Candana, aka: Candanā; 15 Definition(s)

Introduction

Candana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.

Alternative spellings of this word include Chandana.

In Hinduism

Ayurveda (science of life)

Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word referring to Santalum album (Indian sandalwood), a tropical tree from the Santalaceae (sandalwoods) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Śrīkhaṇḍa. In English, the tree is known as “Sandal tree”, “Indian sandalwood” or “White sandal tree”. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā.

This plant (Candana) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the tree is also known as Malaya.

Botanical description: It is an evergreen, semi-parasitic and glabrous tree, growing in dry areas throughout India, up to 1200 meters altitude. Its leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic-lanceolate and glabrous. The flowers are brownish-purple to reddish-purple or violet in color. The fruits resemble globose drupes and are purple-black in color. The heartwood is light yellowish when fresh but turns dark and is highly scented.

Synonyms: According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.6-8), Indian sandalwood (candana) has 18 synonyms:

  1. Śrīkhaṇḍa,
  2. Mahārha,
  3. Śvetacandana,
  4. Gośīrṣa,
  5. Tilaparṇa,
  6. Maṅgalya,
  7. Malayodbhava,
  8. Gandharāja,
  9. Sugandha,
  10. Sarpāvāsa,
  11. Śītala,
  12. Gandhāḍhya,
  13. Gandhasāra,
  14. Bhadraśrī,
  15. Bhogivallabha,
  16. Śītagandha,
  17. Malayaja,
  18. Pāvana.

It is also classified as having 2 different varietes: Veṭṭa and Sukkaḍi.

Properties according to the Rājanighaṇṭu: Candana is pungent, bitter and sweet in taste. It is slightly astringent. It provides relief in pittaja ailments, illusion, vomiting, fevers, worm infestations, morbid thirst and burning sensations. It is considered aphrodisiac and alleviates mouth diseases. It gives lustre to the body. Its paste applied on the body evokes the hidden libido.

Usage: The heart-wood taken from the nodular part of the Candana tree, which is heavy, red and on rubbing yields a clear, white-yellowish paste, is considered the best Candana. It is pungent and bitter in taste, cooling and very fragrant. The Candana which is slightly less in the above properties or even half of the aforesaid properties, is considered as medium.

(Source): Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany

Candana (चन्दन).—The Sanskrit name for an important Āyurvedic drug.—Candana is famous all over the world for its fragrance and coldness. It is a good pitta-pacifying drug.

(Source): Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Ayurveda book cover
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Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.

Dharmashastra (religious law)

Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Sirium myrtifolium (sandal) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. Note that Sirium myrtifolium is a synonym of Santalum album. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.

The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:

According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as candana) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”

(Source): Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Dharmashastra book cover
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Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.

Purana

Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandalwood” and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Candan has three varieties, namely, Rakta, Sita and Kāleyaka which have been referred to (verses 417, 423, 787).

(Source): archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study

1a) Candana (चन्दन).—A group of nāḍis of fire (with sun) emitting rain.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 27.

1b) A group of 33 Devas who drink the moon's kalas in the dark half of the month.*

  • * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 28. 26.

2) Candanā (चन्दना).—A R. of the Bhāratavarṣa; a mahānadi.*

  • * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 97; 108. 79.
(Source): Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
Purana book cover
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The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.

Itihasa (narrative history)

Candanā (चन्दना) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.28). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Candanā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.

(Source): JatLand: List of Mahabharata people and places
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Itihasa (इतिहास, itihāsa) refers to ‘epic history’ and represents a branch of Sanskrit literature which popularly includes 1) the eighteen major Puranas, 2) the Mahabharata and 3) the Ramayana. It is a branch of Vedic Hinduism categorised as smriti literature (‘that which is remembered’) as opposed to shruti literature (‘that which is transmitted verbally’).

General definition (in Hinduism)

Candana (चन्दन).—A cosmetic paste made from sandalwood; used in Deity worship.

(Source): ISKCON Press: Glossary

In Buddhism

Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)

1. Candana - A deva, vassal of the Four Regent Gods (D.ii.258). He is mentioned as one of the chief Yakkhas to be invoked by followers of the Buddha in case of need (D.iii.204). He once visited Lomasakangiya at the Nigrodharama, questioned him regarding the True Saint, and recited to him stanzas learnt when the Buddha preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta in Tavatimsa (M.iii.199f) (but see below). The Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.53) records a conversation between Candana and the Buddha and a visit paid by Candana to Maha Moggallana (S.iv.280). Buddhaghosa (MA.ii.951) says he was an upasaka in the time of Kassapa Buddha and offered the four requisites to the Buddha and the monks, as a result of which he became a deva. It is elsewhere stated that in Kassapas time Candana and Lomasakangiya were friends and that both became monks. (ThagA.i.84f. In this version not Candana, but Lomasakangiya, expounds the Sutta; in M.iii.199f.it is Candana).

When Kassapa preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta, Candana asked Lomasakangiya to explain it; this he was unable to do, and so made a wish that he should be able to explain it in a future birth, Candana wishing that he should then ask the questions again. Both wishes were fulfilled. For details see Lomasakangiya (2).

2. Candana Thera - He belonged to a rich family in Savatthi, and having heard the Buddha preach, became a sotapanna. When a son was born to him he joined the Order and took to meditating in the forest. Later he dwelt in a charnel field near Savatthi. There he was visited by his wife and child who hoped to win him back, but, seeing them from afar, he made a special effort and became an arahant, preaching to his wife as she approached (Thag.vs.299-302; ThagA.i.395f).

Thirty one kappas ago he was a tree sprite, and having seen the Pacceka Buddha Sudassana, gave him a kutaja flower. He is probably identical with Kutajapupphiya Thera of the Apaddna. (ii.451; the same verses are also ascribed to Harita).

3. Candana - A monk of ninety one kappas ago to whom Upahanadayaka made a gift of a pair of sandals. Ap.i.228.

(Source): Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
context information

Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).

In Jainism

General definition (in Jainism)

Candana (चन्दन) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.

Different kinds of trees (eg., the Candana tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.

(Source): archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
General definition book cover
context information

Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.

India history and geogprahy

Chandana is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Chandana refers to the “sandle-wood tree” and its big forests are mentioned.

Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Chandana), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Chandana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).

(Source): Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
India history book cover
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The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.

Languages of India and abroad

Pali-English dictionary

candana : (m.) sandal-wood tree. (nt.), sandal-wood.

(Source): BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary

Candana, (m. & nt.) (Deriv. unknown. Possibly nonAryan; but see under canda, Sk. candana) sandal (tree, wood or unguent, also perfume) Vin. I, 203; A. I, 9, 145, 226; III, 237; Dh. 54; J. V, 420 (tree, m.); Miln. 382; DhA. I, 422; IV, 189 (°pūjā); VvA. 158 (agalu° with aloe & sandal); PvA. 76.—Kāsika° sandal from Kāsī A. III, 391; IV, 281; Miln. 243, 348; ratta° red s. J. IV, 442; lohita° id. A. V, 22; J. I, 37; hari° yellow s. J. I, 146.

—ussada covered with sandal perfumes Th. 1, 267; Pv III, 91 (=candanasārānulitto PvA. 211); —gaṇṭhi (or better gaṇḍi; see the latter) a block of sandal wood Vin. II, 110; —gandhin having a scent of sandal J. III, 190; —vilepana sandal unguent J. IV, 3. —sāra choice sandal (wood or perfume) Vv 523, J. I, 53, 340. (Page 262)

(Source): Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Pali book cover
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Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.

Marathi-English dictionary

candana (चंदन).—m (S) Sandal tree, Santalum album. Grah. 2 n Its wood. 3 Unctuous preparations of the wood. 4 fig. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. Ex. pēṇḍhāṛyānnīṃ gāṃva laṭūna caṃ0 kēlēṃ; pōrānēṃ pōḷyācēṃ caṃ0 karūna ṭākalēṃ. caṃ0 kāḍhaṇēṃ g. of o. To beat soundly.

(Source): DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary

candana (चंदन).—m Sandal tree, Santalum album. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. caṃ?B kāḍhaṇēṃ To beat soundly.

(Source): DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
context information

Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.

Sanskrit-English dictionary

Candana (चन्दन).—[canda ṇyantāt lyu]

1) Sandal, (the tree, the wood, or any unctuous preparation of the wood, held in high estimation as a perfume and refrigerant application); अनलायागुरुचन्दनैधसे (analāyāgurucandanaidhase) R.8.71; मणिप्रकाराः सरसं च चन्दनं शुचौ प्रिये यान्ति जनस्य सेव्यताम् (maṇiprakārāḥ sarasaṃ ca candanaṃ śucau priye yānti janasya sevyatām) Ṛs.1.2; एवं च भाषते लोकश्चन्दनं किल शीतलम् । पुत्रगात्रस्य संस्पर्शश्चन्दनादतिरिच्यते (evaṃ ca bhāṣate lokaścandanaṃ kila śītalam | putragātrasya saṃsparśaścandanādatiricyate) Pt.5.2; विना मलयमन्यत्र चन्दनं न प्ररोहति (vinā malayamanyatra candanaṃ na prarohati) 1.41.

2) Anything most excellent of its kind.

3) A kind of monkey; L. D. B.

Derivable forms: candanaḥ (चन्दनः), candanam (चन्दनम्).

(Source): DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
context information

Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.

Relevant definitions

Search found 92 related definition(s) that might help you understand this better. Below you will find the 15 most relevant articles:

Raktacandana
raktacandana (रक्तचंदन).—m Red sandal-wood. Sappan wood.
Haricandana
Haricandana (हरिचन्दन).—1) a kind of yellow sandal (the wood or tree); ततः प्रकोष्ठे हरिचन्दना-...
Lohitacandana
Lohitacandana (लोहितचन्दन) or Lohitācandana (लोहिताचन्दन).—saffron. Derivable forms: lohitacand...
Kucandana
Kucandana (कुचन्दन).—Red sandal-wood. Derivable forms: kucandanam (कुचन्दनम्).Kucandana is a Sa...
Candanagiri
Candanagiri (चन्दनगिरि).—the Malaya mountain; चन्दनाद्रेस्तदास्कन्दत्रासभ्रश्यदहिच्छलात् (canda...
Candanasara
Candanasāra (चन्दनसार).—1) the most excellent sandal-wood; प्राज्ञः सुहृच्चन्दनसारलिप्तः (prājñ...
Candana Sutta
Candana, (m. & nt.) (Deriv. unknown. Possibly nonAryan; but see under canda, Sk. candana) sanda...
Pamsucandana
Pāṃsucandana (पांसुचन्दन).—an epithet of Śiva. Derivable forms: pāṃsucandanaḥ (पांसुचन्दनः).Pāṃ...
Kshudracandana
Kṣudracandana (क्षुद्रचन्दन).—red sandal-wood. Derivable forms: kṣudracandanam (क्षुद्रचन्दनम्)...
Candanadri
Candanādri (चन्दनाद्रि).—the Malaya mountain; चन्दनाद्रेस्तदास्कन्दत्रासभ्रश्यदहिच्छलात् (canda...
Shvetacandana
Śvetacandana (श्वेतचन्दन) is another name (synonym) for Candana, which is a Sanskrit name fo...
Candanacala
Candanācala (चन्दनाचल).—the Malaya mountain; चन्दनाद्रेस्तदास्कन्दत्रासभ्रश्यदहिच्छलात् (candan...
Pitacandana
Pītacandana (पीतचन्दन).—1) a species of sandal-wood. 2) saffron. 3) turmeric. Derivable forms: ...
Candanadasa
Candanadāsa (चन्दनदास).—Name of a Character in the Mu. Derivable forms: candanadāsaḥ (चन्दनदास...
Arkacandana
Arkacandana (अर्कचन्दन).—a kind of red sandal (raktacandana). Derivable forms: arkacandanaḥ (अर...

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