (चन्दना).—A river of the Bhāratavarṣa; a mahānadi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 97; 108. 79.
Source: JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places

Candanā (चन्दना) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.28). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Candanā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

Source: Shodhganga: The saurapurana - a critical study

Candana (चन्दन) represents the food taken in the month Pauṣa for the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-Vrata, according to the 10th century Saurapurāṇa: one of the various Upapurāṇas depicting Śaivism.—Accordingly, the Anaṅgatrayodaśī-vrata is observed in honour of Śiva for acquiring virtue, great fortune, wealth and for destruction of sins [...] This vrata is to be performed for a year from Mārgaśīra.—In the month of Pauṣa, the tooth-brush is that of khādira-wood. The food taken is candana. The deity to be worshipped is Yogeśvara. The flowers used in worship are marubhaka. The naivedya offerings is odana. The result  accrued is rājasūya.

Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

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Kavya (poetry)

[«previous next»] — Candana in Kavya glossary
Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara

Candana (चन्दन) or Candanataru or Candanadruma refers to the “sandalwood-tree”, representing one of the “seven jewels of an emperor” (cakravartin-ratna), as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 108. Accordingly, as Mandara said to Naravāhanadatta: “... but that cave can be forced by an emperor who has obtained the jewels. And the sandalwood-tree (candana), which is one of the jewels of an emperor, is in this country; so quickly gain possession of it in order that you may attain the ends you have in view..”.

Also, “... and when he [Naravāhanadatta] saw that sandalwood-tree (candana), surrounded with a lofty platform made of precious jewels, he climbed up to it with ladders and adored it. The [candana] tree then said to him with bodiless voice: ‘Emperor, thou hast won me, the sandalwood-tree, and when thou thinkest on me I will appear to thee, so leave this place at present, and go to Govindakūṭa; thus thou wilt win the other jewels also; and then thou wilt easily conquer Mandaradeva’”.

The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning candana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.

Source: OpenEdition books: Vividhatīrthakalpaḥ (Kāvya)

Candanā (चन्दना) is the daughter of king Dadhivāhana of Campā, as mentioned in the Vividhatīrthakalpa by Jinaprabhasūri (13th century A.D.): an ancient text devoted to various Jaina holy places (tīrthas).—Accordingly, “The Jina Mahāvīra has imposed special conditions on himself in order to be able to break his fast: a princess reduced to slavery, chained, starving, in tears, one foot outside the house, one foot outside, must offer him oatmeal in a basket. Candanā fulfills these conditions: daughter of king Dadhivāhana of Campā, defeated by Śatānīka, king of Kauśāmbī, she was bought by the merchant Dhanadeva and taken to Kauśāmbī. [...]”.

Cf.  Kalpa Subodhikā Ṭīkā 308.5-309.10; Āvaśyakacūrṇi I 316.13-319.13; Āvasyakaniryukti (Haribhadra commentary) b.7-a.2; Cauppaṇṇamahāpurisacariya 289.4-292.22; Triṣaṣṭiśalākāpuruṣacaritra X.4. v. 516-600: Johnson VI p. 117-118.

Kavya book cover
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Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.

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Shaktism (Shakta philosophy)

Source: Google Books: Manthanabhairavatantram

1) Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandalwood”, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “[...] One should make a level canopy [i.e., maṇḍapa] measuring sixteen (handspans) in a frightening forest, [...] O fair-faced one, one should then smear that place with the dung of a brown cow mixed with liquor. (The place) should abound with the fragrance of perfumed water and be fumigated with sandalwood and aloe [i.e., candana-aguru-dhūpita]. There, one should fashion twenty-four circles. One should fashion them in groups of six in the east, north, west, and south in the sequence in which worship takes place (of the sacred seats)”.

2) Candana (चन्दन) refers to one of the thirty-six sacred trees, according to the Ṣaṭsāhasrasaṃhitā, an expansion of the Kubjikāmatatantra: the earliest popular and most authoritative Tantra of the Kubjikā cult.—Accordingly, “According to the Kula teaching (these) [i.e., Candana] are the most excellent Kula trees that give accomplishments and liberation. (They are full of) Yoginīs, Siddhas, Lords of the Heroes and hosts of gods and demons. One should not touch them with one’s feet or urinate and defecate on them or have sex etc. below them. [...]”.

Source: Addaiyan Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences: Tantra Literature of Kerala- Special Reference to Mātṛsadbhāva

Candana (चन्दन) or “sandal tree” refers to of the trees used for making Bimbas or Pratimās, according to the Mātṛsadbhāva, one of the earliest Śākta Tantras from Kerala.—Mātṛsadbhāva is a Kerala Tantric ritual manual dealing with the worship of Goddess Bhadrakālī (also known as Rurujit) along with sapta-mātṛs or Seven mothers. [...] There are many descriptions about the flora and fauna in Mātṛssadbhāva. [...] In the fourth chapter the author discussed about different types of trees [e.g., candana] can be used to make pratimā or bimba.

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions (shaktism)

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal paste”, according to the King Vatsarāja’s Pūjāstuti called the Kāmasiddhistuti (also Vāmakeśvarīstuti), guiding one through the worship of the Goddess Nityā.—Accordingly, “[...] She has braided hair. Her limbs are adorned with bracelets, earrings, necklaces, twining laces, girdles, jewels, and anklets. Her clothes resemble Bandhūka flowers. She is full of affection , and the hue of her body is brightened up with saffron and sandal paste (candana). [...]”.

Shaktism book cover
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Shakta (शाक्त, śākta) or Shaktism (śāktism) represents a tradition of Hinduism where the Goddess (Devi) is revered and worshipped. Shakta literature includes a range of scriptures, including various Agamas and Tantras, although its roots may be traced back to the Vedas.

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Shaivism (Shaiva philosophy)

Source: Brill: Śaivism and the Tantric Traditions

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal” (perfume), according to the 13th-century Matsyendrasaṃhitā: a Kubjikā-Tripurā oriented Tantric Yoga text of the Ṣaḍanvayaśāmbhava tradition from South India.—Accordingly, “[Visualisation of Parameśvara]:—[...] His heart is agitated with sexual desire. His lotus face displays a faint smile. This is how the Yogin should visualise his body for a long time, as transformed into Śiva. All his limbs are perfumed with sandal (candana), aloe, camphor, musk and saffron. He has a beautiful face. He is surrounded by millions of gem islands, in a chamber on a fine bed”.

Source: SOAS University of London: Protective Rites in the Netra Tantra

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal” (used for smearing the earth), according to the Netratantra of Kṣemarāja: a Śaiva text from the 9th century in which Śiva (Bhairava) teaches Pārvatī topics such as metaphysics, cosmology, and soteriology.—Accordingly, [verse 2.17-19]—“The pure-souled Ācārya should draw an eight petaled lotus, in smooth, pure earth [that is] smeared with sandal and aloe wood (candanacandanāgurucarcite) [and] scented [with] fragrant camphor and strong saffron. After he has drawn [the lotus] with a great undertaking, [the Ācarya,] decorated and adorned with a crown, smeared with sandalwood (candanacandanāgurucarcitaḥ) , [writes] the mātṛkā. Having placed oṃ in the middle [on the pericarp of the lotus], he should draw [the phonemes of the mātṛkā on the petals] starting in the East”.

Shaivism book cover
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Shaiva (शैव, śaiva) or Shaivism (śaivism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshiping Shiva as the supreme being. Closely related to Shaktism, Shaiva literature includes a range of scriptures, including Tantras, while the root of this tradition may be traced back to the ancient Vedas.

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Jyotisha (astronomy and astrology)

Source: Wisdom Library: Brihat Samhita by Varahamihira

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal”, according to the Bṛhatsaṃhitā (chapter 16) (“On the planets—graha-bhaktiyoga”), an encyclopedic Sanskrit work written by Varāhamihira mainly focusing on the science of ancient Indian astronomy astronomy (Jyotiṣa).—Accordingly, “[...] Venus also presides over simple silk, coloured silk, wollen cloth, white silk, Rodhra, Patra, Coca, nutmeg, Agaru, Vacā, Pippalī and sandal (candana)”.

Jyotisha book cover
context information

Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, jyotiṣa or jyotish) refers to ‘astronomy’ or “Vedic astrology” and represents the fifth of the six Vedangas (additional sciences to be studied along with the Vedas). Jyotisha concerns itself with the study and prediction of the movements of celestial bodies, in order to calculate the auspicious time for rituals and ceremonies.

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General definition (in Hinduism)

Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “offering sandalwood paste”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—For keeping the body cool and pleasant in smell fresh sandalwood paste (candana) is applied. Sandal is well known for its cooling qualities—a boon in tropical countries. It is produced by rubbing a block of sandalwood on a stone while adding small quantities of water frequently; it is then kept on a small dish (gandha-pātra). The sandalwood paste is applied with the ring finger of the right hand, which is used for making offerings to deities.

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names

1. Candana - A deva, vassal of the Four Regent Gods (D.ii.258). He is mentioned as one of the chief Yakkhas to be invoked by followers of the Buddha in case of need (D.iii.204). He once visited Lomasakangiya at the Nigrodharama, questioned him regarding the True Saint, and recited to him stanzas learnt when the Buddha preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta in Tavatimsa (M.iii.199f) (but see below). The Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.53) records a conversation between Candana and the Buddha and a visit paid by Candana to Maha Moggallana (S.iv.280). Buddhaghosa (MA.ii.951) says he was an upasaka in the time of Kassapa Buddha and offered the four requisites to the Buddha and the monks, as a result of which he became a deva. It is elsewhere stated that in Kassapas time Candana and Lomasakangiya were friends and that both became monks. (ThagA.i.84f. In this version not Candana, but Lomasakangiya, expounds the Sutta; in is Candana).

When Kassapa preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta, Candana asked Lomasakangiya to explain it; this he was unable to do, and so made a wish that he should be able to explain it in a future birth, Candana wishing that he should then ask the questions again. Both wishes were fulfilled. For details see Lomasakangiya (2).

2. Candana Thera - He belonged to a rich family in Savatthi, and having heard the Buddha preach, became a sotapanna. When a son was born to him he joined the Order and took to meditating in the forest. Later he dwelt in a charnel field near Savatthi. There he was visited by his wife and child who hoped to win him back, but, seeing them from afar, he made a special effort and became an arahant, preaching to his wife as she approached (Thag.vs.299-302; ThagA.i.395f).

Thirty one kappas ago he was a tree sprite, and having seen the Pacceka Buddha Sudassana, gave him a kutaja flower. He is probably identical with Kutajapupphiya Thera of the Apaddna. (ii.451; the same verses are also ascribed to Harita).

3. Candana - A monk of ninety one kappas ago to whom Upahanadayaka made a gift of a pair of sandals. Ap.i.228.

context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

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Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)

Source: Wisdom Library: Tibetan Buddhism

Candana (चन्दन) is the name of a Pratyekabuddha mentioned as attending the teachings in the 6th century Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa: one of the largest Kriyā Tantras devoted to Mañjuśrī (the Bodhisattva of wisdom) representing an encyclopedia of knowledge primarily concerned with ritualistic elements in Buddhism. The teachings in this text originate from Mañjuśrī and were taught to and by Buddha Śākyamuni in the presence of a large audience (including Candana).

Source: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala

Candana (चन्दन) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Candana is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Bālamṛtyu and with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Ravi.

Tibetan Buddhism book cover
context information

Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.

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Mahayana (major branch of Buddhism)

Source: Bulletin of the French School of the Far East (volume 5)

Candana (चन्दन) is the name of a Mahāyakṣa appointed as one of the Divine protector deities of Aṅga, according to chapter 17 of the Candragarbha: the 55th section of the Mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, a large compilation of Sūtras (texts) in Mahāyāna Buddhism partly available in Sanskrit, Tibetan and Chinese.—In the Candragarbhasūtra, the Bhagavat invites all classes of Gods and Deities to protect the Law [dharma?] and the faithful in their respective kingdoms of Jambudvīpa [e.g., the Mahāyakṣa Candana in Aṅga], resembling the time of the past Buddhas.

Source: De Gruyter: A Buddhist Ritual Manual on Agriculture

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “(grounded) sandal” (suitable for an offering ceremony), according to the Vajratuṇḍasamayakalparāja, an ancient Buddhist ritual manual on agriculture from the 5th-century (or earlier), containing various instructions for the Sangha to provide agriculture-related services to laypeople including rain-making, weather control and crop protection.—Accordingly [as the Bhagavān taught the detailed offering-manual], “[...] Four Nāga kings should be prepared in the middle of the ditch. [...] Retinues of seven should be made for each. They should be three-, two- or five-headed and their bodies should be smeared with various fragrances. Having ground sandal (candana), red sandal, fragrant sandal, padmaka wood and saffron, it should be scattered along with fumigation. [...]”.

Mahayana book cover
context information

Mahayana (महायान, mahāyāna) is a major branch of Buddhism focusing on the path of a Bodhisattva (spiritual aspirants/ enlightened beings). Extant literature is vast and primarely composed in the Sanskrit language. There are many sūtras of which some of the earliest are the various Prajñāpāramitā sūtras.

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In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Source: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)

Candana (चन्दन) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (e.g., the Candana tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

Source: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu

Candana (चन्दन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Candana] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.

Source: The University of Sydney: A study of the Twelve Reflections

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal-wood”, according to Pūjyapāda’s Sarvārthasiddhi.—Accordingly, “[...] Even if human birth is attained, a good country, a good family, keen senses, health, etc. are more and more difficult of attainment. When all these are attained, if true faith is not acquired, human birth becomes useless like the face without vision. And even after attaining this rare true faith, if anyone is immersed in worldly pleasures, it is like burning sandal-wood paste (candana-dahana) for the sake of ash. [...]”.

Source: Tessitori Collection I

Candana (चन्दन) is the name of an ancient king from Kusumapura, according to the Candanamalayāgarīcaupaī by Bhadrasena (dealing with the lives of Jain teachers), which is included in the collection of manuscripts at the ‘Vincenzo Joppi’ library, collected by Luigi Pio Tessitori during his visit to Rajasthan between 1914 and 1919.—Accordingly, “King Candana and his wife Malayāgarī (various spellings) lived happily in Kusumapura with their two young sons Sāgara and Nīra. One night the family’s deity (kuladevatā) manifested herself to the king, saying that she would always assist him but that he would have to go through a period of difficulties. When the king asked her advice on what to do, she told him that together with his family he should live in a forest (vanavāsa, 1v10) for some time. [...]”.

General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

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India history and geography

Source: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara

Chandana is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Chandana refers to the “sandle-wood tree” and its big forests are mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (e.g., Chandana), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Chandana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

India history book cover
context information

The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as mythology, zoology, royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

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Biology (plants and animals)

Source: Google Books: CRC World Dictionary (Regional names)

Candana in India is the name of a plant defined with Pterocarpus santalinus in various botanical sources. This page contains potential references in Ayurveda, modern medicine, and other folk traditions or local practices It has the synonym Lingoum santalinum (L.f.) Kuntze (among others).

Example references for further research on medicinal uses or toxicity (see latin names for full list):

· Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2006)
· Publications of the Bureau of Science Government Laboratories (1904)
· Selectarum Stirpium Americanarum Historia (1763)
· A Numerical List of Dried Specimens (5842)
· Supplementum Plantarum Systematis Vegetabilium Editionis Decimae Tertiae (1782)
· Flora de Filipinas (1837)

If you are looking for specific details regarding Candana, for example side effects, health benefits, chemical composition, extract dosage, pregnancy safety, diet and recipes, have a look at these references.

Biology book cover
context information

This sections includes definitions from the five kingdoms of living things: Animals, Plants, Fungi, Protists and Monera. It will include both the official binomial nomenclature (scientific names usually in Latin) as well as regional spellings and variants.

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Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

[«previous next»] — Candana in Pali glossary
Source: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

candana : (m.) sandal-wood tree. (nt.), sandal-wood.

Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary

Candana, (m. & nt.) (Deriv. unknown. Possibly nonAryan; but see under canda, Sk. candana) sandal (tree, wood or unguent, also perfume) Vin. I, 203; A. I, 9, 145, 226; III, 237; Dh. 54; J. V, 420 (tree, m.); Miln. 382; DhA. I, 422; IV, 189 (°pūjā); VvA. 158 (agalu° with aloe & sandal); PvA. 76.—Kāsika° sandal from Kāsī A. III, 391; IV, 281; Miln. 243, 348; ratta° red s. J. IV, 442; lohita° id. A. V, 22; J. I, 37; hari° yellow s. J. I, 146.

Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

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Marathi-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

candana (चंदन).—m (S) Sandal tree, Santalum album. Grah. 2 n Its wood. 3 Unctuous preparations of the wood. 4 fig. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. Ex. pēṇḍhāṛyānnīṃ gāṃva laṭūna caṃ0 kēlēṃ; pōrānēṃ pōḷyācēṃ caṃ0 karūna ṭākalēṃ. caṃ0 kāḍhaṇēṃ g. of o. To beat soundly.

Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English

candana (चंदन).—m Sandal tree, Santalum album. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. caṃ?B kāḍhaṇēṃ To beat soundly.

context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

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Sanskrit dictionary

Source: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—[canda ṇyantāt lyu]

1) Sandal, (the tree, the wood, or any unctuous preparation of the wood, held in high estimation as a perfume and refrigerant application); अनलायागुरुचन्दनैधसे (analāyāgurucandanaidhase) R.8.71; मणिप्रकाराः सरसं च चन्दनं शुचौ प्रिये यान्ति जनस्य सेव्यताम् (maṇiprakārāḥ sarasaṃ ca candanaṃ śucau priye yānti janasya sevyatām) Ṛtusaṃhāra 1.2; एवं च भाषते लोकश्चन्दनं किल शीतलम् । पुत्रगात्रस्य संस्पर्शश्चन्दनादतिरिच्यते (evaṃ ca bhāṣate lokaścandanaṃ kila śītalam | putragātrasya saṃsparśaścandanādatiricyate) Pañcatantra (Bombay) 5.2; विना मलयमन्यत्र चन्दनं न प्ररोहति (vinā malayamanyatra candanaṃ na prarohati) 1.41.

2) Anything most excellent of its kind.

3) A kind of monkey; L. D. B.

Derivable forms: candanaḥ (चन्दनः), candanam (चन्दनम्).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—(1) adj. (compare [Boehtlingk and Roth] s.v. 2; according to Sanskrit Gr. used at end of a [compound] meaning best of its kind), superior, excellent: (of the Buddha)…śāntaḥ śāntaparivāraś can- danaś candanapari° mukto muktapari°…Divyāvadāna 96.16; is this the meaning of candana in °na-gaṇḍīraka (q.v.)?; (2) name of a former Buddha: Mahāvastu iii.234.5 f.; Lalitavistara 171.12; Avadāna-śataka i.74.9 ff.; Sukhāvatīvyūha 5.10 (perhaps not all intended for the same person); (3) name of a devaputra (probably same as Malalasekara (Dictionary of Pali Proper Names) Ca° 1, described as a yakkha): Lalitavistara 4.12; 6.12; 7.5; 438.16 (only in lists of names of gods); (4) name of a gandharva: Suvarṇabhāsottamasūtra 162.4 (not likely to be the same as 3); (5) name of a Pratyekabuddha: Avadāna-śataka i.119.8 ff.; (a different one ?) (Ārya-)Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa 64.12; 111.10 (in lists of Pr.); (6) name of a noble elephant, born at the same time with Śākyamuni: Mahāvastu ii.25.13.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—mn.

(-naḥ -naṃ) Sandal, (Sirium myrtifolium;) it implies either the tree, the wood, or the unctuous preparations of the wood, held in high estimation as perfumes. n.

(-naṃ) Red Sandal wood: see raktacandana. m.

(-naḥ) A kind of ape. f. (-nī) The name of a river. E. cadi to gladden, to delight, affix ṇic lyu.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—[cand + ana], I. m. and n. 1. Sandal, the tree, [Rāmāyaṇa] 3, 76, 3; the wood, [Pañcatantra] i. [distich] 47; the unctuous preparations of the wood, [Pañcatantra] v. [distich] 18. Ii. m. A proper name, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 41, 3. Iii. f. , The name of a river, [Rāmāyaṇa] 4, 40, 20.

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—[masculine] [neuter] sandal (tree, wood, or unguent).

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary

1) Candana (चन्दन):—[from cand] mn. sandal (Sirium myrtifolium, either the tree, wood, or the unctuous preparation of the wood held in high estimation as perfumes; hence ifc. a term for anything which is the most excellent of its kind [gana] vyāghrādi), [Nirukta, by Yāska xi. 5; Mahābhārata; Rāmāyaṇa] etc. (ifc. f(ā). , [Raghuvaṃśa vi, 61])

2) [v.s. ...] m. Name of a divine being, [Lalita-vistara i, 93]

3) [v.s. ...] of a prince

4) [v.s. ...] = naka, [Mṛcchakaṭikā vi, 25]

5) [v.s. ...] Name of an ape, [Rāmāyaṇa iv, 41, 3]

6) [v.s. ...] n. the grass Bhadra-kālī, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

7) Candanā (चन्दना):—[from candana > cand] f. a kind of creeper, [cf. Lexicographers, esp. such as amarasiṃha, halāyudha, hemacandra, etc.]

8) [v.s. ...] Name of a river, [Viṣṇu-purāṇa] ([varia lectio] for ndrā)

9) Candana (चन्दन):—[from cand] (cf. ku-, pīta-, rakta-, śveta-, hari-.)

10) Cāndana (चान्दन):—mf(ī)n. consisting of sandal-wood (cand), [Bhartṛhari ii, 98; Prasannarāghava vi, 32.]

Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary

Candana (चन्दन):—[(naḥ-naṃ)] 1. m. n. Sandal-wood. m. An ape. f. Name of a river.

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary (S)

Candana (चन्दन) in the Sanskrit language is related to the Prakrit words: Caṃdaṇa, Caṃdaṇā.

[Sanskrit to German]

Candana in German

context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family (even English!). Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

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Hindi dictionary

[«previous next»] — Candana in Hindi glossary
Source: DDSA: A practical Hindi-English dictionary

1) Caṃdana (चंदन) [Also spelled chandan]:—(nm) sandalwood, sanders; ~[sāra] sandalwood paste; ~[hāra] see [caṃdrahāra].

2) Cāṃdanā (चांदना):—(nm) light; —[honā] to have light, to be lighted; to dawn, to have the day-break.

context information


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Prakrit-English dictionary

Source: DDSA: Paia-sadda-mahannavo; a comprehensive Prakrit Hindi dictionary

1) Caṃdaṇa (चंदण) in the Prakrit language is related to the Sanskrit word: Candana.

2) Caṃdaṇa (चंदण) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Candana.

3) Caṃdaṇā (चंदणा) also relates to the Sanskrit word: Candanā.

context information

Prakrit is an ancient language closely associated with both Pali and Sanskrit. Jain literature is often composed in this language or sub-dialects, such as the Agamas and their commentaries which are written in Ardhamagadhi and Maharashtri Prakrit. The earliest extant texts can be dated to as early as the 4th century BCE although core portions might be older.

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Kannada-English dictionary

Source: Alar: Kannada-English corpus

Caṃdaṇa (ಚಂದಣ):—[noun] = ಚಂದನ [camdana].

--- OR ---

Caṃdana (ಚಂದನ):—

1) [noun] the tree Santalum album (= Serium myrtifolium) of Santalaceae family.

2) [noun] its hard, light-coloured, close-grained, sweet-smelling heartwood of this tree;ಚಂದನದ ಗೊಂಬೆ [camdanada gombe] candanada gombe (n.) (fig.) a pretty, doll-like girl or young woman.

context information

Kannada is a Dravidian language (as opposed to the Indo-European language family) mainly spoken in the southwestern region of India.

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