Candana, Candanā: 25 definitions
Candana means something in Buddhism, Pali, Hinduism, Sanskrit, Jainism, Prakrit, the history of ancient India, Marathi. If you want to know the exact meaning, history, etymology or English translation of this term then check out the descriptions on this page. Add your comment or reference to a book if you want to contribute to this summary article.
Alternative spellings of this word include Chandana.
Ayurveda (science of life)Source: Wisdom Library: Āyurveda and botany
Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word referring to Santalum album (Indian sandalwood), a tropical tree from the Santalaceae (sandalwoods) family of flowering plants. It is also known as Śrīkhaṇḍa. In English, the tree is known as “Sandal tree”, “Indian sandalwood” or “White sandal tree”. It is used throughout Āyurvedic literature such as the Caraka-saṃhitā.
This plant (Candana) is also mentioned as a medicine used for the treatment of all major fevers (jvara), as described in the Jvaracikitsā (or “the treatment of fever”) which forms the first chapter of the Sanskrit work called Mādhavacikitsā. In this work, the tree is also known as Malaya.
Botanical description: It is an evergreen, semi-parasitic and glabrous tree, growing in dry areas throughout India, up to 1200 meters altitude. Its leaves are simple, opposite, elliptic-lanceolate and glabrous. The flowers are brownish-purple to reddish-purple or violet in color. The fruits resemble globose drupes and are purple-black in color. The heartwood is light yellowish when fresh but turns dark and is highly scented.
Synonyms: According to the Rājanighaṇṭu (verses 12.6-8), Indian sandalwood (candana) has 18 synonyms:
It is also classified as having 2 different varietes: Veṭṭa and Sukkaḍi.
Properties according to the Rājanighaṇṭu: Candana is pungent, bitter and sweet in taste. It is slightly astringent. It provides relief in pittaja ailments, illusion, vomiting, fevers, worm infestations, morbid thirst and burning sensations. It is considered aphrodisiac and alleviates mouth diseases. It gives lustre to the body. Its paste applied on the body evokes the hidden libido.
Usage: The heart-wood taken from the nodular part of the Candana tree, which is heavy, red and on rubbing yields a clear, white-yellowish paste, is considered the best Candana. It is pungent and bitter in taste, cooling and very fragrant. The Candana which is slightly less in the above properties or even half of the aforesaid properties, is considered as medium.Source: Google Books: Essentials of Ayurveda
Candana (चन्दन).—The Sanskrit name for an important Āyurvedic drug.—Candana is famous all over the world for its fragrance and coldness. It is a good pitta-pacifying drug.
Āyurveda (आयुर्वेद, ayurveda) is a branch of Indian science dealing with medicine, herbalism, taxology, anatomy, surgery, alchemy and related topics. Traditional practice of Āyurveda in ancient India dates back to at least the first millenium BC. Literature is commonly written in Sanskrit using various poetic metres.
Dharmashastra (religious law)Source: Wisdom Library: Dharma-śāstra
Candana (चन्दन) is a Sanskrit word, identified with Sirium myrtifolium (sandal) by various scholars in their translation of the Śukranīti. Note that Sirium myrtifolium is a synonym of Santalum album. This tree is mentioned as bearing good fruits. The King should plant such domestic plants in and near villages. He should nourish them by stoole of goats, sheep and cows, water as well as meat.
The following is an ancient Indian recipe for such nourishment of trees:
According to Śukranīti 4.4.105-109: “The trees (such as candana) are to be watered in the morning and evening in summer, every alternate day in winter, in the fifth part of the day (i.e., afternoon) in spring, never in the rainy season. If trees have their fruits destroyed, the pouring of cold water after being cooked together with Kulutha, Māṣa (seeds), Mudga (pulse), Yava (barley) and Tila (oil seed) would lead to the growth of flowers and fruits. Growth of trees can be helped by the application of water with which fishes are washed and cleansed.”
Dharmashastra (धर्मशास्त्र, dharmaśāstra) contains the instructions (shastra) regarding religious conduct of livelihood (dharma), ceremonies, jurisprudence (study of law) and more. It is categorized as smriti, an important and authoritative selection of books dealing with the Hindu lifestyle.
Vaishnavism (Vaishava dharma)Source: ISKCON Press: Glossary
Candana (चन्दन).—A cosmetic paste made from sandalwood; used in Deity worship.
Vaishnava (वैष्णव, vaiṣṇava) or vaishnavism (vaiṣṇavism) represents a tradition of Hinduism worshipping Vishnu as the supreme Lord. Similar to the Shaktism and Shaivism traditions, Vaishnavism also developed as an individual movement, famous for its exposition of the dashavatara (‘ten avatars of Vishnu’).
Purana and Itihasa (epic history)Source: archive.org: Nilamata Purana: a cultural and literary study
Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandalwood” and forms part of the cosmetics and personal decoration that was once commonly applied to one’s body in ancient Kashmir (Kaśmīra) as mentioned in the Nīlamatapurāṇa.—Reference is made in the Nīlamata to various sorts of scents, perfumes, unguents, flowers and garlands. For example, Candan has three varieties, namely, Rakta, Sita and Kāleyaka which have been referred to (verses 417, 423, 787).Source: archive.org: Shiva Purana - English Translation
1) Candana (चन्दन) refers to “sandal-paste”, which is used in ritualistic worship, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.11, while explaining the mode of worshipping Śiva:—“[...] fragrant root of the plant Uśīra and sandal-paste shall be put in the water for washing feet. Fine powders of Jātī, Kaṃkola, Karpūra, root of Vaṭa and Tamālaka should be put in the water intended for sipping. Sandal powder shall be put in all these nine vessels. Nandīśa, the divine Bull of Śiva shall be worshipped beside the lord Śiva. The latter shall be worshipped with scents, incense and different. [...]”.
2) Cāndana (चान्दन) or Candana refers to “sandalwood”, representing the material of Maya’s liṅga, according to the Śivapurāṇa 2.1.12, where the Devas and Viṣṇu requested Viśvakarman for liṅgas for the achievement of the desires of all people:—“[...] at our bidding Viśvakarmā made liṅgas and gave them to the devas according to their status. [...] Great Brahmins and their wives chose liṅgas of earth. Maya took a liṅga of sandalwood (Cāndana-liṅga) and Śeṣa nāga took a coral-made liṅga. [...] Thus different kinds of liṅgas were given to them by Viśvakarmā which the devas and the celestial sages worship regularly. After giving the devas the various liṅgas from a desire for their benefit, Viṣṇu explained the mode of worship of Śiva to me, Brahmā”.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: The Purana Index
1a) Candana (चन्दन).—A group of nāḍis of fire (with sun) emitting rain.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 24. 27.
1b) A group of 33 Devas who drink the moon's kalas in the dark half of the month.*
- * Brahmāṇḍa-purāṇa II. 28. 26.
2) Candanā (चन्दना).—A river of the Bhāratavarṣa; a mahānadi.*
- * Vāyu-purāṇa 45. 97; 108. 79.
Candanā (चन्दना) refers to the name of a River mentioned in the Mahābhārata (cf. VI.10.28). Note: The Mahābhārata (mentioning Candanā) is a Sanskrit epic poem consisting of 100,000 ślokas (metrical verses) and is over 2000 years old.
The Purana (पुराण, purāṇas) refers to Sanskrit literature preserving ancient India’s vast cultural history, including historical legends, religious ceremonies, various arts and sciences. The eighteen mahapuranas total over 400,000 shlokas (metrical couplets) and date to at least several centuries BCE.
Kavya (poetry)Source: Wisdom Library: Kathāsaritsāgara
Candana (चन्दन) or Candanataru or Candanadruma refers to the “sandalwood-tree”, representing one of the “seven jewels of an emperor” (cakravartin-ratna), as mentioned in the Kathāsaritsāgara, chapter 108. Accordingly, as Mandara said to Naravāhanadatta: “... but that cave can be forced by an emperor who has obtained the jewels. And the sandalwood-tree (candana), which is one of the jewels of an emperor, is in this country; so quickly gain possession of it in order that you may attain the ends you have in view... ”.
Also, “... and when he [Naravāhanadatta] saw that sandalwood-tree (candana), surrounded with a lofty platform made of precious jewels, he climbed up to it with ladders and adored it. The [candana] tree then said to him with bodiless voice: ‘Emperor, thou hast won me, the sandalwood-tree, and when thou thinkest on me I will appear to thee, so leave this place at present, and go to Govindakūṭa; thus thou wilt win the other jewels also; and then thou wilt easily conquer Mandaradeva’”.
The Kathāsaritsāgara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning candana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravāhanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyādharas (celestial beings). The work is said to have been an adaptation of Guṇāḍhya’s Bṛhatkathā consisting of 100,000 verses, which in turn is part of a larger work containing 700,000 verses.
Kavya (काव्य, kavya) refers to Sanskrit poetry, a popular ancient Indian tradition of literature. There have been many Sanskrit poets over the ages, hailing from ancient India and beyond. This topic includes mahakavya, or ‘epic poetry’ and natya, or ‘dramatic poetry’.
General definition (in Hinduism)Source: ACHC: Smarta Puja
Candana (चन्दन) refers to “offering sandalwood paste”, representing one of the various services (upacāra) of a pūjā (ritualistic worship of a deity) which aim at the purification of the devotee.—For keeping the body cool and pleasant in smell fresh sandalwood paste (candana) is applied. Sandal is well known for its cooling qualities—a boon in tropical countries. It is produced by rubbing a block of sandalwood on a stone while adding small quantities of water frequently; it is then kept on a small dish (gandha-pātra). The sandalwood paste is applied with the ring finger of the right hand, which is used for making offerings to deities.
Theravada (major branch of Buddhism)Source: Pali Kanon: Pali Proper Names
1. Candana - A deva, vassal of the Four Regent Gods (D.ii.258). He is mentioned as one of the chief Yakkhas to be invoked by followers of the Buddha in case of need (D.iii.204). He once visited Lomasakangiya at the Nigrodharama, questioned him regarding the True Saint, and recited to him stanzas learnt when the Buddha preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta in Tavatimsa (M.iii.199f) (but see below). The Samyutta Nikaya (S.i.53) records a conversation between Candana and the Buddha and a visit paid by Candana to Maha Moggallana (S.iv.280). Buddhaghosa (MA.ii.951) says he was an upasaka in the time of Kassapa Buddha and offered the four requisites to the Buddha and the monks, as a result of which he became a deva. It is elsewhere stated that in Kassapas time Candana and Lomasakangiya were friends and that both became monks. (ThagA.i.84f. In this version not Candana, but Lomasakangiya, expounds the Sutta; in M.iii.199f.it is Candana).
When Kassapa preached the Bhaddekaratta Sutta, Candana asked Lomasakangiya to explain it; this he was unable to do, and so made a wish that he should be able to explain it in a future birth, Candana wishing that he should then ask the questions again. Both wishes were fulfilled. For details see Lomasakangiya (2).
2. Candana Thera - He belonged to a rich family in Savatthi, and having heard the Buddha preach, became a sotapanna. When a son was born to him he joined the Order and took to meditating in the forest. Later he dwelt in a charnel field near Savatthi. There he was visited by his wife and child who hoped to win him back, but, seeing them from afar, he made a special effort and became an arahant, preaching to his wife as she approached (Thag.vs.299-302; ThagA.i.395f).
Thirty one kappas ago he was a tree sprite, and having seen the Pacceka Buddha Sudassana, gave him a kutaja flower. He is probably identical with Kutajapupphiya Thera of the Apaddna. (ii.451; the same verses are also ascribed to Harita).
3. Candana - A monk of ninety one kappas ago to whom Upahanadayaka made a gift of a pair of sandals. Ap.i.228.
Theravāda is a major branch of Buddhism having the the Pali canon (tipitaka) as their canonical literature, which includes the vinaya-pitaka (monastic rules), the sutta-pitaka (Buddhist sermons) and the abhidhamma-pitaka (philosophy and psychology).
Tibetan Buddhism (Vajrayana or tantric Buddhism)Source: academia.edu: The Structure and Meanings of the Heruka Maṇḍala
Candana (चन्दन) refers to one of the eight trees (vṛkṣa) of the Jñānacakra, according to the 10th century Ḍākārṇava chapter 15. Accordingly, the jñānacakra refers to one of the three divisions of the saṃbhoga-puṭa (‘enjoyment layer’), situated in the Herukamaṇḍala. Candana is associated with the charnel ground (śmaśāna) named Bālamṛtyu and with the direction-guardian (dikpāla) named Ravi.
Tibetan Buddhism includes schools such as Nyingma, Kadampa, Kagyu and Gelug. Their primary canon of literature is divided in two broad categories: The Kangyur, which consists of Buddha’s words, and the Tengyur, which includes commentaries from various sources. Esotericism and tantra techniques (vajrayāna) are collected indepently.
General definition (in Jainism)Source: archive.org: Economic Life In Ancient India (as depicted in Jain canonical literature)
Candana (चन्दन) refers to a kind of tree (vṛkṣa) commonly found in the forests (vaṇa) of ancient India, mentioned in the 1st century Uvavāiya-sutta (sanksrit: Aupapātika-sūtra). Forests have been a significant part of the Indian economy since ancient days. They have been considered essential for economic development in as much as, besides bestowing many geographical advantages, they provide basic materials for building, furniture and various industries. The most important forest products are wood and timber which have been used by the mankind to fulfil his various needs—domestic, agricultural and industrial.
Different kinds of trees (eg., the Candana tree) provided firewood and timber. The latter was used for furniture, building materials, enclosures, staircases, pillars, agricultural purposes, e. g. for making ploughs, transportation e. g. for making carts, chariots, boats, ships, and for various industrial needs. Vaṇa-kamma was an occupation dealing in wood and in various otherforest products. Iṅgāla-kamma was another occupation which was concerned with preparing charcoal from firewood.Source: archive.org: Een Kritische Studie Van Svayambhūdeva’s Paümacariu
Candana (चन्दन) participated in the war between Rāma and Rāvaṇa, on the side of the latter, as mentioned in Svayambhūdeva’s Paumacariu (Padmacarita, Paumacariya or Rāmāyaṇapurāṇa) chapter 57ff. Svayambhū or Svayambhūdeva (8th or 9th century) was a Jain householder who probably lived in Karnataka. His work recounts the popular Rāma story as known from the older work Rāmāyaṇa (written by Vālmīki). Various chapters [mentioning Candana] are dedicated to the humongous battle whose armies (known as akṣauhiṇīs) consisted of millions of soldiers, horses and elephants, etc.
Jainism is an Indian religion of Dharma whose doctrine revolves around harmlessness (ahimsa) towards every living being. The two major branches (Digambara and Svetambara) of Jainism stimulate self-control (or, shramana, ‘self-reliance’) and spiritual development through a path of peace for the soul to progess to the ultimate goal.
India history and geogprahySource: Shodhganga: Cultural history as g leaned from kathasaritsagara
Chandana is the name of a tree mentioned in the Kathasaritsagara by Somadeva (10th century A.D).—Chandana refers to the “sandle-wood tree” and its big forests are mentioned.
Somadeva mentions many rich forests, gardens, various trees (eg., Chandana), creepers medicinal and flowering plants and fruit-bearing trees in the Kathasaritsagara. Travel through the thick, high, impregnable and extensive Vindhya forest is a typical feature of many travel-stories. Somadeva’s writing more or less reflects the life of the people of Northern India during the 11th century. His Kathasaritsagara (‘ocean of streams of story’), mentioning Chandana, is a famous Sanskrit epic story revolving around prince Naravahanadatta and his quest to become the emperor of the vidyadharas (celestial beings).
The history of India traces the identification of countries, villages, towns and other regions of India, as well as royal dynasties, rulers, tribes, local festivities and traditions and regional languages. Ancient India enjoyed religious freedom and encourages the path of Dharma, a concept common to Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
Languages of India and abroad
Pali-English dictionarySource: BuddhaSasana: Concise Pali-English Dictionary
candana : (m.) sandal-wood tree. (nt.), sandal-wood.Source: Sutta: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary
Candana, (m. & nt.) (Deriv. unknown. Possibly nonAryan; but see under canda, Sk. candana) sandal (tree, wood or unguent, also perfume) Vin. I, 203; A. I, 9, 145, 226; III, 237; Dh. 54; J. V, 420 (tree, m.); Miln. 382; DhA. I, 422; IV, 189 (°pūjā); VvA. 158 (agalu° with aloe & sandal); PvA. 76.—Kāsika° sandal from Kāsī A. III, 391; IV, 281; Miln. 243, 348; ratta° red s. J. IV, 442; lohita° id. A. V, 22; J. I, 37; hari° yellow s. J. I, 146.
Pali is the language of the Tipiṭaka, which is the sacred canon of Theravāda Buddhism and contains much of the Buddha’s speech. Closeley related to Sanskrit, both languages are used interchangeably between religions.
Marathi-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The Molesworth Marathi and English Dictionary
candana (चंदन).—m (S) Sandal tree, Santalum album. Grah. 2 n Its wood. 3 Unctuous preparations of the wood. 4 fig. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. Ex. pēṇḍhāṛyānnīṃ gāṃva laṭūna caṃ0 kēlēṃ; pōrānēṃ pōḷyācēṃ caṃ0 karūna ṭākalēṃ. caṃ0 kāḍhaṇēṃ g. of o. To beat soundly.Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English
candana (चंदन).—m Sandal tree, Santalum album. Demolition, destruction, devastation, extinction. caṃ?B kāḍhaṇēṃ To beat soundly.
Marathi is an Indo-European language having over 70 million native speakers people in (predominantly) Maharashtra India. Marathi, like many other Indo-Aryan languages, evolved from early forms of Prakrit, which itself is a subset of Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages of the world.
Sanskrit-English dictionarySource: DDSA: The practical Sanskrit-English dictionary
Candana (चन्दन).—[canda ṇyantāt lyu]
1) Sandal, (the tree, the wood, or any unctuous preparation of the wood, held in high estimation as a perfume and refrigerant application); अनलायागुरुचन्दनैधसे (analāyāgurucandanaidhase) R.8.71; मणिप्रकाराः सरसं च चन्दनं शुचौ प्रिये यान्ति जनस्य सेव्यताम् (maṇiprakārāḥ sarasaṃ ca candanaṃ śucau priye yānti janasya sevyatām) Ṛs.1.2; एवं च भाषते लोकश्चन्दनं किल शीतलम् । पुत्रगात्रस्य संस्पर्शश्चन्दनादतिरिच्यते (evaṃ ca bhāṣate lokaścandanaṃ kila śītalam | putragātrasya saṃsparśaścandanādatiricyate) Pt.5.2; विना मलयमन्यत्र चन्दनं न प्ररोहति (vinā malayamanyatra candanaṃ na prarohati) 1.41.
2) Anything most excellent of its kind.
3) A kind of monkey; L. D. B.
Derivable forms: candanaḥ (चन्दनः), candanam (चन्दनम्).Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
Candana (चन्दन).—(1) adj. (compare BR s.v. 2; acc. to Sanskrit Gr. used at end of a cpd. meaning best of its kind), superior, excellent: (of the Buddha)…śāntaḥ śāntaparivāraś can- danaś candanapari° mukto muktapari°…Divy 96.16; is this the meaning of candana in °na-gaṇḍīraka (q.v.)?; (2) n. of a former Buddha: Mv iii.234.5 f.; LV 171.12; Av i.74.9 ff.; Sukh 5.10 (perhaps not all intended for the same person); (3) n. of a devaputra (probably same as DPPN Ca° 1, described as a yakkha): LV 4.12; 6.12; 7.5; 438.16 (only in lists of names of gods); (4) n. of a gandharva: Suv 162.4 (not likely to be the same as 3); (5) n. of a Pratyekabuddha: Av i.119.8 ff.; (a different one ?) Mmk 64.12; 111.10 (in lists of Pr.); (6) n. of a noble elephant, born at the same time with Śākyamuni: Mv ii.25.13.Source: Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries: Shabda-Sagara Sanskrit-English Dictionary
(-naḥ -naṃ) Sandal, (Sirium myrtifolium;) it implies either the tree, the wood, or the unctuous preparations of the wood, held in high estimation as perfumes. n.
(-naṃ) Red Sandal wood: see raktacandana. m.
(-naḥ) A kind of ape. f. (-nī) The name of a river. E. cadi to gladden, to delight, affix ṇic lyu.
Sanskrit, also spelled संस्कृतम् (saṃskṛtam), is an ancient language of India commonly seen as the grandmother of the Indo-European language family. Closely allied with Prakrit and Pali, Sanskrit is more exhaustive in both grammar and terms and has the most extensive collection of literature in the world, greatly surpassing its sister-languages Greek and Latin.
See also (Relevant definitions)
Starts with (+21): Candana Sutta, Candanabatava, Candanabha, Candanabharateshvara, Candanacala, Candanacaroli, Candanadasa, Candanadi, Candanadivarga, Candanadri, Candanagama, Candanagandha, Candanagandhin, Candanaganthi, Candanagiri, Candanagodha, Candanahaushi, Candanalinga, Candanamala, Candanamaliya.
Ends with (+8): Arkacandana, Girisaracandana, Gocandana, Gopacandana, Gopicandana, Haricandana, Himavakcandana, Indracandana, Kshudracandana, Kucandana, Kunkungopacandana, Lohinicandana, Lohitacandana, Pakacandana, Pamsucandana, Pitacandana, Raktacandana, Rattacandana, Shiticandana, Shonitacandana.
Full-text (+98): Ashtagandha, Raktacandana, Pamsucandana, Lohitacandana, Vanacandana, Pitacandana, Kucandana, Varacandana, Candanasara, Candanacala, Haricandana, Candana Sutta, Sukkadi, Candanacaroli, Akalu, Paripphosita, Mailagara, Vetta, Candanapushpa, Phosita.
Search found 29 books and stories containing Candana, Candanā, Cāndana; (plurals include: Candanas, Candanās, Cāndanas). You can also click to the full overview containing English textual excerpts. Below are direct links for the most relevant articles:
Maha Prajnaparamita Sastra (by Gelongma Karma Migme Chödrön)
Part 6 - Why the arhats surround the Buddha < [Chapter VI - The Great Bhikṣu Saṃgha]
Appendix 1 - The five hundred insults and five hundred praises to the Buddha < [Chapter XLII - The Great Loving-kindness and the Great Compassion of the Buddhas]
Bodhisattva quality 8: having renounced greed and ambition < [Chapter X - The Qualities of the Bodhisattvas]
Trishashti Shalaka Purusha Caritra (by Helen M. Johnson)
Part 16: The ten wonders < [Chapter VIII - Initiation of ṛṣabhadatta and devānandā]
Part 7: The story of Candanā < [Chapter IV - Mahāvīra’s second period of more than six years]
Part 5: Founding of Mahāvīra’s congregation and gaṇas < [Chapter V - Mahāvīra’s omniscience and the originating of the fourfold congregation]
The Padma Purana (by N.A. Deshpande)
Chapter 138 - The Greatness of Gaṇatīrtha < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 165 - Bhūtālaya (Bhuteśvara), Ghaṭeśvara, and Vaidyanātha (Tīrthas) < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Chapter 149 - Candaneśvara < [Section 6 - Uttara-Khaṇḍa (Concluding Section)]
Brihad Bhagavatamrita (by Śrīla Sanātana Gosvāmī)
Verse 2.6.99 < [Chapter 6 - Abhīṣṭa-lābha: The Attainment of All Desires]
Verse 2.7.67 < [Chapter 7 - Jagad-ānanda: The Bliss of the Worlds]
Verse 2.1.200 < [Chapter 1 - Vairāgya: Renunciation]
Sri Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī)
Verse 1.2.217 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 1.2.124 < [Part 2 - Devotional Service in Practice (sādhana-bhakti)]
Verse 3.4.51 < [Part 4 - Parenthood (vātsalya-rasa)]
Bhagavati-sutra (Viyaha-pannatti) (by K. C. Lalwani)